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1 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
2 Version 2, June 1991
4 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
5 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
6 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
7 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
11 The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
12 freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
13 License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
14 software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
15 General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
16 Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
17 using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
18 the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
19 your programs, too.
21 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
22 price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
23 have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
24 this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
25 if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
26 in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
28 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
29 anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
30 These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
31 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
33 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
34 gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
35 you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
36 source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
39 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
40 (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
41 distribute and/or modify the software.
43 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
44 that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
45 software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
46 want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
47 that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
48 authors' reputations.
50 Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
51 patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
52 program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
53 program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
54 patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
56 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
57 modification follow.
87 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
88 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
90 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
91 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
92 under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
93 refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
94 means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
95 that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
96 either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
97 language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
98 the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
100 Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
101 covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
102 running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
103 is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
104 Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
105 Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
107 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
108 source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
109 conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
110 copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
111 notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
112 and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
113 along with the Program.
115 You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
116 you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
118 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
119 of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
120 distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
121 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
123 a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
124 stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
126 b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
127 whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
128 part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
129 parties under the terms of this License.
131 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
132 when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
133 interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
134 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
135 notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
136 a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
137 these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
138 License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
139 does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
140 the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
155 These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
156 identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
157 and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
158 themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
159 sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
160 distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
161 on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
162 this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
163 entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
165 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
166 your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
167 exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
168 collective works based on the Program.
170 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
171 with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
172 a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
173 the scope of this License.
175 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
176 under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
177 Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
179 a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
180 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
181 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
183 b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
184 years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
185 cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
186 machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
187 distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
188 customarily used for software interchange; or,
190 c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
191 to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
192 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
193 received the program in object code or executable form with such
194 an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
196 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
197 making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
198 code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
199 associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
200 control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
201 special exception, the source code distributed need not include
202 anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
203 form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
204 operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
205 itself accompanies the executable.
207 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
208 access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
209 access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
210 distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
211 compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
223 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
224 except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
225 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
226 void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
227 However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
228 this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
229 parties remain in full compliance.
231 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
232 signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
233 distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
234 prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
235 modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
236 Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
237 all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
238 the Program or works based on it.
240 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
241 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
242 original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
243 these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
244 restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
245 You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
246 this License.
248 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
249 infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
250 conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
251 otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
252 excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
253 distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
254 License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
255 may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
256 license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
257 all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
258 the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
259 refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
261 If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
262 any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
263 apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
266 It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
267 patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
268 such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
269 integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
270 implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
271 generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
272 through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
273 system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
274 to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
275 impose that choice.
277 This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
278 be a consequence of the rest of this License.
291 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
292 certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
293 original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
294 may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
295 those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
296 countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
297 the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
299 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
300 of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
301 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
302 address new problems or concerns.
304 Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
305 specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
306 later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
307 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
308 Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
309 this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
312 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
313 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
314 to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
315 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
316 make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
317 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
318 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
320 NO WARRANTY
322 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
323 FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
324 OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
325 PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
326 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
327 MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
328 TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
329 PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
330 REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
332 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
333 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
334 REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
335 INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
336 OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
337 TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
338 YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
339 PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
340 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
342 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
359 Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
361 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
362 possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
363 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
365 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
366 to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
367 convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
368 the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
370 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
371 Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author>
373 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
374 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
375 the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
376 (at your option) any later version.
378 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
379 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
380 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
381 GNU General Public License for more details.
383 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
384 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
385 Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
387 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
389 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
390 when it starts in an interactive mode:
392 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
393 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
394 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
395 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
397 The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
398 parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
399 be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
400 mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
402 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
403 school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
404 necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
406 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
407 `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
409 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
410 Ty Coon, President of Vice
412 This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
413 proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
414 consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
415 library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
416 Public License instead of this License.