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    1 
    2 \chapter{Rules regarding white space}
    3 
    4 Programming languages differ in their rules regarding the use of white
    5 space in a program. Here we set out the rules in hansl.  The rules
    6 differ somewhat between \textit{commands} on the one hand and
    7 \textit{function calls} plus \textit{assignment} on the other.
    8 
    9 \section{White space in commands}
   10 
   11 Hansl commands are structured as follows: first comes a
   12 \textit{command word} (e.g.\ \texttt{ols}, \texttt{summary}); then
   13 come zero or more \textit{arguments} (often the names of series); then
   14 come zero or more \textit{options} (some of which may take
   15 parameters). The relevant rules are:
   16 \begin{enumerate}
   17 \item The individual elements just mentioned must always be separated
   18   by at least one space, and where one space is required you are free
   19   to insert as many as you like.
   20 \item Whenever a parameter is supplied with an option flag, the
   21   parameter must be attached to the flag with an equals sign, with
   22   \textit{no} intervening space:
   23 \begin{code}
   24 ols y 0 x --cluster=clustvar  # correct
   25 ols y 0 x --cluster =clustvar # broken!
   26 \end{code}
   27 \end{enumerate}
   28 
   29 \section{Spaces in function calls and assignment}
   30 
   31 For the most part, white space in function calls and assignment is not
   32 significant; it can be inserted or not at will. For example, in the
   33 following sets of statements each member is equally acceptable
   34 syntactically (though some are ugly!):
   35 \begin{code}
   36 # set 1
   37 y = sqrt(x)
   38 y=sqrt(x)
   39 # set 2
   40 c = cov(y1, y2)
   41 c=cov(y1,y2)
   42 c  = cov(y1 , y2)
   43 \end{code}
   44 
   45 However, please note these exceptions:
   46 \begin{enumerate}
   47 \item When an assignment starts with a type keyword such as
   48   \texttt{series} or \texttt{matrix}, this must be separated from what
   49   follows by at least one space, as in
   50 \begin{code}
   51 series y = normal() # or: series y=normal()
   52 \end{code}
   53 \item In a function call, the opening parenthesis that marks the start
   54   of the argument list must be attached to the name of the function
   55   without intervening space:
   56 \begin{code}
   57 c = cov(y1, y2)  # correct
   58 c = cov (y1, y2) # broken!
   59 \end{code}
   60 \end{enumerate}
   61 
   62 \label{LastPage}
   63 
   64 %%% Local Variables: 
   65 %%% mode: latex
   66 %%% TeX-master: "hansl-primer"
   67 %%% End: