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1 The GNU General Public License (GPL)
3 Version 2, June 1991
5 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
6 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
8 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
9 document, but changing it is not allowed.
13 The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share
14 and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to
15 guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the
16 software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to
17 most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose
18 authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is
19 covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
20 your programs, too.
22 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our
23 General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to
24 distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish),
25 that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change
26 the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you
27 can do these things.
29 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny
30 you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions
31 translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the
32 software, or if you modify it.
34 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for
35 a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must
36 make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must
37 show them these terms so they know their rights.
39 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2)
40 offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute
41 and/or modify the software.
43 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that
44 everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the
45 software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to
46 know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced
47 by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations.
49 Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We
50 wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will
51 individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary.
52 To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for
53 everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
55 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification
58 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
60 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice
61 placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of
62 this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such program
63 or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any
64 derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the
65 Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or
66 translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included
67 without limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as
70 Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by
71 this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is
72 not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents
73 constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by
74 running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
76 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as
77 you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
78 appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
79 disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License
80 and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the
81 Program a copy of this License along with the Program.
83 You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may
84 at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
86 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus
87 forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications
88 or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of
89 these conditions:
91 a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating
92 that you changed the files and the date of any change.
94 b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or
95 in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be
96 licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of
97 this License.
99 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run,
100 you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in the
101 most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an
102 appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or
103 else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute
104 the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy
105 of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does
106 not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the Program is
107 not required to print an announcement.)
109 These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable
110 sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably
111 considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and
112 its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate
113 works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a
114 work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms
115 of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire
116 whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
118 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your
119 rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the
120 right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on
121 the Program.
123 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the
124 Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or
125 distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this
128 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under
129 Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and
130 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
132 a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source
133 code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above
134 on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
136 b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to
137 give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically
138 performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the
139 corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1
140 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
142 c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to
143 distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is allowed only
144 for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in
145 object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with
146 Subsection b above.)
148 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making
149 modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source code means all
150 the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface
151 definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation
152 of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code
153 distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either
154 source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on)
155 of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
156 itself accompanies the executable.
158 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy
159 from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source
160 code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though
161 third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
163 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as
164 expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify,
165 sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate
166 your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or
167 rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so
168 long as such parties remain in full compliance.
170 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it.
171 However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program
172 or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not
173 accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or
174 any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to
175 do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
176 the Program or works based on it.
178 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program),
179 the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to
180 copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions.
181 You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the
182 rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by
183 third parties to this License.
185 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
186 infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions
187 are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that
188 contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the
189 conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy
190 simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent
191 obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all.
192 For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution
193 of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through
194 you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
195 refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
197 If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any
198 particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and
199 the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
201 It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or
202 other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this
203 section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software
204 distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many
205 people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software
206 distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
207 system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to
208 distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that
211 This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a
212 consequence of the rest of this License.
214 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain
215 countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original
216 copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit
217 geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that
218 distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In
219 such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body
220 of this License.
222 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the
223 General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in
224 spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems
225 or concerns.
227 Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
228 specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later
229 version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
230 that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation.
231 If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may
232 choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
234 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs
235 whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for
236 permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation,
237 write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this.
238 Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of
239 all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of
240 software generally.
242 NO WARRANTY
244 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR
245 THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE
246 STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE
247 PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
248 INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
249 FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND
250 PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE,
251 YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
253 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL
254 ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE
255 PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
256 GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR
257 INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA
258 BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A
259 FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER
260 OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
262 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
264 How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
266 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible
267 use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software
268 which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
270 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach
271 them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion
272 of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a
273 pointer to where the full notice is found.
275 One line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.
277 Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
279 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
280 under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
281 Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option)
282 any later version.
284 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
285 ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
286 FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for
287 more details.
289 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
290 with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59
291 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
293 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
295 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it
296 starts in an interactive mode:
298 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes
299 with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type 'show w'. This is free
300 software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions;
301 type 'show c' for details.
303 The hypothetical commands 'show w' and 'show c' should show the appropriate
304 parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be
305 called something other than 'show w' and 'show c'; they could even be
306 mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
308 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school,
309 if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here
310 is a sample; alter the names:
312 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
313 'Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
315 signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1989
317 Ty Coon, President of Vice
319 This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
320 proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
321 consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
322 library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General Public
323 License instead of this License.