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1 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
2 Version 3, 29 June 2007
4 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
5 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
6 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
10 The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for
11 software and other kinds of works.
13 The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed
14 to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast,
15 the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to
16 share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free
17 software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the
18 GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to
19 any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to
20 your programs, too.
22 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
23 price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
24 have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
25 them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you
26 want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new
27 free programs, and that you know you can do these things.
29 To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you
30 these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have
31 certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if
32 you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.
34 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
35 gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same
36 freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive
37 or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they
38 know their rights.
40 Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps:
41 (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License
42 giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.
44 For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains
45 that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users' and
46 authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as
47 changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to
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50 Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run
51 modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer
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56 have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those
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65 make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that
66 patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.
68 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
69 modification follow.
71 TERMS AND CONDITIONS
73 0. Definitions.
75 "This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.
77 "Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of
78 works, such as semiconductor masks.
80 "The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this
81 License. Each licensee is addressed as "you". "Licensees" and
82 "recipients" may be individuals or organizations.
84 To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work
85 in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an
86 exact copy. The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the
87 earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.
89 A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based
90 on the Program.
92 To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without
93 permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for
94 infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a
95 computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying,
96 distribution (with or without modification), making available to the
97 public, and in some countries other activities as well.
99 To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other
100 parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through
101 a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.
103 An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices"
104 to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible
105 feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2)
106 tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the
107 extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the
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112 1. Source Code.
114 The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work
115 for making modifications to it. "Object code" means any non-source
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120 interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that
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123 The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other
124 than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of
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152 same work.
154 2. Basic Permissions.
156 All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of
157 copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated
158 conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited
159 permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a
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161 content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your
162 rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.
164 You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not
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166 in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose
167 of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you
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195 4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.
197 You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you
198 receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
199 appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice;
200 keep intact all notices stating that this License and any
201 non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code;
202 keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all
203 recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.
205 You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey,
206 and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.
208 5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.
210 You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to
211 produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the
212 terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
214 a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified
215 it, and giving a relevant date.
217 b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is
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222 c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this
223 License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This
224 License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7
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228 invalidate such permission if you have separately received it.
230 d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display
231 Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive
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233 work need not make them do so.
235 A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent
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239 "aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not
240 used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users
241 beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work
242 in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other
243 parts of the aggregate.
245 6. Conveying Non-Source Forms.
247 You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms
248 of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the
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250 in one of these ways:
252 a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
253 (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the
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255 customarily used for software interchange.
257 b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
258 (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a
259 written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as
260 long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product
261 model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a
262 copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the
263 product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical
264 medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no
265 more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this
266 conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the
267 Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge.
269 c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the
270 written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This
271 alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and
272 only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord
273 with subsection 6b.
275 d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated
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288 e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided
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295 included in conveying the object code work.
297 A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any
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318 If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or
319 specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as
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327 been installed in ROM).
329 The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a
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332 the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a
333 network may be denied when the modification itself materially and
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337 Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided,
338 in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly
339 documented (and with an implementation available to the public in
340 source code form), and must require no special password or key for
341 unpacking, reading or copying.
343 7. Additional Terms.
345 "Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this
346 License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions.
347 Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall
348 be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent
349 that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions
350 apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately
351 under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by
352 this License without regard to the additional permissions.
354 When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option
355 remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of
356 it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own
357 removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place
358 additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work,
359 for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.
361 Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you
362 add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of
363 that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:
365 a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the
366 terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or
368 b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or
369 author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal
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373 requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in
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385 any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on
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388 All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further
389 restrictions" within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you
390 received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is
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393 a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this
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396 not survive such relicensing or conveying.
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401 where to find the applicable terms.
403 Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the
404 form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions;
405 the above requirements apply either way.
407 8. Termination.
409 You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly
410 provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or
411 modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under
412 this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third
413 paragraph of section 11).
415 However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
416 license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
417 provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
418 finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright
419 holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means
420 prior to 60 days after the cessation.
422 Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
423 reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
424 violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
425 received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
426 copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
427 your receipt of the notice.
429 Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
430 licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
431 this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
432 reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same
433 material under section 10.
435 9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.
437 You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
438 run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work
439 occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
440 to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However,
441 nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
442 modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do
443 not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a
444 covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
446 10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.
448 Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
449 receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
450 propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible
451 for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
453 An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
454 organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
455 organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered
456 work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
457 transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
458 licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could
459 give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
460 Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if
461 the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
463 You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
464 rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may
465 not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of
466 rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation
467 (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
468 any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
469 sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
471 11. Patents.
473 A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
474 License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The
475 work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".
477 A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
478 owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
479 hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
480 by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version,
481 but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
482 consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For
483 purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant
484 patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of
485 this License.
487 Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
488 patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to
489 make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and
490 propagate the contents of its contributor version.
492 In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express
493 agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent
494 (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to
495 sue for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent license to a
496 party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a
497 patent against the party.
499 If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
500 and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
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503 then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
504 available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
505 patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
506 consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
507 license to downstream recipients. "Knowingly relying" means you have
508 actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
509 covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
510 in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
511 country that you have reason to believe are valid.
513 If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
514 arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
515 covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
516 receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
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521 A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
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523 conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
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526 in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
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528 the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
529 parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
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532 for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
533 contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
534 or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
536 Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
537 any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
538 otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
540 12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.
542 If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
543 otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
544 excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a
545 covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
546 License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
547 not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
548 to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
549 the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
550 License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
552 13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.
554 Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
555 permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
556 under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single
557 combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this
558 License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
559 but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License,
560 section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the
561 combination as such.
563 14. Revised Versions of this License.
565 The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
566 the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
567 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
568 address new problems or concerns.
570 Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the
571 Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
572 Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
573 option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
574 version or of any later version published by the Free Software
575 Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the
576 GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
577 by the Free Software Foundation.
579 If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
580 versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's
581 public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
582 to choose that version for the Program.
584 Later license versions may give you additional or different
585 permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
586 author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
587 later version.
589 15. Disclaimer of Warranty.
591 THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
592 APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
593 HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY
594 OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
595 THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
596 PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM
597 IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF
598 ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
600 16. Limitation of Liability.
602 IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
603 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS
604 THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
605 GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
606 USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
607 DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
608 PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS),
609 EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
610 SUCH DAMAGES.
612 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
614 If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
615 above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
616 reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
617 an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
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619 copy of the Program in return for a fee.
621 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
623 How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
625 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
626 possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
627 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
629 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
630 to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
631 state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
632 the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
634 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
635 Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
637 This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
638 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
639 the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
640 (at your option) any later version.
642 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
643 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
644 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
645 GNU General Public License for more details.
647 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
648 along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
650 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
652 If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
653 notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
655 <program> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
656 This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
657 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
658 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
660 The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
661 parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands
662 might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".
664 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
665 if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
666 For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see
669 The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
670 into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you
671 may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
672 the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
673 Public License instead of this License. But first, please read