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side-by-side code changes report for "NEWS": 6.2.0_vs_6.2.1
1 Copyright 1996, 1999-2016, 2018-2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
3 Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any
4 medium, provided this notice is preserved.
6 Changes between GMP version 6.2.0 and 6.2.1
8 BUGS FIXED
9 * A possible overflow of type int is avoided for mpz_cmp on huge operands.
11 * Overflows are more carefully detected and reported for mpz_pow_ui.
13 * A bug in longlong.h for aarch64 sub_ddmmss, not affecting GMP, was healed.
15 * mini-gmp: mpz_out_str and mpq_out_str now correctly handle out of
16 range bases.
19 * C90 compliance.
21 * Initial support for Darwin on arm64, and improved portability.
23 * Support for more processors.
26 * None, except indirectly through recognition of new CPUs.
29 * None.
31 Changes between GMP version 6.1.* and 6.2.0
33 BUGS FIXED
34 * gmp_snprintf now correctly reports an error (returns -1) when snprintf
37 * Conversion to double is now more robust even if the configuration process
38 does not recognize the float format.
40 * mpz_powm could return a not completely normalised value, when the
41 exponent was 1 and the base < 0.
43 * mpf_set_str could create invalid mpf_t variables for input strings with
44 many leading zeros.
47 * New C++ functions factorial, primorial and fibonacci for mpz_class.
49 * Functions to detect primality now substitute the first 24 Miller-Rabin
50 iterations with the BPSW test.
52 * Mini-GMP: new functions mpz_2fac_ui and mpz_mfac_uiui.
54 * Mini-GMP: mpz_sizeinbase, mpz_get_str, and mpz_set_str now support bases up
55 to 62.
57 * Mini-GMP: added support for the mpq_t layer.
59 * MIPS r6 cores are now supported.
62 * Major speedup for AMD Ryzen and Epyc thanks to an extensive set of assembly
65 * Major speedup for IBM POWER9 thanks to assembly code making use of new madd
68 * Speedup for 64-bit ARM CPUs thanks to new/improved assembly code.
70 * The n-over-k function mpz_bin_ui has been reimplemented for great speedups
71 for large operands.
73 * Speedup for the worst case of mpz_perfect_power_p.
75 * Speedup for gcd for small and medium size operands.
77 * Speedup for really huge multiplies thanks to much larger FFT tables.
80 * Internal representation of the mpz_t variables now supports lazy
81 allocation; memory is allocated only when a value is stored.
83 * Small improvements and better coverage for the test suite.
85 * The tune/speed program can measure some more functions.
87 * The low-level function mpn_mul no longer diverts to mpn_sqr, users should
88 call mpn_sqr directly when applicable.
90 * New installed files gmp.pc and gmpxx.pc, for use with pkg-config.
91 Contributed by Hugh McMaster.
93 Changes between GMP version 6.1.1 and 6.1.2
95 BUGS FIXED
96 * Mini-GMP: Fixed a division bug, which on a machine with 64-bit
97 unsigned long affects approximately 1 out of 2^32 divisors.
99 * Mini-GMP: Fix mpz_set_str crash on inputs with a large number of
100 leading zeros. Also stricter input validation, rejecting inputs
101 with no digits.
104 * Handle more systems which require PIC code in static libraries (e.g.,
105 "hardened" Gentoo and Debian 9).
107 * Configuration for arm (-32 and -64) has been rewritten, fixing poor
108 code selection for many CPUs.
110 * Mini-GMP: Updated to the latest development version, including
111 new functions mpn_com and mpn_neg.
114 * None, except for arm CPUs affected by the configuration rewrite.
119 Changes between GMP version 6.1.0 and 6.1.1
121 BUGS FIXED
122 * Make Intel Broadwell configurations work on Windows.
125 * Work around faulty cpuid on some recent Intel chips (this allows GMP to run
126 on Skylake Pentiums).
128 * Support thumb-less ARM chips.
130 Changes between GMP version 6.0.* and 6.1.0
132 BUGS FIXED
133 * The public function mpn_com is now correctly declared in gmp.h.
135 * Healed possible failures of mpn_sec_sqr for non-cryptographic sizes for
136 some obsolete CPUs.
138 * The option --disable-assembly now disables all inlined asm.
140 * Fixed bug affecting mini-gmp's bitwise functions mpz_setbit, mpz_clrbit,
141 and mpz_combit.
143 * Various problems related to precision for mpf have been fixed.
145 * Fixed ABI incompatible stack alignment in calls from assembly code.
147 * Fixed PIC bug in popcount affecting Intel processors using the 32-bit ABI.
150 * Speedup for Intel Broadwell and Skylake through assembly code making use of
151 new ADX instructions.
153 * Square root is now faster when the remainder is not needed. Also the speed
154 to compute the k-th root improved, for small sizes.
156 * Improved arm64 support.
159 * New C++ functions gcd and lcm for mpz_class.
161 * New public mpn functions mpn_divexact_1, mpn_zero_p, and mpn_cnd_swap.
163 * New public mpq_cmp_z function, to efficiently compare rationals with
166 * Support for Darwin in all x86 code, thereby enabling fat builds on Darwin.
168 * Support for more 32-bit arm processors.
170 * Support for compilation with clang/llvm on more platforms. Caution: GMP
171 triggers mis-compilation bugs in clang for many platforms, such as arm, x86
172 (32-bit and 64-bit), powerpc, mips.
174 * Support for AVX-less modern x86 CPUs. (Such support might be missing either
175 because the CPU vendor chose to disable AVX, or because the running kernel
176 lacks AVX context switch support.)
178 * Stack usage trimmed; we believe 512 KiB is now sufficient for any GMP
179 call, irrespective of operand size.
181 * Support for NetBSD under Xen; we switch off AVX unconditionally under
182 NetBSD since a bug in NetBSD makes AVX fail under Xen.
185 * We now use manufacturers' code names for x86 CPUs, e.g., "haswell" instead
186 of names derived from the commercial brands.
188 * Small improvements and better coverage for the test suite.
190 * The various FreeBSD problems listed for 6.0.0 affect this release too.
192 * Tuned values for FFT multiplications are provided for larger number on
193 many platforms.
195 Changes between GMP version 5.1.* and 6.0.0
197 BUGS FIXED
198 * The function mpz_invert now considers any number invertible in Z/1Z.
200 * The mpn multiply code now handles operands of more than 2^31 limbs
201 correctly. (Note however that the mpz code is limited to 2^32 bits on
202 32-bit hosts and 2^37 bits on 64-bit hosts.)
204 * Contains all fixes from release 5.1.3.
207 * Plain division of large operands is faster and more monotonous in operand
210 * Major speedup for ARM, in particular ARM Cortex-A15, thanks to improved
213 * Major speedup for SPARC T4/T5 and speedup also for T3, thanks to a lot of
214 new assembly.
216 * Speedup for Intel Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge, Haswell, thanks to rewritten
217 and vastly expanded assembly support. Speedup also for the older Core 2
218 and Nehalem.
220 * Faster mixed arithmetic between mpq_class and double.
222 * With g++, optimise more operations when one argument is a simple constant.
225 * Support for new Intel and AMD CPUs.
227 * Support for ARM64 alias Aarch64 alias ARMv8.
229 * New public functions mpn_sec_mul and mpn_sec_sqr, implementing side-channel
230 silent multiplication and squaring.
232 * New public functions mpn_sec_div_qr and mpn_sec_div_r, implementing
233 side-channel silent division.
235 * New public functions mpn_cnd_add_n and mpn_cnd_sub_n. Side-channel silent
236 conditional addition and subtraction.
238 * New public function mpn_sec_powm, implementing side-channel silent modexp.
240 * New public function mpn_sec_invert, implementing side-channel silent
241 modular inversion.
243 * Better support for applications which use the mpz_t type, but nevertheless
244 need to call some of the lower-level mpn functions. See the documentation
245 for mpz_limbs_read and related functions.
248 * This release will not work on NetBSD 5.x, FreeBSD 7.x, 8.x or 9 series
249 before 9.3. The reason is that the m4 command is not correctly
250 implemented. (Workaround: Use an older GMP release, or install GNU m4 from
251 /usr/ports and tell GMP to use it.)
253 * This release will not build properly on FreeBSD/amd64 before version 10
254 using the 32-bit ABI (once a working m4 is installed). The reason is
255 broken limits.h. (Workaround: Use an older GMP release if using the 32-bit
256 ABI on these FreeBSD releases is important.)
258 * This release will not work reliably on FreeBSD 10.0 for i386 or amd64 using
259 the 32-bit ABI. The reason is bugs in the compiler 'clang'. Depending on
260 CPU-dependent compiler flags, GMP may or may not be miscompiled in a
261 particular build. (Workaround: Compiling gcc from /usr/ports should work,
262 except that gcc circularly depends on GMP; we have not been able to test
263 that workaround due to FreeBSD 10.0 bugs affecting its ability to run under
264 KVM and Xen.)
266 * This release will not compile on FreeBSD before version 10 for i386,
267 targeting any modern AMD processor. The reason is bugs in the old gcc
268 bundled with FreeBSD. (Workaround: install a less obsolete gcc from
269 /usr/ports and tell GMP to use it, or override the -march=amdfam10
270 GMP configure command line argument.)
273 Changes between GMP version 5.1.2 and 5.1.3
275 BUGS FIXED
276 * The internal functions mpn_sbpi1_div_qr_sec mpn_sbpi1_div_r_sec could
277 compute garbage with a low probability. They are now rewritten, and the
278 test code has been improved.
280 * A bug in the ia64 implementation of mpn_divrem_2, clobbering some
281 callee-save registers, has been fixed. This is an internal
282 function, with the bug manifesting itself as miscomputation in,
283 e.g., mpn_sqrtrem.
285 * The documentation now correctly says 'const' for input arguments.
288 * None.
291 * None.
294 * None.
297 Changes between GMP version 5.1.1 and 5.1.2
299 BUGS FIXED
300 * A bug in mpz_powm_ui triggered by base arguments of at least 15000 decimal
301 digits or mod arguments of at least 7500 decimal digits has been fixed.
303 * An AMD Bulldozer specific bug affecting the 64-bit Windows ABI has been
304 fixed. This bug was in a key function (mpn_mul_1) and made both Bulldozer
305 specific builds and fat builds run on Bulldozer completely non-functional.
308 * None.
311 * None.
314 * Fixes and generalisations to the test suite.
316 * Minor portability enhancements.
319 Changes between GMP version 5.1.0 and 5.1.1
321 BUGS FIXED
322 * On Windows 64-bit, an error causing link errors about
323 __gmp_binvert_limb_table has been fixed.
325 * Aarch64 alias ARM64 support now works.
327 * A possible buffer overrun in mpz_ior has been fixed.
329 * A rare sign flip in mpz_remove has been fixed.
331 * A bug causing problems with mpf numbers with absolute value >= 2^31 has
332 been fixed.
334 * Several bugs in mini-gmp have been fixed.
336 * A bug caused by automake, related to the 'distcheck' target, has been fixed
337 by upgrading the automake used for GMP release engineering.
340 * None.
343 * Preliminary support for the x32 ABI under x86-64.
346 * The mini-gmp testsuite now tests the entire set of functions.
348 * Various improvements of the GMP testsuite.
351 Changes between GMP version 5.0.* and 5.1.0
353 BUGS FIXED
354 * When reading a C++ number (like mpz_class) in an istream reaches the end
355 of the stream, the eofbit is now set.
357 * The result sign of mpz_rootrem's remainder is now always correct.
359 * The mpz_remove function now handles negative divisors.
361 * Contains all fixes from release 5.0.5.
364 * The n-factorial and n-over-k functions have been reimplemented for great
365 speedups for small and large operands.
367 * New subquadratic algorithm for the Kronecker/Jacobi/Legendre symbol.
369 * Major speedup for ARM, in particular ARM Cortex-A9 and A15, thanks to broad
370 assembly support.
372 * Significant speedup for POWER6 and POWER7 thanks to improved assembly.
374 * The performance under M$ Windows' 64-bit ABI has been greatly improved
375 thanks to complete assembly support.
377 * Minor speed improvements of many functions and for many platforms.
380 * Many new CPUs recognised.
382 * New functions for multi-factorials, and primorial: mpz_2fac_ui,
383 mpz_mfac_uiui and mpz_primorial_ui.
385 * The mpz_powm_sec function now uses side-channel silent division for
386 converting into Montgomery residues.
388 * The fat binary mechanism is now more robust in its CPU recognition.
391 * Inclusion of assembly code is now controlled by the configure options
392 --enable-assembly and --disable-assembly. The "none" CPU target is gone.
394 * In C++, the conversions mpq_class->mpz_class, mpf_class->mpz_class and
395 mpf_class->mpq_class are now explicit.
397 * Includes "mini-gmp", a small, portable, but less efficient, implementation
398 of a subset of GMP's mpn and mpz interfaces. Used in GMP bootstrap, but it
399 can also be bundled with applications as a fallback when the real GMP
400 library is unavailable.
402 * The ABIs under AIX are no longer called aix32 and aix64, but mode64 and 32.
403 This is more consistent with other powerpc systems.
405 * The coverage of the testsuite has been improved, using the lcov tool. See
406 also https://gmplib.org/devel/lcov/.
408 * It is now possible to compile GMP using a C++ compiler.
410 * K&R C compilers are no longer supported.
412 * The BSD MP compatibility functions have been removed.
415 Changes between GMP version 5.0.4 and 5.0.5
417 BUGS FIXED
418 * A bug causing AMD 11h processors to be treated like AMD 10h has been fixed.
419 The 11h processors do not correctly handle all 10h (aka K10) instructions,
420 and GMP's use of these instructions results in major miscomputations (not
421 as one would have hoped CPU traps of some 'illegal instruction' sort).
423 * A bug affecting recent Intel Sandy Bridge CPUs resulting in configuration
424 failures has been fixed.
427 * None.
430 * A couple of tests added to the self-check suite.
433 * None.
436 Changes between GMP version 5.0.3 and 5.0.4
438 BUGS FIXED
439 * Thresholds in mpn_powm_sec for both fat and non-fat builds are now used
440 safely, plugging a one-word buffer overrun introduced in the 5.0.3 release
441 (for non-fat) and a multi-word buffer overrun that existed since 5.0 (for
442 fat). (We have not been able to provoke malign stack smashing in any of
443 the ~100 configurations explored by the GMP nightly builds, but the bug
444 should be assumed to be exploitable.)
446 * Two bugs in multiplication code causing incorrect computation with
447 extremely low probability have been fixed.
449 * A bug in the test suite causing buffer overruns during "make check",
450 sometimes leading to subsequent malloc crashes, has been fixed.
452 * Two bugs in the gcd code have been fixed. They could lead to incorrect
453 results, but for uniformly distributed random operands, the likelihood for
454 that is infinitesimally small. (There was also a third bug, but that was
455 an incorrect ASSERT, which furthermore was not enabled by default.)
457 * A bug affecting 32-bit PowerPC division has been fixed. The bug caused
458 miscomputation for certain divisors in the range 2^32 ... 2^64-1 (about 1
459 in 2^30 of these).
462 * None, except indirectly through recognition of new CPUs, and through better
463 tuning parameters.
466 * Some more tests added to the self-check suite.
468 * The AMD "Bulldozer" CPU is now recognised.
471 * None.
474 Changes between GMP version 5.0.2 and 5.0.3
476 BUGS FIXED
477 * A few minor bugs related to portability fixed.
479 * A slight timing leak of the powm_sec functions have been sealed. (This
480 leak could possibly be used to extract the most significant few bits of the
481 exponent. "Few" here means at most 10.)
483 * The mpz_nextprime function now runs a safer number of pseudo-random prime
486 * A bug in division code possibly causing incorrect computation was fixed.
489 * None, except indirectly through recognition of new CPUs, and through better
490 tuning parameters.
493 * New CPUs recognised.
495 * IBM S/390 are now supported in both 31/32-bit and 64-bit mode. (We have
496 not been able to fully test this on any multilib machine, since IBM expired
497 our guest account a few days before our release.)
500 * None.
503 Changes between GMP version 5.0.1 and 5.0.2
505 BUGS FIXED
506 * Many minor bugs related to portability fixed.
508 * The support for HPPA 2.0N now works, after an assembly bug fix.
510 * A test case type error has been fixed. The symptom of this bug was
511 spurious 'make check' failures.
514 * None, except indirectly through recognition of new CPUs.
517 * Fat builds are now supported for 64-bit x86 processors also under Darwin.
520 * None.
523 Changes between GMP version 5.0.0 and 5.0.1
525 BUGS FIXED
526 * Fat builds fixed.
528 * Fixed crash for huge multiplies when old FFT_TABLE2 type of parameter
529 selection tables' sentinel was smaller than multiplied operands.
531 * The solib numbers now reflect the removal of the documented but preliminary
532 mpn_bdivmod function; we correctly flag incompatibility with GMP 4.3. GMP
533 5.0.0 has this wrong, and should perhaps be uninstalled to avoid confusion.
536 * Multiplication of large numbers has indirectly been sped up through better
537 FFT tuning and processor recognition. Since many operations depend on
538 multiplication, there will be a general speedup.
541 * More Core i3, i5 an Core i7 processor models are recognised.
543 * Fixes and workarounds for Mac OS quirks should make this GMP version build
544 using many of the different versions of "Xcode".
547 * The amount of scratch memory needed for multiplication of huge numbers has
548 been reduced substantially (but is still larger than in GMP 4.3.)
550 * Likewise, the amount of scratch memory needed for division of large numbers
551 has been reduced substantially.
553 * The FFT tuning code of tune/tuneup.c has been completely rewritten, and
554 new, large FFT parameter selection tables are provided for many machines.
556 * Upgraded to the latest autoconf, automake, libtool.
559 Changes between GMP version 4.3.X and 5.0.0
561 BUGS FIXED
562 * None (contains the same fixes as release 4.3.2).
565 * Multiplication has been overhauled:
566 (1) Multiplication of larger same size operands has been improved with
567 the addition of two new Toom functions and a new internal function
568 mpn_mulmod_bnm1 (computing U * V mod (B^n-1), B being the word base.
569 This latter function is used for the largest products, waiting for a
570 better Schoenhage-Strassen U * V mod (B^n+1) implementation.
571 (2) Likewise for squaring.
572 (3) Multiplication of different size operands has been improved with the
573 addition of many new Toom function, and by selecting underlying
574 functions better from the main multiply functions.
576 * Division and mod have been overhauled:
577 (1) Plain "schoolbook" division is reimplemented using faster quotient
579 (2) Division Q = N/D, R = N mod D where both the quotient and remainder
580 are needed now runs in time O(M(log(N))). This is an improvement of
581 a factor log(log(N))
582 (3) Division where just the quotient is needed is now O(M(log(Q))) on
584 (4) Modulo operations using Montgomery REDC form now take time O(M(n)).
585 (5) Exact division Q = N/D by means of mpz_divexact has been improved
586 for all sizes, and now runs in time O(M(log(N))).
588 * The function mpz_powm is now faster for all sizes. Its complexity has
589 gone from O(M(n)log(n)m) to O(M(n)m) where n is the size of the modulo
590 argument and m is the size of the exponent. It is also radically
591 faster for even modulus, since it now partially factors such modulus
592 and performs two smaller modexp operations, then uses CRT.
594 * The internal support for multiplication yielding just the lower n limbs
595 has been improved by using Mulders' algorithm.
597 * Computation of inverses, both plain 1/N and 1/N mod B^n have been
598 improved by using well-tuned Newton iterations, and wrap-around
599 multiplication using mpn_mulmod_bnm1.
601 * A new algorithm makes mpz_perfect_power_p asymptotically faster.
603 * The function mpz_remove uses a much faster algorithm, is better tuned,
604 and also benefits from the division improvements.
606 * Intel Atom and VIA Nano specific optimisations.
608 * Plus hundreds of smaller improvements and tweaks!
611 * New mpz function: mpz_powm_sec for side-channel quiet modexp
614 * New mpn functions: mpn_sqr, mpn_and_n, mpn_ior_n, mpn_xor_n, mpn_nand_n,
615 mpn_nior_n, mpn_xnor_n, mpn_andn_n, mpn_iorn_n, mpn_com, mpn_neg,
616 mpn_copyi, mpn_copyd, mpn_zero.
618 * The function mpn_tdiv_qr now allows certain argument overlap.
620 * Support for fat binaries for 64-bit x86 processors has been added.
622 * A new type, mp_bitcnt_t for bignum bit counts, has been introduced.
624 * Support for Windows64 through mingw64 has been added.
626 * The cofactors of mpz_gcdext and mpn_gcdext are now more strictly
627 normalised, returning to how GMP 4.2 worked. (Note that also release
628 4.3.2 has this change.)
631 * The mpn_mul function should no longer be used for squaring,
632 instead use the new mpn_sqr.
634 * The algorithm selection has been improved, the number of thresholds have
635 more than doubled, and the tuning and use of existing thresholds have
636 been improved.
638 * The tune/speed program can measure many of new functions.
640 * The mpn_bdivmod function has been removed. We do not consider this an
641 incompatible change, since the function was marked as preliminary.
643 * The testsuite has been enhanced in various ways.
646 Changes between GMP version 4.3.1 and 4.3.2
649 * Fixed bug in mpf_eq.
650 * Fixed overflow issues in mpz_set_str, mpz_inp_str, mpf_set_str, and
652 * Avoid unbounded stack allocation for unbalanced multiplication.
653 * Fixed bug in FFT multiplication.
656 * None, except that proper processor recognition helps affected processors.
659 * Recognise more "Core 2" processor variants.
660 * The cofactors of mpz_gcdext and mpn_gcdext are now more strictly
661 normalised, returning to how GMP 4.2 worked.
664 Changes between GMP version 4.3.0 and 4.3.1
667 * Fixed bug in mpn_gcdext, affecting also mpz_gcdext and mpz_invert.
668 The bug could cause a cofactor to have a leading zero limb, which
669 could lead to crashes or miscomputation later on.
670 * Fixed some minor documentation issues.
673 * None.
676 * Workarounds for various issues with Mac OS X's build tools.
677 * Recognise more IBM "POWER" processor variants.
680 Changes between GMP version 4.2.X and 4.3.0
683 * Fixed bug in mpz_perfect_power_p with recognition of negative perfect
684 powers that can be written both as an even and odd power.
685 * We might accidentally have added bugs since there is a large amount of
686 new code in this release.
689 * Vastly improved assembly code for x86-64 processors from AMD and Intel.
690 * Major improvements also for many other processor families, such as
691 Alpha, PowerPC, and Itanium.
692 * New sub-quadratic mpn_gcd and mpn_gcdext, as well as improved basecase
693 gcd code.
694 * The multiply FFT code has been slightly improved.
695 * Balanced multiplication now uses 4-way Toom in addition to schoolbook,
696 Karatsuba, 3-way Toom, and FFT.
697 * Unbalanced multiplication has been vastly improved.
698 * Improved schoolbook division by means of faster quotient approximation.
699 * Several new algorithms for division and mod by single limbs, giving
700 many-fold speedups.
701 * Improved nth root computations.
702 * The mpz_nextprime function uses sieving and is much faster.
703 * Countless minor tweaks.
706 * Updated support for fat binaries for x86_32 include current processors
707 * Lots of new mpn internal interfaces. Some of them will become public
708 in a future GMP release.
709 * Support for the 32-bit ABI under x86-apple-darwin.
710 * x86 CPU recognition code should now default better for future
712 * The experimental nails feature does not work in this release, but
713 it might be re-enabled in the future.
716 * The gmp_version variable now always contains three parts. For this
717 release, it is "4.3.0".
720 Changes between GMP version 4.2.3 and 4.2.4
723 * Fix bug with parsing exponent '+' sign in mpf.
724 * Fix an allocation bug in mpf_set_str, also affecting mpf_init_set_str, and
728 * None, except that proper processor recognition helps affected processors.
731 * Recognize new AMD processors.
734 Changes between GMP version 4.2.2 and 4.2.3
737 * Fix x86 CPU recognition code to properly identify recent AMD and Intel
738 64-bit processors.
739 * The >> operator of the C++ wrapper gmpxx.h now does floor rounding, not
741 * Inline semantics now follow the C99 standard, and works with recent GCC
743 * C++ bitwise logical operations work for more types.
744 * For C++, gmp.h now includes cstdio, improving compiler compatibility.
745 * Bases > 36 now work properly in mpf_set_str.
748 * None, except that proper processor recognition helps affected processors.
751 * The allocation functions now detect overflow of the mpz_t type. This means
752 that overflow will now cause an abort, except when the allocation
753 computation itself overflows. (Such overflow can probably only happen in
754 powering functions; we will detect powering overflow in the future.)
757 Changes between GMP version 4.2.1 and 4.2.2
759 * License is now LGPL version 3.
762 * Shared library numbers corrected for libcxx.
763 * Fixed serious bug in gmpxx.h where a=a+b*c would generate garbage.
764 Note that this only affects C++ programs.
765 * Fix crash in mpz_set_d for arguments with large negative exponent.
766 * Fix 32-bit ABI bug with Itanium assembly for popcount and hamdist.
767 * Fix assembly syntax problem for powerpc-ibm-aix with AIX native assembler.
768 * Fix problems with x86 --enable-fat, where the compiler where told to
769 generate code for the build machine, not plain i386 code as it should.
770 * Improved recognition of powerpc systems wrt Altivec/VMX capability.
771 * Misc minor fixes, mainly workarounds for compiler/assembler bugs.
774 * "Core 2" and Pentium 4 processors, running in 64-bit mode will get a
775 slight boost as they are now specifically recognized.
778 * New support for x86_64-solaris
779 * New, rudimentary support for x86-apple-darwin and x86_64-apple-darwin.
780 (Please see https://gmplib.org/macos.html for more information.)
783 Changes between GMP version 4.2 and 4.2.1
786 * Shared library numbers corrected.
787 * Broken support for 32-bit AIX fixed.
788 * Misc minor fixes.
791 * Exact division (mpz_divexact) now falls back to plain division for large
795 * Support for some new systems.
798 Changes between GMP version 4.1.4 and 4.2
801 * Minor bug fixes and code generalizations.
802 * Expanded and improved test suite.
805 * Many minor optimizations, too many to mention here.
806 * Division now always subquadratic.
807 * Computation of n-factorial much faster.
808 * Added basic x86-64 assembly code.
809 * Floating-point output is now subquadratic for all bases.
810 * FFT multiply code now about 25% faster.
811 * Toom3 multiply code faster.
814 * Much improved configure.
815 * Workarounds for many more compiler bugs.
816 * Temporary allocations are now made on the stack only if small.
817 * New systems supported: HPPA-2.0 gcc, IA-64 HP-UX, PowerPC-64 Darwin,
818 Sparc64 GNU/Linux.
819 * New i386 fat binaries, selecting optimised code at runtime (--enable-fat).
820 * New build option: --enable-profiling=instrument.
821 * New memory function: mp_get_memory_functions.
822 * New Mersenne Twister random numbers: gmp_randinit_mt, also now used for
824 * New random functions: gmp_randinit_set, gmp_urandomb_ui, gmp_urandomm_ui.
825 * New integer functions: mpz_combit, mpz_rootrem.
826 * gmp_printf etc new type "M" for mp_limb_t.
827 * gmp_scanf and friends now accept C99 hex floats.
828 * Numeric input and output can now be in bases up to 62.
829 * Comparisons mpz_cmp_d, mpz_cmpabs_d, mpf_cmp_d recognise infinities.
830 * Conversions mpz_get_d, mpq_get_d, mpf_get_d truncate towards zero,
831 previously their behaviour was unspecified.
832 * Fixes for overflow issues with operands >= 2^31 bits.
835 * mpfr is gone, and will from now on be released only separately. Please see
839 Changes between GMP version 4.1.3 and 4.1.4
841 * Bug fix to FFT multiplication code (crash for huge operands).
842 * Bug fix to mpf_sub (miscomputation).
843 * Support for powerpc64-gnu-linux.
844 * Better support for AMD64 in 32-bit mode.
845 * Upwardly binary compatible with 4.1.3, 4.1.2, 4.1.1, 4.1, 4.0.1, 4.0,
846 and 3.x versions.
849 Changes between GMP version 4.1.2 and 4.1.3
851 * Bug fix for FFT multiplication code (miscomputation).
852 * Bug fix to K6 assembly code for gcd.
853 * Bug fix to IA-64 assembly code for population count.
854 * Portability improvements, most notably functional AMD64 support.
855 * mpz_export allows NULL for countp parameter.
856 * Many minor bug fixes.
857 * mpz_export allows NULL for countp parameter.
858 * Upwardly binary compatible with 4.1.2, 4.1.1, 4.1, 4.0.1, 4.0, and 3.x
862 Changes between GMP version 4.1.1 and 4.1.2
864 * Bug fixes.
867 Changes between GMP version 4.1 and 4.1.1
869 * Bug fixes.
870 * New systems supported: NetBSD and OpenBSD sparc64.
873 Changes between GMP version 4.0.1 and 4.1
875 * Bug fixes.
876 * Speed improvements.
877 * Upwardly binary compatible with 4.0, 4.0.1, and 3.x versions.
878 * Asymptotically fast conversion to/from strings (mpz, mpq, mpn levels), but
879 also major speed improvements for tiny operands.
880 * mpn_get_str parameter restrictions relaxed.
881 * Major speed improvements for HPPA 2.0 systems.
882 * Major speed improvements for UltraSPARC systems.
883 * Major speed improvements for IA-64 systems (but still sub-optimal code).
884 * Extended test suite.
885 * mpfr is back, with many bug fixes and portability improvements.
886 * New function: mpz_ui_sub.
887 * New functions: mpz_export, mpz_import.
888 * Optimization for nth root functions (mpz_root, mpz_perfect_power_p).
889 * Optimization for extended gcd (mpz_gcdext, mpz_invert, mpn_gcdext).
890 * Generalized low-level number format, reserving a `nails' part of each
891 limb. (Please note that this is really experimental; some functions
892 are likely to compute garbage when nails are enabled.)
893 * Nails-enabled Alpha 21264 assembly code, allowing up to 75% better
894 performance. (Use --enable-nails=4 to enable it.)
897 Changes between GMP version 4.0 and 4.0.1
899 * Bug fixes.
902 Changes between GMP version 3.1.1 and 4.0
904 * Bug fixes.
905 * Speed improvements.
906 * Upwardly binary compatible with 3.x versions.
907 * New CPU support: IA-64, Pentium 4.
908 * Improved CPU support: 21264, Cray vector systems.
909 * Support for all MIPS ABIs: o32, n32, 64.
910 * New systems supported: Darwin, SCO, Windows DLLs.
911 * New divide-and-conquer square root algorithm.
912 * New algorithms chapter in the manual.
913 * New malloc reentrant temporary memory method.
914 * New C++ class interface by Gerardo Ballabio (beta).
915 * Revamped configure, featuring ABI selection.
916 * Speed improvements for mpz_powm and mpz_powm_ui (mainly affecting small
918 * mpz_perfect_power_p now properly recognizes 0, 1, and negative perfect
920 * mpz_hamdist now supports negative operands.
921 * mpz_jacobi now accepts non-positive denominators.
922 * mpz_powm now supports negative exponents.
923 * mpn_mul_1 operand overlap requirements relaxed.
924 * Float input and output uses locale specific decimal point where available.
925 * New gmp_printf, gmp_scanf and related functions.
926 * New division functions: mpz_cdiv_q_2exp, mpz_cdiv_r_2exp, mpz_divexact_ui.
927 * New divisibility tests: mpz_divisible_p, mpz_divisible_ui_p,
928 mpz_divisible_2exp_p, mpz_congruent_p, mpz_congruent_ui_p,
930 * New Fibonacci function: mpz_fib2_ui.
931 * New Lucas number functions: mpz_lucnum_ui, mpz_lucnum2_ui.
932 * Other new integer functions: mpz_cmp_d, mpz_cmpabs_d, mpz_get_d_2exp,
933 mpz_init2, mpz_kronecker, mpz_lcm_ui, mpz_realloc2.
934 * New rational I/O: mpq_get_str, mpq_inp_str, mpq_out_str, mpq_set_str.
935 * Other new rational functions: mpq_abs, mpq_cmp_si, mpq_div_2exp,
936 mpq_mul_2exp, mpq_set_f.
937 * New float tests: mpf_integer_p, mpf_fits_sint_p, mpf_fits_slong_p,
938 mpf_fits_sshort_p, mpf_fits_uint_p, mpf_fits_ulong_p, mpf_fits_ushort_p.
939 * Other new float functions: mpf_cmp_d, mpf_get_default_prec, mpf_get_si,
940 mpf_get_ui, mpf_get_d_2exp.
941 * New random functions: gmp_randinit_default, gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size.
942 * New demo expression string parser (see demos/expr).
943 * New preliminary perl interface (see demos/perl).
944 * Tuned algorithm thresholds for many more CPUs.
947 Changes between GMP version 3.1 and 3.1.1
949 * Bug fixes for division (rare), mpf_get_str, FFT, and miscellaneous minor
953 Changes between GMP version 3.0 and 3.1
955 * Bug fixes.
956 * Improved `make check' running more tests.
957 * Tuned algorithm cutoff points for many machines. This will improve speed for
958 a lot of operations, in some cases by a large amount.
959 * Major speed improvements: Alpha 21264.
960 * Some speed improvements: Cray vector computers, AMD K6 and Athlon, Intel P5
961 and Pentium Pro/II/III.
962 * The mpf_get_prec function now works as it did in GMP 2.
963 * New utilities for auto-tuning and speed measuring.
964 * Multiplication now optionally uses FFT for very large operands. (To enable
965 it, pass --enable-fft to configure.)
966 * Support for new systems: Solaris running on x86, FreeBSD 5, HP-UX 11, Cray
967 vector computers, Rhapsody, Nextstep/Openstep, MacOS.
968 * Support for shared libraries on 32-bit HPPA.
969 * New integer functions: mpz_mul_si, mpz_odd_p, mpz_even_p.
970 * New Kronecker symbol functions: mpz_kronecker_si, mpz_kronecker_ui,
971 mpz_si_kronecker, mpz_ui_kronecker.
972 * New rational functions: mpq_out_str, mpq_swap.
973 * New float functions: mpf_swap.
974 * New mpn functions: mpn_divexact_by3c, mpn_tdiv_qr.
975 * New EXPERIMENTAL function layer for accurate floating-point arithmetic, mpfr.
976 To try it, pass --enable-mpfr to configure. See the mpfr subdirectory for
977 more information; it is not documented in the main GMP manual.
980 Changes between GMP version 3.0 and 3.0.1
982 * Memory leaks in gmp_randinit and mpz_probab_prime_p fixed.
983 * Documentation for gmp_randinit fixed. Misc documentation errors fixed.
986 Changes between GMP version 2.0 and 3.0
988 * Source level compatibility with past releases (except mpn_gcd).
989 * Bug fixes.
990 * Much improved speed thanks to both host independent and host dependent
992 * Switch to autoconf/automake/libtool.
993 * Support for building libgmp as a shared library.
994 * Multiplication and squaring using 3-way Toom-Cook.
995 * Division using the Burnikel-Ziegler method.
996 * New functions computing binomial coefficients: mpz_bin_ui, mpz_bin_uiui.
997 * New function computing Fibonacci numbers: mpz_fib_ui.
998 * New random number generators: mpf_urandomb, mpz_rrandomb, mpz_urandomb,
999 mpz_urandomm, gmp_randclear, gmp_randinit, gmp_randinit_lc_2exp,
1000 gmp_randseed, gmp_randseed_ui.
1001 * New function for quickly extracting limbs: mpz_getlimbn.
1002 * New functions performing integer size tests: mpz_fits_sint_p,
1003 mpz_fits_slong_p, mpz_fits_sshort_p, mpz_fits_uint_p, mpz_fits_ulong_p,
1005 * New mpf functions: mpf_ceil, mpf_floor, mpf_pow_ui, mpf_trunc.
1006 * New mpq function: mpq_set_d.
1007 * New mpz functions: mpz_addmul_ui, mpz_cmpabs, mpz_cmpabs_ui, mpz_lcm,
1008 mpz_nextprime, mpz_perfect_power_p, mpz_remove, mpz_root, mpz_swap,
1009 mpz_tdiv_ui, mpz_tstbit, mpz_xor.
1010 * New mpn function: mpn_divexact_by3.
1011 * New CPU support: DEC Alpha 21264, AMD K6 and Athlon, HPPA 2.0 and 64,
1012 Intel Pentium Pro and Pentium-II/III, Sparc 64, PowerPC 64.
1013 * Almost 10 times faster mpz_invert and mpn_gcdext.
1014 * The interface of mpn_gcd has changed.
1015 * Better support for MIPS R4x000 and R5000 under Irix 6.
1016 * Improved support for SPARCv8 and SPARCv9 processors.
1019 Changes between GMP version 2.0 and 2.0.2
1021 * Many bug fixes.
1024 Changes between GMP version 1.3.2 and 2.0
1026 * Division routines in the mpz class have changed. There are three classes of
1027 functions, that rounds the quotient to -infinity, 0, and +infinity,
1028 respectively. The first class of functions have names that begin with
1029 mpz_fdiv (f is short for floor), the second class' names begin with mpz_tdiv
1030 (t is short for trunc), and the third class' names begin with mpz_cdiv (c is
1031 short for ceil).
1033 The old division routines beginning with mpz_m are similar to the new
1034 mpz_fdiv, with the exception that some of the new functions return useful
1037 The old function names can still be used. All the old functions names will
1038 now do floor division, not trunc division as some of them used to. This was
1039 changed to make the functions more compatible with common mathematical
1042 The mpz_mod and mpz_mod_ui functions now compute the mathematical mod
1043 function. I.e., the sign of the 2nd argument is ignored.
1045 * The mpq assignment functions do not canonicalize their results. A new
1046 function, mpq_canonicalize must be called by the user if the result is not
1047 known to be canonical.
1048 * The mpn functions are now documented. These functions are intended for
1049 very time critical applications, or applications that need full control over
1050 memory allocation. Note that the mpn interface is irregular and hard to
1052 * New functions for arbitrary precision floating point arithmetic. Names
1053 begin with `mpf_'. Associated type mpf_t.
1054 * New and improved mpz functions, including much faster GCD, fast exact
1055 division (mpz_divexact), bit scan (mpz_scan0 and mpz_scan1), and number
1056 theoretical functions like Jacobi (mpz_jacobi) and multiplicative inverse
1058 * New variable types (mpz_t and mpq_t) are available that makes syntax of
1059 mpz and mpq calls nicer (no need for & before variables). The MP_INT and
1060 MP_RAT types are still available for compatibility.
1061 * Uses GNU configure. This makes it possible to choose target architecture
1062 and CPU variant, and to compile into a separate object directory.
1063 * Carefully optimized assembly for important inner loops. Support for DEC
1064 Alpha, Amd 29000, HPPA 1.0 and 1.1, Intel Pentium and generic x86, Intel
1065 i960, Motorola MC68000, MC68020, MC88100, and MC88110, Motorola/IBM
1066 PowerPC, National NS32000, IBM POWER, MIPS R3000, R4000, SPARCv7,
1067 SuperSPARC, generic SPARCv8, and DEC VAX. Some support also for ARM,
1068 Clipper, IBM ROMP (RT), and Pyramid AP/XP.
1069 * Faster. Thanks to the assembler code, new algorithms, and general tuning.
1070 In particular, the speed on machines without GCC is improved.
1071 * Support for machines without alloca.
1072 * Now under the LGPL.
1074 INCOMPATIBILITIES BETWEEN GMP 1 AND GMP 2
1076 * mpq assignment functions do not canonicalize their results.
1077 * mpz division functions round differently.
1078 * mpz mod functions now really compute mod.
1079 * mpz_powm and mpz_powm_ui now really use mod for reduction.