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    1 Copyright 1999, 2001, 2002, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    2 
    3 This file is part of the GNU MP Library.
    4 
    5 The GNU MP Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
    6 it under the terms of either:
    7 
    8   * the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free
    9     Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your
   10     option) any later version.
   11 
   12 or
   13 
   14   * the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
   15     Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any
   16     later version.
   17 
   18 or both in parallel, as here.
   19 
   20 The GNU MP Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
   21 WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
   22 or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
   23 for more details.
   24 
   25 You should have received copies of the GNU General Public License and the
   26 GNU Lesser General Public License along with the GNU MP Library.  If not,
   27 see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
   28 
   29 
   30 
   31 
   32 This directory contains mpn functions for 64-bit PA-RISC 2.0.
   33 
   34 PIPELINE SUMMARY
   35 
   36 The PA8x00 processors have an orthogonal 4-way out-of-order pipeline.  Each
   37 cycle two ALU operations and two MEM operations can issue, but just one of the
   38 MEM operations may be a store.  The two ALU operations can be almost any
   39 combination of non-memory operations.  Unlike every other processor, integer
   40 and fp operations are completely equal here; they both count as just ALU
   41 operations.
   42 
   43 Unfortunately, some operations cause hickups in the pipeline.  Combining
   44 carry-consuming operations like ADD,DC with operations that does not set carry
   45 like ADD,L cause long delays.  Skip operations also seem to cause hickups.  If
   46 several ADD,DC are issued consecutively, or if plain carry-generating ADD feed
   47 ADD,DC, stalling does not occur.  We can effectively issue two ADD,DC
   48 operations/cycle.
   49 
   50 Latency scheduling is not as important as making sure to have a mix of ALU and
   51 MEM operations, but for full pipeline utilization, it is still a good idea to
   52 do some amount of latency scheduling.
   53 
   54 Like for all other processors, RAW memory scheduling is critically important.
   55 Since integer multiplication takes place in the floating-point unit, the GMP
   56 code needs to handle this problem frequently.
   57 
   58 STATUS
   59 
   60 * mpn_lshift and mpn_rshift run at 1.5 cycles/limb on PA8000 and at 1.0
   61   cycles/limb on PA8500.  With latency scheduling, the numbers could
   62   probably be improved to 1.0 cycles/limb for all PA8x00 chips.
   63 
   64 * mpn_add_n and mpn_sub_n run at 2.0 cycles/limb on PA8000 and at about
   65   1.6875 cycles/limb on PA8500.  With latency scheduling, this could
   66   probably be improved to get close to 1.5 cycles/limb.  A problem is the
   67   stalling of carry-inputting instructions after instructions that do not
   68   write to carry.
   69 
   70 * mpn_mul_1, mpn_addmul_1, and mpn_submul_1 run at between 5.625 and 6.375
   71   on PA8500 and later, and about a cycle/limb slower on older chips.  The
   72   code uses ADD,DC for adjacent limbs, and relies heavily on reordering.
   73 
   74 
   75 REFERENCES
   76 
   77 Hewlett Packard, "64-Bit Runtime Architecture for PA-RISC 2.0", version 3.3,
   78 October 1997.