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    1 Copyright 1996, 1999-2016, 2018-2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    2 
    3 Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any
    4 medium, provided this notice is preserved.
    5 
    6 Changes between GMP version 6.2.0 and 6.2.1
    7 
    8   BUGS FIXED
    9   * A possible overflow of type int is avoided for mpz_cmp on huge operands.
   10 
   11   * Overflows are more carefully detected and reported for mpz_pow_ui.
   12 
   13   * A bug in longlong.h for aarch64 sub_ddmmss, not affecting GMP, was healed.
   14 
   15   * mini-gmp: mpz_out_str and mpq_out_str now correctly handle out of
   16     range bases.
   17 
   18   FEATURES
   19   * C90 compliance.
   20 
   21   * Initial support for Darwin on arm64, and improved portability.
   22 
   23   * Support for more processors.
   24 
   25   SPEEDUPS
   26   * None, except indirectly through recognition of new CPUs.
   27 
   28   MISC
   29   * None.
   30 
   31 Changes between GMP version 6.1.* and 6.2.0
   32 
   33   BUGS FIXED
   34   * gmp_snprintf now correctly reports an error (returns -1) when snprintf
   35     does.
   36 
   37   * Conversion to double is now more robust even if the configuration process
   38     does not recognize the float format.
   39 
   40   * mpz_powm could return a not completely normalised value, when the
   41     exponent was 1 and the base < 0.
   42 
   43   * mpf_set_str could create invalid mpf_t variables for input strings with
   44     many leading zeros.
   45 
   46   FEATURES
   47   * New C++ functions factorial, primorial and fibonacci for mpz_class.
   48 
   49   * Functions to detect primality now substitute the first 24 Miller-Rabin
   50     iterations with the BPSW test.
   51 
   52   * Mini-GMP: new functions mpz_2fac_ui and mpz_mfac_uiui.
   53 
   54   * Mini-GMP: mpz_sizeinbase, mpz_get_str, and mpz_set_str now support bases up
   55     to 62.
   56 
   57   * Mini-GMP: added support for the mpq_t layer.
   58 
   59   * MIPS r6 cores are now supported.
   60 
   61   SPEEDUPS
   62   * Major speedup for AMD Ryzen and Epyc thanks to an extensive set of assembly
   63     code.
   64 
   65   * Major speedup for IBM POWER9 thanks to assembly code making use of new madd
   66     instruction.
   67 
   68   * Speedup for 64-bit ARM CPUs thanks to new/improved assembly code.
   69 
   70   * The n-over-k function mpz_bin_ui has been reimplemented for great speedups
   71     for large operands.
   72 
   73   * Speedup for the worst case of mpz_perfect_power_p.
   74 
   75   * Speedup for gcd for small and medium size operands.
   76 
   77   * Speedup for really huge multiplies thanks to much larger FFT tables.
   78 
   79   MISC
   80   * Internal representation of the mpz_t variables now supports lazy
   81     allocation; memory is allocated only when a value is stored.
   82 
   83   * Small improvements and better coverage for the test suite.
   84 
   85   * The tune/speed program can measure some more functions.
   86 
   87   * The low-level function mpn_mul no longer diverts to mpn_sqr, users should
   88     call mpn_sqr directly when applicable.
   89 
   90   * New installed files gmp.pc and gmpxx.pc, for use with pkg-config.
   91     Contributed by Hugh McMaster.
   92 
   93 Changes between GMP version 6.1.1 and 6.1.2
   94 
   95   BUGS FIXED
   96   * Mini-GMP: Fixed a division bug, which on a machine with 64-bit
   97     unsigned long affects approximately 1 out of 2^32 divisors.
   98 
   99   * Mini-GMP: Fix mpz_set_str crash on inputs with a large number of
  100     leading zeros. Also stricter input validation, rejecting inputs
  101     with no digits.
  102 
  103   FEATURES
  104   * Handle more systems which require PIC code in static libraries (e.g.,
  105     "hardened" Gentoo and Debian 9).
  106 
  107   * Configuration for arm (-32 and -64) has been rewritten, fixing poor
  108     code selection for many CPUs.
  109 
  110   * Mini-GMP: Updated to the latest development version, including
  111     new functions mpn_com and mpn_neg.
  112 
  113   SPEEDUPS
  114   * None, except for arm CPUs affected by the configuration rewrite.
  115 
  116   MISC
  117   -
  118 
  119 Changes between GMP version 6.1.0 and 6.1.1
  120 
  121   BUGS FIXED
  122   * Make Intel Broadwell configurations work on Windows.
  123 
  124   FEATURES
  125   * Work around faulty cpuid on some recent Intel chips (this allows GMP to run
  126     on Skylake Pentiums).
  127 
  128   * Support thumb-less ARM chips.
  129 
  130 Changes between GMP version 6.0.* and 6.1.0
  131 
  132   BUGS FIXED
  133   * The public function mpn_com is now correctly declared in gmp.h.
  134 
  135   * Healed possible failures of mpn_sec_sqr for non-cryptographic sizes for
  136     some obsolete CPUs.
  137 
  138   * The option --disable-assembly now disables all inlined asm.
  139 
  140   * Fixed bug affecting mini-gmp's bitwise functions mpz_setbit, mpz_clrbit,
  141     and mpz_combit.
  142 
  143   * Various problems related to precision for mpf have been fixed.
  144 
  145   * Fixed ABI incompatible stack alignment in calls from assembly code.
  146 
  147   * Fixed PIC bug in popcount affecting Intel processors using the 32-bit ABI.
  148 
  149   SPEEDUPS
  150   * Speedup for Intel Broadwell and Skylake through assembly code making use of
  151     new ADX instructions.
  152 
  153   * Square root is now faster when the remainder is not needed. Also the speed
  154     to compute the k-th root improved, for small sizes.
  155 
  156   * Improved arm64 support.
  157 
  158   FEATURES
  159   * New C++ functions gcd and lcm for mpz_class.
  160 
  161   * New public mpn functions mpn_divexact_1, mpn_zero_p, and mpn_cnd_swap.
  162 
  163   * New public mpq_cmp_z function, to efficiently compare rationals with
  164     integers.
  165 
  166   * Support for Darwin in all x86 code, thereby enabling fat builds on Darwin.
  167 
  168   * Support for more 32-bit arm processors.
  169 
  170   * Support for compilation with clang/llvm on more platforms.  Caution: GMP
  171     triggers mis-compilation bugs in clang for many platforms, such as arm, x86
  172     (32-bit and 64-bit), powerpc, mips.
  173 
  174   * Support for AVX-less modern x86 CPUs. (Such support might be missing either
  175     because the CPU vendor chose to disable AVX, or because the running kernel
  176     lacks AVX context switch support.)
  177 
  178   * Stack usage trimmed; we believe 512 KiB is now sufficient for any GMP
  179     call, irrespective of operand size.
  180 
  181   * Support for NetBSD under Xen; we switch off AVX unconditionally under
  182     NetBSD since a bug in NetBSD makes AVX fail under Xen.
  183 
  184   MISC
  185   * We now use manufacturers' code names for x86 CPUs, e.g., "haswell" instead
  186     of names derived from the commercial brands.
  187 
  188   * Small improvements and better coverage for the test suite.
  189 
  190   * The various FreeBSD problems listed for 6.0.0 affect this release too.
  191 
  192   * Tuned values for FFT multiplications are provided for larger number on
  193     many platforms.
  194 
  195 Changes between GMP version 5.1.* and 6.0.0
  196 
  197   BUGS FIXED
  198   * The function mpz_invert now considers any number invertible in Z/1Z.
  199 
  200   * The mpn multiply code now handles operands of more than 2^31 limbs
  201     correctly.  (Note however that the mpz code is limited to 2^32 bits on
  202     32-bit hosts and 2^37 bits on 64-bit hosts.)
  203 
  204   * Contains all fixes from release 5.1.3.
  205 
  206   SPEEDUPS
  207   * Plain division of large operands is faster and more monotonous in operand
  208     size.
  209 
  210   * Major speedup for ARM, in particular ARM Cortex-A15, thanks to improved
  211     assembly.
  212 
  213   * Major speedup for SPARC T4/T5 and speedup also for T3, thanks to a lot of
  214     new assembly.
  215 
  216   * Speedup for Intel Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge, Haswell, thanks to rewritten
  217     and vastly expanded assembly support.  Speedup also for the older Core 2
  218     and Nehalem.
  219 
  220   * Faster mixed arithmetic between mpq_class and double.
  221 
  222   * With g++, optimise more operations when one argument is a simple constant.
  223 
  224   FEATURES
  225   * Support for new Intel and AMD CPUs.
  226 
  227   * Support for ARM64 alias Aarch64 alias ARMv8.
  228 
  229   * New public functions mpn_sec_mul and mpn_sec_sqr, implementing side-channel
  230     silent multiplication and squaring.
  231 
  232   * New public functions mpn_sec_div_qr and mpn_sec_div_r, implementing
  233     side-channel silent division.
  234 
  235   * New public functions mpn_cnd_add_n and mpn_cnd_sub_n.  Side-channel silent
  236     conditional addition and subtraction.
  237 
  238   * New public function mpn_sec_powm, implementing side-channel silent modexp.
  239 
  240   * New public function mpn_sec_invert, implementing side-channel silent
  241     modular inversion.
  242 
  243   * Better support for applications which use the mpz_t type, but nevertheless
  244     need to call some of the lower-level mpn functions.  See the documentation
  245     for mpz_limbs_read and related functions.
  246 
  247   MISC
  248   * This release will not work on NetBSD 5.x, FreeBSD 7.x, 8.x or 9 series
  249     before 9.3.  The reason is that the m4 command is not correctly
  250     implemented.  (Workaround: Use an older GMP release, or install GNU m4 from
  251     /usr/ports and tell GMP to use it.)
  252 
  253   * This release will not build properly on FreeBSD/amd64 before version 10
  254     using the 32-bit ABI (once a working m4 is installed).  The reason is
  255     broken limits.h.  (Workaround: Use an older GMP release if using the 32-bit
  256     ABI on these FreeBSD releases is important.)
  257 
  258   * This release will not work reliably on FreeBSD 10.0 for i386 or amd64 using
  259     the 32-bit ABI.  The reason is bugs in the compiler 'clang'.  Depending on
  260     CPU-dependent compiler flags, GMP may or may not be miscompiled in a
  261     particular build.  (Workaround: Compiling gcc from /usr/ports should work,
  262     except that gcc circularly depends on GMP; we have not been able to test
  263     that workaround due to FreeBSD 10.0 bugs affecting its ability to run under
  264     KVM and Xen.)
  265 
  266   * This release will not compile on FreeBSD before version 10 for i386,
  267     targeting any modern AMD processor.  The reason is bugs in the old gcc
  268     bundled with FreeBSD.  (Workaround: install a less obsolete gcc from
  269     /usr/ports and tell GMP to use it, or override the -march=amdfam10
  270     GMP configure command line argument.)
  271 
  272 
  273 Changes between GMP version 5.1.2 and 5.1.3
  274 
  275   BUGS FIXED
  276   * The internal functions mpn_sbpi1_div_qr_sec mpn_sbpi1_div_r_sec could
  277     compute garbage with a low probability.  They are now rewritten, and the
  278     test code has been improved.
  279 
  280   * A bug in the ia64 implementation of mpn_divrem_2, clobbering some
  281     callee-save registers, has been fixed. This is an internal
  282     function, with the bug manifesting itself as miscomputation in,
  283     e.g., mpn_sqrtrem.
  284 
  285   * The documentation now correctly says 'const' for input arguments.
  286 
  287   SPEEDUPS
  288   * None.
  289 
  290   FEATURES
  291   * None.
  292 
  293   MISC
  294   * None.
  295 
  296 
  297 Changes between GMP version 5.1.1 and 5.1.2
  298 
  299   BUGS FIXED
  300   * A bug in mpz_powm_ui triggered by base arguments of at least 15000 decimal
  301     digits or mod arguments of at least 7500 decimal digits has been fixed.
  302 
  303   * An AMD Bulldozer specific bug affecting the 64-bit Windows ABI has been
  304     fixed.  This bug was in a key function (mpn_mul_1) and made both Bulldozer
  305     specific builds and fat builds run on Bulldozer completely non-functional.
  306 
  307   SPEEDUPS
  308   * None.
  309 
  310   FEATURES
  311   * None.
  312 
  313   MISC
  314   * Fixes and generalisations to the test suite.
  315 
  316   * Minor portability enhancements.
  317 
  318 
  319 Changes between GMP version 5.1.0 and 5.1.1
  320 
  321   BUGS FIXED
  322   * On Windows 64-bit, an error causing link errors about
  323     __gmp_binvert_limb_table has been fixed.
  324 
  325   * Aarch64 alias ARM64 support now works.
  326 
  327   * A possible buffer overrun in mpz_ior has been fixed.
  328 
  329   * A rare sign flip in mpz_remove has been fixed.
  330 
  331   * A bug causing problems with mpf numbers with absolute value >= 2^31 has
  332     been fixed.
  333 
  334   * Several bugs in mini-gmp have been fixed.
  335 
  336   * A bug caused by automake, related to the 'distcheck' target, has been fixed
  337     by upgrading the automake used for GMP release engineering.
  338 
  339   SPEEDUPS
  340   * None.
  341 
  342   FEATURES
  343   * Preliminary support for the x32 ABI under x86-64.
  344 
  345   MISC
  346   * The mini-gmp testsuite now tests the entire set of functions.
  347 
  348   * Various improvements of the GMP testsuite.
  349 
  350 
  351 Changes between GMP version 5.0.* and 5.1.0
  352 
  353   BUGS FIXED
  354   * When reading a C++ number (like mpz_class) in an istream reaches the end
  355     of the stream, the eofbit is now set.
  356 
  357   * The result sign of mpz_rootrem's remainder is now always correct.
  358 
  359   * The mpz_remove function now handles negative divisors.
  360 
  361   * Contains all fixes from release 5.0.5.
  362 
  363   SPEEDUPS
  364   * The n-factorial and n-over-k functions have been reimplemented for great
  365     speedups for small and large operands.
  366 
  367   * New subquadratic algorithm for the Kronecker/Jacobi/Legendre symbol.
  368 
  369   * Major speedup for ARM, in particular ARM Cortex-A9 and A15, thanks to broad
  370     assembly support.
  371 
  372   * Significant speedup for POWER6 and POWER7 thanks to improved assembly.
  373 
  374   * The performance under M$ Windows' 64-bit ABI has been greatly improved
  375     thanks to complete assembly support.
  376 
  377   * Minor speed improvements of many functions and for many platforms.
  378 
  379   FEATURES
  380   * Many new CPUs recognised.
  381 
  382   * New functions for multi-factorials, and primorial: mpz_2fac_ui,
  383     mpz_mfac_uiui and mpz_primorial_ui.
  384 
  385   * The mpz_powm_sec function now uses side-channel silent division for
  386     converting into Montgomery residues.
  387 
  388   * The fat binary mechanism is now more robust in its CPU recognition.
  389 
  390   MISC
  391   * Inclusion of assembly code is now controlled by the configure options
  392     --enable-assembly and --disable-assembly.  The "none" CPU target is gone.
  393 
  394   * In C++, the conversions mpq_class->mpz_class, mpf_class->mpz_class and
  395     mpf_class->mpq_class are now explicit.
  396 
  397   * Includes "mini-gmp", a small, portable, but less efficient, implementation
  398     of a subset of GMP's mpn and mpz interfaces. Used in GMP bootstrap, but it
  399     can also be bundled with applications as a fallback when the real GMP
  400     library is unavailable.
  401 
  402   * The ABIs under AIX are no longer called aix32 and aix64, but mode64 and 32.
  403     This is more consistent with other powerpc systems.
  404 
  405   * The coverage of the testsuite has been improved, using the lcov tool.  See
  406     also https://gmplib.org/devel/lcov/.
  407 
  408   * It is now possible to compile GMP using a C++ compiler.
  409 
  410   * K&R C compilers are no longer supported.
  411 
  412   * The BSD MP compatibility functions have been removed.
  413 
  414 
  415 Changes between GMP version 5.0.4 and 5.0.5
  416 
  417   BUGS FIXED
  418   * A bug causing AMD 11h processors to be treated like AMD 10h has been fixed.
  419     The 11h processors do not correctly handle all 10h (aka K10) instructions,
  420     and GMP's use of these instructions results in major miscomputations (not
  421     as one would have hoped CPU traps of some 'illegal instruction' sort).
  422 
  423   * A bug affecting recent Intel Sandy Bridge CPUs resulting in configuration
  424     failures has been fixed.
  425 
  426   SPEEDUPS
  427   * None.
  428 
  429   FEATURES
  430   * A couple of tests added to the self-check suite.
  431 
  432   MISC
  433   * None.
  434 
  435 
  436 Changes between GMP version 5.0.3 and 5.0.4
  437 
  438   BUGS FIXED
  439   * Thresholds in mpn_powm_sec for both fat and non-fat builds are now used
  440     safely, plugging a one-word buffer overrun introduced in the 5.0.3 release
  441     (for non-fat) and a multi-word buffer overrun that existed since 5.0 (for
  442     fat).  (We have not been able to provoke malign stack smashing in any of
  443     the ~100 configurations explored by the GMP nightly builds, but the bug
  444     should be assumed to be exploitable.)
  445 
  446   * Two bugs in multiplication code causing incorrect computation with
  447     extremely low probability have been fixed.
  448 
  449   * A bug in the test suite causing buffer overruns during "make check",
  450     sometimes leading to subsequent malloc crashes, has been fixed.
  451 
  452   * Two bugs in the gcd code have been fixed.  They could lead to incorrect
  453     results, but for uniformly distributed random operands, the likelihood for
  454     that is infinitesimally small.  (There was also a third bug, but that was
  455     an incorrect ASSERT, which furthermore was not enabled by default.)
  456 
  457   * A bug affecting 32-bit PowerPC division has been fixed.  The bug caused
  458     miscomputation for certain divisors in the range 2^32 ... 2^64-1 (about 1
  459     in 2^30 of these).
  460 
  461   SPEEDUPS
  462   * None, except indirectly through recognition of new CPUs, and through better
  463     tuning parameters.
  464 
  465   FEATURES
  466   * Some more tests added to the self-check suite.
  467 
  468   * The AMD "Bulldozer" CPU is now recognised.
  469 
  470   MISC
  471   * None.
  472 
  473 
  474 Changes between GMP version 5.0.2 and 5.0.3
  475 
  476   BUGS FIXED
  477   * A few minor bugs related to portability fixed.
  478 
  479   * A slight timing leak of the powm_sec functions have been sealed.  (This
  480     leak could possibly be used to extract the most significant few bits of the
  481     exponent.  "Few" here means at most 10.)
  482 
  483   * The mpz_nextprime function now runs a safer number of pseudo-random prime
  484     tests.
  485 
  486   * A bug in division code possibly causing incorrect computation was fixed.
  487 
  488   SPEEDUPS
  489   * None, except indirectly through recognition of new CPUs, and through better
  490     tuning parameters.
  491 
  492   FEATURES
  493   * New CPUs recognised.
  494 
  495   * IBM S/390 are now supported in both 31/32-bit and 64-bit mode.  (We have
  496     not been able to fully test this on any multilib machine, since IBM expired
  497     our guest account a few days before our release.)
  498 
  499   MISC
  500   * None.
  501 
  502 
  503 Changes between GMP version 5.0.1 and 5.0.2
  504 
  505   BUGS FIXED
  506   * Many minor bugs related to portability fixed.
  507 
  508   * The support for HPPA 2.0N now works, after an assembly bug fix.
  509 
  510   * A test case type error has been fixed.  The symptom of this bug was
  511     spurious 'make check' failures.
  512 
  513   SPEEDUPS
  514   * None, except indirectly through recognition of new CPUs.
  515 
  516   FEATURES
  517   * Fat builds are now supported for 64-bit x86 processors also under Darwin.
  518 
  519   MISC
  520   * None.
  521 
  522 
  523 Changes between GMP version 5.0.0 and 5.0.1
  524 
  525   BUGS FIXED
  526   * Fat builds fixed.
  527 
  528   * Fixed crash for huge multiplies when old FFT_TABLE2 type of parameter
  529     selection tables' sentinel was smaller than multiplied operands.
  530 
  531   * The solib numbers now reflect the removal of the documented but preliminary
  532     mpn_bdivmod function; we correctly flag incompatibility with GMP 4.3.  GMP
  533     5.0.0 has this wrong, and should perhaps be uninstalled to avoid confusion.
  534 
  535   SPEEDUPS
  536   * Multiplication of large numbers has indirectly been sped up through better
  537     FFT tuning and processor recognition.  Since many operations depend on
  538     multiplication, there will be a general speedup.
  539 
  540   FEATURES
  541   * More Core i3, i5 an Core i7 processor models are recognised.
  542 
  543   * Fixes and workarounds for Mac OS quirks should make this GMP version build
  544     using many of the different versions of "Xcode".
  545 
  546   MISC
  547   * The amount of scratch memory needed for multiplication of huge numbers has
  548     been reduced substantially (but is still larger than in GMP 4.3.)
  549 
  550   * Likewise, the amount of scratch memory needed for division of large numbers
  551     has been reduced substantially.
  552 
  553   * The FFT tuning code of tune/tuneup.c has been completely rewritten, and
  554     new, large FFT parameter selection tables are provided for many machines.
  555 
  556   * Upgraded to the latest autoconf, automake, libtool.
  557 
  558 
  559 Changes between GMP version 4.3.X and 5.0.0
  560 
  561   BUGS FIXED
  562   * None (contains the same fixes as release 4.3.2).
  563 
  564   SPEEDUPS
  565   * Multiplication has been overhauled:
  566     (1) Multiplication of larger same size operands has been improved with
  567         the addition of two new Toom functions and a new internal function
  568         mpn_mulmod_bnm1 (computing U * V mod (B^n-1), B being the word base.
  569         This latter function is used for the largest products, waiting for a
  570         better Schoenhage-Strassen U * V mod (B^n+1) implementation.
  571     (2) Likewise for squaring.
  572     (3) Multiplication of different size operands has been improved with the
  573         addition of many new Toom function, and by selecting underlying
  574         functions better from the main multiply functions.
  575 
  576   * Division and mod have been overhauled:
  577     (1) Plain "schoolbook" division is reimplemented using faster quotient
  578         approximation.
  579     (2) Division Q = N/D, R = N mod D where both the quotient and remainder
  580         are needed now runs in time O(M(log(N))).  This is an improvement of
  581         a factor log(log(N))
  582     (3) Division where just the quotient is needed is now O(M(log(Q))) on
  583         average.
  584     (4) Modulo operations using Montgomery REDC form now take time O(M(n)).
  585     (5) Exact division Q = N/D by means of mpz_divexact has been improved
  586         for all sizes, and now runs in time O(M(log(N))).
  587 
  588   * The function mpz_powm is now faster for all sizes.  Its complexity has
  589     gone from O(M(n)log(n)m) to O(M(n)m) where n is the size of the modulo
  590     argument and m is the size of the exponent.  It is also radically
  591     faster for even modulus, since it now partially factors such modulus
  592     and performs two smaller modexp operations, then uses CRT.
  593 
  594   * The internal support for multiplication yielding just the lower n limbs
  595     has been improved by using Mulders' algorithm.
  596 
  597   * Computation of inverses, both plain 1/N and 1/N mod B^n have been
  598     improved by using well-tuned Newton iterations, and wrap-around
  599     multiplication using mpn_mulmod_bnm1.
  600 
  601   * A new algorithm makes mpz_perfect_power_p asymptotically faster.
  602 
  603   * The function mpz_remove uses a much faster algorithm, is better tuned,
  604     and also benefits from the division improvements.
  605 
  606   * Intel Atom and VIA Nano specific optimisations.
  607 
  608   * Plus hundreds of smaller improvements and tweaks!
  609 
  610   FEATURES
  611   * New mpz function: mpz_powm_sec for side-channel quiet modexp
  612     computations.
  613 
  614   * New mpn functions: mpn_sqr, mpn_and_n, mpn_ior_n, mpn_xor_n, mpn_nand_n,
  615     mpn_nior_n, mpn_xnor_n, mpn_andn_n, mpn_iorn_n, mpn_com, mpn_neg,
  616     mpn_copyi, mpn_copyd, mpn_zero.
  617 
  618   * The function mpn_tdiv_qr now allows certain argument overlap.
  619 
  620   * Support for fat binaries for 64-bit x86 processors has been added.
  621 
  622   * A new type, mp_bitcnt_t for bignum bit counts, has been introduced.
  623 
  624   * Support for Windows64 through mingw64 has been added.
  625 
  626   * The cofactors of mpz_gcdext and mpn_gcdext are now more strictly
  627     normalised, returning to how GMP 4.2 worked.  (Note that also release
  628     4.3.2 has this change.)
  629 
  630   MISC
  631   * The mpn_mul function should no longer be used for squaring,
  632     instead use the new mpn_sqr.
  633 
  634   * The algorithm selection has been improved, the number of thresholds have
  635     more than doubled, and the tuning and use of existing thresholds have
  636     been improved.
  637 
  638   * The tune/speed program can measure many of new functions.
  639 
  640   * The mpn_bdivmod function has been removed.  We do not consider this an
  641     incompatible change, since the function was marked as preliminary.
  642 
  643   * The testsuite has been enhanced in various ways.
  644 
  645 
  646 Changes between GMP version 4.3.1 and 4.3.2
  647 
  648   Bugs:
  649   * Fixed bug in mpf_eq.
  650   * Fixed overflow issues in mpz_set_str, mpz_inp_str, mpf_set_str, and
  651     mpf_get_str.
  652   * Avoid unbounded stack allocation for unbalanced multiplication.
  653   * Fixed bug in FFT multiplication.
  654 
  655   Speedups:
  656   * None, except that proper processor recognition helps affected processors.
  657 
  658   Features:
  659   * Recognise more "Core 2" processor variants.
  660   * The cofactors of mpz_gcdext and mpn_gcdext are now more strictly
  661     normalised, returning to how GMP 4.2 worked.
  662 
  663 
  664 Changes between GMP version 4.3.0 and 4.3.1
  665 
  666   Bugs:
  667   * Fixed bug in mpn_gcdext, affecting also mpz_gcdext and mpz_invert.
  668     The bug could cause a cofactor to have a leading zero limb, which
  669     could lead to crashes or miscomputation later on.
  670   * Fixed some minor documentation issues.
  671 
  672   Speedups:
  673   * None.
  674 
  675   Features:
  676   * Workarounds for various issues with Mac OS X's build tools.
  677   * Recognise more IBM "POWER" processor variants.
  678 
  679 
  680 Changes between GMP version 4.2.X and 4.3.0
  681 
  682   Bugs:
  683   * Fixed bug in mpz_perfect_power_p with recognition of negative perfect
  684     powers that can be written both as an even and odd power.
  685   * We might accidentally have added bugs since there is a large amount of
  686     new code in this release.
  687 
  688   Speedups:
  689   * Vastly improved assembly code for x86-64 processors from AMD and Intel.
  690   * Major improvements also for many other processor families, such as
  691     Alpha, PowerPC, and Itanium.
  692   * New sub-quadratic mpn_gcd and mpn_gcdext, as well as improved basecase
  693     gcd code.
  694   * The multiply FFT code has been slightly improved.
  695   * Balanced multiplication now uses 4-way Toom in addition to schoolbook,
  696     Karatsuba, 3-way Toom, and FFT.
  697   * Unbalanced multiplication has been vastly improved.
  698   * Improved schoolbook division by means of faster quotient approximation.
  699   * Several new algorithms for division and mod by single limbs, giving
  700     many-fold speedups.
  701   * Improved nth root computations.
  702   * The mpz_nextprime function uses sieving and is much faster.
  703   * Countless minor tweaks.
  704 
  705   Features:
  706   * Updated support for fat binaries for x86_32 include current processors
  707   * Lots of new mpn internal interfaces.  Some of them will become public
  708     in a future GMP release.
  709   * Support for the 32-bit ABI under x86-apple-darwin.
  710   * x86 CPU recognition code should now default better for future
  711     processors.
  712   * The experimental nails feature does not work in this release, but
  713     it might be re-enabled in the future.
  714 
  715   Misc:
  716   * The gmp_version variable now always contains three parts.  For this
  717     release, it is "4.3.0".
  718 
  719 
  720 Changes between GMP version 4.2.3 and 4.2.4
  721 
  722   Bugs:
  723   * Fix bug with parsing exponent '+' sign in mpf.
  724   * Fix an allocation bug in mpf_set_str, also affecting mpf_init_set_str, and
  725     mpf_inp_str.
  726 
  727   Speedups:
  728   * None, except that proper processor recognition helps affected processors.
  729 
  730   Features:
  731   * Recognize new AMD processors.
  732 
  733 
  734 Changes between GMP version 4.2.2 and 4.2.3
  735 
  736   Bugs:
  737   * Fix x86 CPU recognition code to properly identify recent AMD and Intel
  738     64-bit processors.
  739   * The >> operator of the C++ wrapper gmpxx.h now does floor rounding, not
  740     truncation.
  741   * Inline semantics now follow the C99 standard, and works with recent GCC
  742     releases.
  743   * C++ bitwise logical operations work for more types.
  744   * For C++, gmp.h now includes cstdio, improving compiler compatibility.
  745   * Bases > 36 now work properly in mpf_set_str.
  746 
  747   Speedups:
  748   * None, except that proper processor recognition helps affected processors.
  749 
  750   Features:
  751   * The allocation functions now detect overflow of the mpz_t type.  This means
  752     that overflow will now cause an abort, except when the allocation
  753     computation itself overflows.  (Such overflow can probably only happen in
  754     powering functions; we will detect powering overflow in the future.)
  755 
  756 
  757 Changes between GMP version 4.2.1 and 4.2.2
  758 
  759   * License is now LGPL version 3.
  760 
  761   Bugs:
  762   * Shared library numbers corrected for libcxx.
  763   * Fixed serious bug in gmpxx.h where a=a+b*c would generate garbage.
  764     Note that this only affects C++ programs.
  765   * Fix crash in mpz_set_d for arguments with large negative exponent.
  766   * Fix 32-bit ABI bug with Itanium assembly for popcount and hamdist.
  767   * Fix assembly syntax problem for powerpc-ibm-aix with AIX native assembler.
  768   * Fix problems with x86 --enable-fat, where the compiler where told to
  769     generate code for the build machine, not plain i386 code as it should.
  770   * Improved recognition of powerpc systems wrt Altivec/VMX capability.
  771   * Misc minor fixes, mainly workarounds for compiler/assembler bugs.
  772 
  773   Speedups:
  774   * "Core 2" and Pentium 4 processors, running in 64-bit mode will get a
  775      slight boost as they are now specifically recognized.
  776 
  777   Features:
  778   * New support for x86_64-solaris
  779   * New, rudimentary support for x86-apple-darwin and x86_64-apple-darwin.
  780     (Please see https://gmplib.org/macos.html for more information.)
  781 
  782 
  783 Changes between GMP version 4.2 and 4.2.1
  784 
  785   Bugs:
  786   * Shared library numbers corrected.
  787   * Broken support for 32-bit AIX fixed.
  788   * Misc minor fixes.
  789 
  790   Speedups:
  791   * Exact division (mpz_divexact) now falls back to plain division for large
  792     operands.
  793 
  794   Features:
  795   * Support for some new systems.
  796 
  797 
  798 Changes between GMP version 4.1.4 and 4.2
  799 
  800   Bugs:
  801   * Minor bug fixes and code generalizations.
  802   * Expanded and improved test suite.
  803 
  804   Speedups:
  805   * Many minor optimizations, too many to mention here.
  806   * Division now always subquadratic.
  807   * Computation of n-factorial much faster.
  808   * Added basic x86-64 assembly code.
  809   * Floating-point output is now subquadratic for all bases.
  810   * FFT multiply code now about 25% faster.
  811   * Toom3 multiply code faster.
  812 
  813   Features:
  814   * Much improved configure.
  815   * Workarounds for many more compiler bugs.
  816   * Temporary allocations are now made on the stack only if small.
  817   * New systems supported: HPPA-2.0 gcc, IA-64 HP-UX, PowerPC-64 Darwin,
  818     Sparc64 GNU/Linux.
  819   * New i386 fat binaries, selecting optimised code at runtime (--enable-fat).
  820   * New build option: --enable-profiling=instrument.
  821   * New memory function: mp_get_memory_functions.
  822   * New Mersenne Twister random numbers: gmp_randinit_mt, also now used for
  823     gmp_randinit_default.
  824   * New random functions: gmp_randinit_set, gmp_urandomb_ui, gmp_urandomm_ui.
  825   * New integer functions: mpz_combit, mpz_rootrem.
  826   * gmp_printf etc new type "M" for mp_limb_t.
  827   * gmp_scanf and friends now accept C99 hex floats.
  828   * Numeric input and output can now be in bases up to 62.
  829   * Comparisons mpz_cmp_d, mpz_cmpabs_d, mpf_cmp_d recognise infinities.
  830   * Conversions mpz_get_d, mpq_get_d, mpf_get_d truncate towards zero,
  831     previously their behaviour was unspecified.
  832   * Fixes for overflow issues with operands >= 2^31 bits.
  833 
  834   Caveats:
  835   * mpfr is gone, and will from now on be released only separately.  Please see
  836     www.mpfr.org.
  837 
  838 
  839 Changes between GMP version 4.1.3 and 4.1.4
  840 
  841 * Bug fix to FFT multiplication code (crash for huge operands).
  842 * Bug fix to mpf_sub (miscomputation).
  843 * Support for powerpc64-gnu-linux.
  844 * Better support for AMD64 in 32-bit mode.
  845 * Upwardly binary compatible with 4.1.3, 4.1.2, 4.1.1, 4.1, 4.0.1, 4.0,
  846   and 3.x versions.
  847 
  848 
  849 Changes between GMP version 4.1.2 and 4.1.3
  850 
  851 * Bug fix for FFT multiplication code (miscomputation).
  852 * Bug fix to K6 assembly code for gcd.
  853 * Bug fix to IA-64 assembly code for population count.
  854 * Portability improvements, most notably functional AMD64 support.
  855 * mpz_export allows NULL for countp parameter.
  856 * Many minor bug fixes.
  857 * mpz_export allows NULL for countp parameter.
  858 * Upwardly binary compatible with 4.1.2, 4.1.1, 4.1, 4.0.1, 4.0, and 3.x
  859   versions.
  860 
  861 
  862 Changes between GMP version 4.1.1 and 4.1.2
  863 
  864 * Bug fixes.
  865 
  866 
  867 Changes between GMP version 4.1 and 4.1.1
  868 
  869 * Bug fixes.
  870 * New systems supported: NetBSD and OpenBSD sparc64.
  871 
  872 
  873 Changes between GMP version 4.0.1 and 4.1
  874 
  875 * Bug fixes.
  876 * Speed improvements.
  877 * Upwardly binary compatible with 4.0, 4.0.1, and 3.x versions.
  878 * Asymptotically fast conversion to/from strings (mpz, mpq, mpn levels), but
  879   also major speed improvements for tiny operands.
  880 * mpn_get_str parameter restrictions relaxed.
  881 * Major speed improvements for HPPA 2.0 systems.
  882 * Major speed improvements for UltraSPARC systems.
  883 * Major speed improvements for IA-64 systems (but still sub-optimal code).
  884 * Extended test suite.
  885 * mpfr is back, with many bug fixes and portability improvements.
  886 * New function: mpz_ui_sub.
  887 * New functions: mpz_export, mpz_import.
  888 * Optimization for nth root functions (mpz_root, mpz_perfect_power_p).
  889 * Optimization for extended gcd (mpz_gcdext, mpz_invert, mpn_gcdext).
  890 * Generalized low-level number format, reserving a `nails' part of each
  891   limb.  (Please note that this is really experimental; some functions
  892   are likely to compute garbage when nails are enabled.)
  893 * Nails-enabled Alpha 21264 assembly code, allowing up to 75% better
  894   performance.  (Use --enable-nails=4 to enable it.)
  895 
  896 
  897 Changes between GMP version 4.0 and 4.0.1
  898 
  899 * Bug fixes.
  900 
  901 
  902 Changes between GMP version 3.1.1 and 4.0
  903 
  904 * Bug fixes.
  905 * Speed improvements.
  906 * Upwardly binary compatible with 3.x versions.
  907 * New CPU support: IA-64, Pentium 4.
  908 * Improved CPU support: 21264, Cray vector systems.
  909 * Support for all MIPS ABIs: o32, n32, 64.
  910 * New systems supported: Darwin, SCO, Windows DLLs.
  911 * New divide-and-conquer square root algorithm.
  912 * New algorithms chapter in the manual.
  913 * New malloc reentrant temporary memory method.
  914 * New C++ class interface by Gerardo Ballabio (beta).
  915 * Revamped configure, featuring ABI selection.
  916 * Speed improvements for mpz_powm and mpz_powm_ui (mainly affecting small
  917   operands).
  918 * mpz_perfect_power_p now properly recognizes 0, 1, and negative perfect
  919   powers.
  920 * mpz_hamdist now supports negative operands.
  921 * mpz_jacobi now accepts non-positive denominators.
  922 * mpz_powm now supports negative exponents.
  923 * mpn_mul_1 operand overlap requirements relaxed.
  924 * Float input and output uses locale specific decimal point where available.
  925 * New gmp_printf, gmp_scanf and related functions.
  926 * New division functions: mpz_cdiv_q_2exp, mpz_cdiv_r_2exp, mpz_divexact_ui.
  927 * New divisibility tests: mpz_divisible_p, mpz_divisible_ui_p,
  928   mpz_divisible_2exp_p, mpz_congruent_p, mpz_congruent_ui_p,
  929   mpz_congruent_2exp_p.
  930 * New Fibonacci function: mpz_fib2_ui.
  931 * New Lucas number functions: mpz_lucnum_ui, mpz_lucnum2_ui.
  932 * Other new integer functions: mpz_cmp_d, mpz_cmpabs_d, mpz_get_d_2exp,
  933   mpz_init2, mpz_kronecker, mpz_lcm_ui, mpz_realloc2.
  934 * New rational I/O: mpq_get_str, mpq_inp_str, mpq_out_str, mpq_set_str.
  935 * Other new rational functions: mpq_abs, mpq_cmp_si, mpq_div_2exp,
  936   mpq_mul_2exp, mpq_set_f.
  937 * New float tests: mpf_integer_p, mpf_fits_sint_p, mpf_fits_slong_p,
  938   mpf_fits_sshort_p, mpf_fits_uint_p, mpf_fits_ulong_p, mpf_fits_ushort_p.
  939 * Other new float functions: mpf_cmp_d, mpf_get_default_prec, mpf_get_si,
  940   mpf_get_ui, mpf_get_d_2exp.
  941 * New random functions: gmp_randinit_default, gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size.
  942 * New demo expression string parser (see demos/expr).
  943 * New preliminary perl interface (see demos/perl).
  944 * Tuned algorithm thresholds for many more CPUs.
  945 
  946 
  947 Changes between GMP version 3.1 and 3.1.1
  948 
  949 * Bug fixes for division (rare), mpf_get_str, FFT, and miscellaneous minor
  950   things.
  951 
  952 
  953 Changes between GMP version 3.0 and 3.1
  954 
  955 * Bug fixes.
  956 * Improved `make check' running more tests.
  957 * Tuned algorithm cutoff points for many machines.  This will improve speed for
  958   a lot of operations, in some cases by a large amount.
  959 * Major speed improvements: Alpha 21264.
  960 * Some speed improvements: Cray vector computers, AMD K6 and Athlon, Intel P5
  961   and Pentium Pro/II/III.
  962 * The mpf_get_prec function now works as it did in GMP 2.
  963 * New utilities for auto-tuning and speed measuring.
  964 * Multiplication now optionally uses FFT for very large operands.  (To enable
  965   it, pass --enable-fft to configure.)
  966 * Support for new systems: Solaris running on x86, FreeBSD 5, HP-UX 11, Cray
  967   vector computers, Rhapsody, Nextstep/Openstep, MacOS.
  968 * Support for shared libraries on 32-bit HPPA.
  969 * New integer functions: mpz_mul_si, mpz_odd_p, mpz_even_p.
  970 * New Kronecker symbol functions: mpz_kronecker_si, mpz_kronecker_ui,
  971   mpz_si_kronecker, mpz_ui_kronecker.
  972 * New rational functions: mpq_out_str, mpq_swap.
  973 * New float functions: mpf_swap.
  974 * New mpn functions: mpn_divexact_by3c, mpn_tdiv_qr.
  975 * New EXPERIMENTAL function layer for accurate floating-point arithmetic, mpfr.
  976   To try it, pass --enable-mpfr to configure.  See the mpfr subdirectory for
  977   more information; it is not documented in the main GMP manual.
  978 
  979 
  980 Changes between GMP version 3.0 and 3.0.1
  981 
  982 * Memory leaks in gmp_randinit and mpz_probab_prime_p fixed.
  983 * Documentation for gmp_randinit fixed.  Misc documentation errors fixed.
  984 
  985 
  986 Changes between GMP version 2.0 and 3.0
  987 
  988 * Source level compatibility with past releases (except mpn_gcd).
  989 * Bug fixes.
  990 * Much improved speed thanks to both host independent and host dependent
  991   optimizations.
  992 * Switch to autoconf/automake/libtool.
  993 * Support for building libgmp as a shared library.
  994 * Multiplication and squaring using 3-way Toom-Cook.
  995 * Division using the Burnikel-Ziegler method.
  996 * New functions computing binomial coefficients: mpz_bin_ui, mpz_bin_uiui.
  997 * New function computing Fibonacci numbers: mpz_fib_ui.
  998 * New random number generators: mpf_urandomb, mpz_rrandomb, mpz_urandomb,
  999   mpz_urandomm, gmp_randclear, gmp_randinit, gmp_randinit_lc_2exp,
 1000   gmp_randseed, gmp_randseed_ui.
 1001 * New function for quickly extracting limbs: mpz_getlimbn.
 1002 * New functions performing integer size tests: mpz_fits_sint_p,
 1003   mpz_fits_slong_p, mpz_fits_sshort_p, mpz_fits_uint_p, mpz_fits_ulong_p,
 1004   mpz_fits_ushort_p.
 1005 * New mpf functions: mpf_ceil, mpf_floor, mpf_pow_ui, mpf_trunc.
 1006 * New mpq function: mpq_set_d.
 1007 * New mpz functions: mpz_addmul_ui, mpz_cmpabs, mpz_cmpabs_ui, mpz_lcm,
 1008   mpz_nextprime, mpz_perfect_power_p, mpz_remove, mpz_root, mpz_swap,
 1009   mpz_tdiv_ui, mpz_tstbit, mpz_xor.
 1010 * New mpn function: mpn_divexact_by3.
 1011 * New CPU support: DEC Alpha 21264, AMD K6 and Athlon, HPPA 2.0 and 64,
 1012   Intel Pentium Pro and Pentium-II/III, Sparc 64, PowerPC 64.
 1013 * Almost 10 times faster mpz_invert and mpn_gcdext.
 1014 * The interface of mpn_gcd has changed.
 1015 * Better support for MIPS R4x000 and R5000 under Irix 6.
 1016 * Improved support for SPARCv8 and SPARCv9 processors.
 1017 
 1018 
 1019 Changes between GMP version 2.0 and 2.0.2
 1020 
 1021 * Many bug fixes.
 1022 
 1023 
 1024 Changes between GMP version 1.3.2 and 2.0
 1025 
 1026 * Division routines in the mpz class have changed.  There are three classes of
 1027   functions, that rounds the quotient to -infinity, 0, and +infinity,
 1028   respectively.  The first class of functions have names that begin with
 1029   mpz_fdiv (f is short for floor), the second class' names begin with mpz_tdiv
 1030   (t is short for trunc), and the third class' names begin with mpz_cdiv (c is
 1031   short for ceil).
 1032 
 1033   The old division routines beginning with mpz_m are similar to the new
 1034   mpz_fdiv, with the exception that some of the new functions return useful
 1035   values.
 1036 
 1037   The old function names can still be used.  All the old functions names will
 1038   now do floor division, not trunc division as some of them used to.  This was
 1039   changed to make the functions more compatible with common mathematical
 1040   practice.
 1041 
 1042   The mpz_mod and mpz_mod_ui functions now compute the mathematical mod
 1043   function.  I.e., the sign of the 2nd argument is ignored.
 1044 
 1045 * The mpq assignment functions do not canonicalize their results.  A new
 1046   function, mpq_canonicalize must be called by the user if the result is not
 1047   known to be canonical.
 1048 * The mpn functions are now documented.  These functions are intended for
 1049   very time critical applications, or applications that need full control over
 1050   memory allocation.  Note that the mpn interface is irregular and hard to
 1051   use.
 1052 * New functions for arbitrary precision floating point arithmetic.  Names
 1053   begin with `mpf_'.  Associated type mpf_t.
 1054 * New and improved mpz functions, including much faster GCD, fast exact
 1055   division (mpz_divexact), bit scan (mpz_scan0 and mpz_scan1), and number
 1056   theoretical functions like Jacobi (mpz_jacobi) and multiplicative inverse
 1057   (mpz_invert).
 1058 * New variable types (mpz_t and mpq_t) are available that makes syntax of
 1059   mpz and mpq calls nicer (no need for & before variables).  The MP_INT and
 1060   MP_RAT types are still available for compatibility.
 1061 * Uses GNU configure.  This makes it possible to choose target architecture
 1062   and CPU variant, and to compile into a separate object directory.
 1063 * Carefully optimized assembly for important inner loops.  Support for DEC
 1064   Alpha, Amd 29000, HPPA 1.0 and 1.1, Intel Pentium and generic x86, Intel
 1065   i960, Motorola MC68000, MC68020, MC88100, and MC88110, Motorola/IBM
 1066   PowerPC, National NS32000, IBM POWER, MIPS R3000, R4000, SPARCv7,
 1067   SuperSPARC, generic SPARCv8, and DEC VAX.  Some support also for ARM,
 1068   Clipper, IBM ROMP (RT), and Pyramid AP/XP.
 1069 * Faster.  Thanks to the assembler code, new algorithms, and general tuning.
 1070   In particular, the speed on machines without GCC is improved.
 1071 * Support for machines without alloca.
 1072 * Now under the LGPL.
 1073 
 1074 INCOMPATIBILITIES BETWEEN GMP 1 AND GMP 2
 1075 
 1076 * mpq assignment functions do not canonicalize their results.
 1077 * mpz division functions round differently.
 1078 * mpz mod functions now really compute mod.
 1079 * mpz_powm and mpz_powm_ui now really use mod for reduction.