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    1 Installation Instructions
    2 *************************
    3 
    4 Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005,
    5 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    6 
    7    Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
    8 are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
    9 notice and this notice are preserved.  This file is offered as-is,
   10 without warranty of any kind.
   11 
   12 Basic Installation
   13 ==================
   14 
   15    Briefly, the shell commands `./configure; make; make install' should
   16 configure, build, and install this package.  The following
   17 more-detailed instructions are generic; see the `README' file for
   18 instructions specific to this package.  Some packages provide this
   19 `INSTALL' file but do not implement all of the features documented
   20 below.  The lack of an optional feature in a given package is not
   21 necessarily a bug.  More recommendations for GNU packages can be found
   22 in *note Makefile Conventions: (standards)Makefile Conventions.
   23 
   24    The `configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
   25 various system-dependent variables used during compilation.  It uses
   26 those values to create a `Makefile' in each directory of the package.
   27 It may also create one or more `.h' files containing system-dependent
   28 definitions.  Finally, it creates a shell script `config.status' that
   29 you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, and a
   30 file `config.log' containing compiler output (useful mainly for
   31 debugging `configure').
   32 
   33    It can also use an optional file (typically called `config.cache'
   34 and enabled with `--cache-file=config.cache' or simply `-C') that saves
   35 the results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring.  Caching is
   36 disabled by default to prevent problems with accidental use of stale
   37 cache files.
   38 
   39    If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try
   40 to figure out how `configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
   41 diffs or instructions to the address given in the `README' so they can
   42 be considered for the next release.  If you are using the cache, and at
   43 some point `config.cache' contains results you don't want to keep, you
   44 may remove or edit it.
   45 
   46    The file `configure.ac' (or `configure.in') is used to create
   47 `configure' by a program called `autoconf'.  You need `configure.ac' if
   48 you want to change it or regenerate `configure' using a newer version
   49 of `autoconf'.
   50 
   51    The simplest way to compile this package is:
   52 
   53   1. `cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
   54      `./configure' to configure the package for your system.
   55 
   56      Running `configure' might take a while.  While running, it prints
   57      some messages telling which features it is checking for.
   58 
   59   2. Type `make' to compile the package.
   60 
   61   3. Optionally, type `make check' to run any self-tests that come with
   62      the package, generally using the just-built uninstalled binaries.
   63 
   64   4. Type `make install' to install the programs and any data files and
   65      documentation.  When installing into a prefix owned by root, it is
   66      recommended that the package be configured and built as a regular
   67      user, and only the `make install' phase executed with root
   68      privileges.
   69 
   70   5. Optionally, type `make installcheck' to repeat any self-tests, but
   71      this time using the binaries in their final installed location.
   72      This target does not install anything.  Running this target as a
   73      regular user, particularly if the prior `make install' required
   74      root privileges, verifies that the installation completed
   75      correctly.
   76 
   77   6. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
   78      source code directory by typing `make clean'.  To also remove the
   79      files that `configure' created (so you can compile the package for
   80      a different kind of computer), type `make distclean'.  There is
   81      also a `make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
   82      for the package's developers.  If you use it, you may have to get
   83      all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
   84      with the distribution.
   85 
   86   7. Often, you can also type `make uninstall' to remove the installed
   87      files again.  In practice, not all packages have tested that
   88      uninstallation works correctly, even though it is required by the
   89      GNU Coding Standards.
   90 
   91   8. Some packages, particularly those that use Automake, provide `make
   92      distcheck', which can by used by developers to test that all other
   93      targets like `make install' and `make uninstall' work correctly.
   94      This target is generally not run by end users.
   95 
   96 Compilers and Options
   97 =====================
   98 
   99    Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that
  100 the `configure' script does not know about.  Run `./configure --help'
  101 for details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
  102 
  103    You can give `configure' initial values for configuration parameters
  104 by setting variables in the command line or in the environment.  Here
  105 is an example:
  106 
  107      ./configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-g LIBS=-lposix
  108 
  109    *Note Defining Variables::, for more details.
  110 
  111 Compiling For Multiple Architectures
  112 ====================================
  113 
  114    You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
  115 same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
  116 own directory.  To do this, you can use GNU `make'.  `cd' to the
  117 directory where you want the object files and executables to go and run
  118 the `configure' script.  `configure' automatically checks for the
  119 source code in the directory that `configure' is in and in `..'.  This
  120 is known as a "VPATH" build.
  121 
  122    With a non-GNU `make', it is safer to compile the package for one
  123 architecture at a time in the source code directory.  After you have
  124 installed the package for one architecture, use `make distclean' before
  125 reconfiguring for another architecture.
  126 
  127    On MacOS X 10.5 and later systems, you can create libraries and
  128 executables that work on multiple system types--known as "fat" or
  129 "universal" binaries--by specifying multiple `-arch' options to the
  130 compiler but only a single `-arch' option to the preprocessor.  Like
  131 this:
  132 
  133      ./configure CC="gcc -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
  134                  CXX="g++ -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
  135                  CPP="gcc -E" CXXCPP="g++ -E"
  136 
  137    This is not guaranteed to produce working output in all cases, you
  138 may have to build one architecture at a time and combine the results
  139 using the `lipo' tool if you have problems.
  140 
  141 Installation Names
  142 ==================
  143 
  144    By default, `make install' installs the package's commands under
  145 `/usr/local/bin', include files under `/usr/local/include', etc.  You
  146 can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving
  147 `configure' the option `--prefix=PREFIX', where PREFIX must be an
  148 absolute file name.
  149 
  150    You can specify separate installation prefixes for
  151 architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files.  If you
  152 pass the option `--exec-prefix=PREFIX' to `configure', the package uses
  153 PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
  154 Documentation and other data files still use the regular prefix.
  155 
  156    In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
  157 options like `--bindir=DIR' to specify different values for particular
  158 kinds of files.  Run `configure --help' for a list of the directories
  159 you can set and what kinds of files go in them.  In general, the
  160 default for these options is expressed in terms of `${prefix}', so that
  161 specifying just `--prefix' will affect all of the other directory
  162 specifications that were not explicitly provided.
  163 
  164    The most portable way to affect installation locations is to pass the
  165 correct locations to `configure'; however, many packages provide one or
  166 both of the following shortcuts of passing variable assignments to the
  167 `make install' command line to change installation locations without
  168 having to reconfigure or recompile.
  169 
  170    The first method involves providing an override variable for each
  171 affected directory.  For example, `make install
  172 prefix=/alternate/directory' will choose an alternate location for all
  173 directory configuration variables that were expressed in terms of
  174 `${prefix}'.  Any directories that were specified during `configure',
  175 but not in terms of `${prefix}', must each be overridden at install
  176 time for the entire installation to be relocated.  The approach of
  177 makefile variable overrides for each directory variable is required by
  178 the GNU Coding Standards, and ideally causes no recompilation.
  179 However, some platforms have known limitations with the semantics of
  180 shared libraries that end up requiring recompilation when using this
  181 method, particularly noticeable in packages that use GNU Libtool.
  182 
  183    The second method involves providing the `DESTDIR' variable.  For
  184 example, `make install DESTDIR=/alternate/directory' will prepend
  185 `/alternate/directory' before all installation names.  The approach of
  186 `DESTDIR' overrides is not required by the GNU Coding Standards, and
  187 does not work on platforms that have drive letters.  On the other hand,
  188 it does better at avoiding recompilation issues, and works well even
  189 when some directory options were not specified in terms of `${prefix}'
  190 at `configure' time.
  191 
  192 Optional Features
  193 =================
  194 
  195    If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
  196 with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving `configure' the
  197 option `--program-prefix=PREFIX' or `--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
  198 
  199    Some packages pay attention to `--enable-FEATURE' options to
  200 `configure', where FEATURE indicates an optional part of the package.
  201 They may also pay attention to `--with-PACKAGE' options, where PACKAGE
  202 is something like `gnu-as' or `x' (for the X Window System).  The
  203 `README' should mention any `--enable-' and `--with-' options that the
  204 package recognizes.
  205 
  206    For packages that use the X Window System, `configure' can usually
  207 find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't,
  208 you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and
  209 `--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.
  210 
  211    Some packages offer the ability to configure how verbose the
  212 execution of `make' will be.  For these packages, running `./configure
  213 --enable-silent-rules' sets the default to minimal output, which can be
  214 overridden with `make V=1'; while running `./configure
  215 --disable-silent-rules' sets the default to verbose, which can be
  216 overridden with `make V=0'.
  217 
  218 Particular systems
  219 ==================
  220 
  221    On HP-UX, the default C compiler is not ANSI C compatible.  If GNU
  222 CC is not installed, it is recommended to use the following options in
  223 order to use an ANSI C compiler:
  224 
  225      ./configure CC="cc -Ae -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500"
  226 
  227 and if that doesn't work, install pre-built binaries of GCC for HP-UX.
  228 
  229    On OSF/1 a.k.a. Tru64, some versions of the default C compiler cannot
  230 parse its `<wchar.h>' header file.  The option `-nodtk' can be used as
  231 a workaround.  If GNU CC is not installed, it is therefore recommended
  232 to try
  233 
  234      ./configure CC="cc"
  235 
  236 and if that doesn't work, try
  237 
  238      ./configure CC="cc -nodtk"
  239 
  240    On Solaris, don't put `/usr/ucb' early in your `PATH'.  This
  241 directory contains several dysfunctional programs; working variants of
  242 these programs are available in `/usr/bin'.  So, if you need `/usr/ucb'
  243 in your `PATH', put it _after_ `/usr/bin'.
  244 
  245    On Haiku, software installed for all users goes in `/boot/common',
  246 not `/usr/local'.  It is recommended to use the following options:
  247 
  248      ./configure --prefix=/boot/common
  249 
  250 Specifying the System Type
  251 ==========================
  252 
  253    There may be some features `configure' cannot figure out
  254 automatically, but needs to determine by the type of machine the package
  255 will run on.  Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the
  256 _same_ architectures, `configure' can figure that out, but if it prints
  257 a message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
  258 `--build=TYPE' option.  TYPE can either be a short name for the system
  259 type, such as `sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
  260 
  261      CPU-COMPANY-SYSTEM
  262 
  263 where SYSTEM can have one of these forms:
  264 
  265      OS
  266      KERNEL-OS
  267 
  268    See the file `config.sub' for the possible values of each field.  If
  269 `config.sub' isn't included in this package, then this package doesn't
  270 need to know the machine type.
  271 
  272    If you are _building_ compiler tools for cross-compiling, you should
  273 use the option `--target=TYPE' to select the type of system they will
  274 produce code for.
  275 
  276    If you want to _use_ a cross compiler, that generates code for a
  277 platform different from the build platform, you should specify the
  278 "host" platform (i.e., that on which the generated programs will
  279 eventually be run) with `--host=TYPE'.
  280 
  281 Sharing Defaults
  282 ================
  283 
  284    If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share,
  285 you can create a site shell script called `config.site' that gives
  286 default values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
  287 `configure' looks for `PREFIX/share/config.site' if it exists, then
  288 `PREFIX/etc/config.site' if it exists.  Or, you can set the
  289 `CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
  290 A warning: not all `configure' scripts look for a site script.
  291 
  292 Defining Variables
  293 ==================
  294 
  295    Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
  296 environment passed to `configure'.  However, some packages may run
  297 configure again during the build, and the customized values of these
  298 variables may be lost.  In order to avoid this problem, you should set
  299 them in the `configure' command line, using `VAR=value'.  For example:
  300 
  301      ./configure CC=/usr/local2/bin/gcc
  302 
  303 causes the specified `gcc' to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
  304 overridden in the site shell script).
  305 
  306 Unfortunately, this technique does not work for `CONFIG_SHELL' due to
  307 an Autoconf bug.  Until the bug is fixed you can use this workaround:
  308 
  309      CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash /bin/bash ./configure CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash
  310 
  311 `configure' Invocation
  312 ======================
  313 
  314    `configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
  315 operates.
  316 
  317 `--help'
  318 `-h'
  319      Print a summary of all of the options to `configure', and exit.
  320 
  321 `--help=short'
  322 `--help=recursive'
  323      Print a summary of the options unique to this package's
  324      `configure', and exit.  The `short' variant lists options used
  325      only in the top level, while the `recursive' variant lists options
  326      also present in any nested packages.
  327 
  328 `--version'
  329 `-V'
  330      Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the `configure'
  331      script, and exit.
  332 
  333 `--cache-file=FILE'
  334      Enable the cache: use and save the results of the tests in FILE,
  335      traditionally `config.cache'.  FILE defaults to `/dev/null' to
  336      disable caching.
  337 
  338 `--config-cache'
  339 `-C'
  340      Alias for `--cache-file=config.cache'.
  341 
  342 `--quiet'
  343 `--silent'
  344 `-q'
  345      Do not print messages saying which checks are being made.  To
  346      suppress all normal output, redirect it to `/dev/null' (any error
  347      messages will still be shown).
  348 
  349 `--srcdir=DIR'
  350      Look for the package's source code in directory DIR.  Usually
  351      `configure' can determine that directory automatically.
  352 
  353 `--prefix=DIR'
  354      Use DIR as the installation prefix.  *note Installation Names::
  355      for more details, including other options available for fine-tuning
  356      the installation locations.
  357 
  358 `--no-create'
  359 `-n'
  360      Run the configure checks, but stop before creating any output
  361      files.
  362 
  363 `configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options.  Run
  364 `configure --help' for more details.
  365