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    1 Emacs tutorial.  See end for copying conditions.
    2 
    3 Emacs commands generally involve the CONTROL key (sometimes labeled
    4 CTRL or CTL) or the META key (sometimes labeled EDIT or ALT).  Rather than
    5 write that in full each time, we'll use the following abbreviations:
    6 
    7  C-<chr>  means hold the CONTROL key while typing the character <chr>
    8 	  Thus, C-f would be: hold the CONTROL key and type f.
    9  M-<chr>  means hold the META or EDIT or ALT key down while typing <chr>.
   10 	  If there is no META, EDIT or ALT key, instead press and release the
   11 	  ESC key and then type <chr>.  We write <ESC> for the ESC key.
   12 
   13 Important note: to end the Emacs session, type C-x C-c.  (Two characters.)
   14 To quit a partially entered command, type C-g.
   15 The characters ">>" at the left margin indicate directions for you to
   16 try using a command.  For instance:
   17 <<Blank lines inserted around following line by help-with-tutorial>>
   18 [Middle of page left blank for didactic purposes.   Text continues below]
   19 >> Now type C-v (View next screen) to move to the next screen.
   20 	(go ahead, do it by holding down the CONTROL key while typing v).
   21 	From now on, you should do this again whenever you finish
   22 	reading the screen.
   23 
   24 Note that there is an overlap of two lines when you move from screen
   25 to screen; this provides some continuity so you can continue reading
   26 the text.
   27 
   28 The first thing that you need to know is how to move around from place
   29 to place in the text.  You already know how to move forward one screen,
   30 with C-v.  To move backwards one screen, type M-v (hold down the META key
   31 and type v, or type <ESC>v if you do not have a META, EDIT, or ALT key).
   32 
   33 >> Try typing M-v and then C-v, a few times.
   34 
   35 
   36 * SUMMARY
   37 ---------
   38 
   39 The following commands are useful for viewing screenfuls:
   40 
   41 	C-v	Move forward one screenful
   42 	M-v	Move backward one screenful
   43 	C-l	Clear screen and redisplay all the text,
   44 		 moving the text around the cursor
   45 		 to the center of the screen.
   46 		 (That's CONTROL-L, not CONTROL-1.)
   47 
   48 >> Find the cursor, and note what text is near it.  Then type C-l.
   49    Find the cursor again and notice that the same text is still near
   50    the cursor, but now it is in the center of the screen.
   51    If you press C-l again, this piece of text will move to the top of
   52    the screen.  Press C-l again, and it moves to the bottom.
   53 
   54 You can also use the PageUp and PageDn keys to move by screenfuls, if
   55 your terminal has them, but you can edit more efficiently if you use
   56 C-v and M-v.
   57 
   58 
   59 * BASIC CURSOR CONTROL
   60 ----------------------
   61 
   62 Moving from screenful to screenful is useful, but how do you
   63 move to a specific place within the text on the screen?
   64 
   65 There are several ways you can do this.  You can use the arrow keys,
   66 but it's more efficient to keep your hands in the standard position
   67 and use the commands C-p, C-b, C-f, and C-n.  These characters
   68 are equivalent to the four arrow keys, like this:
   69 
   70 			  Previous line, C-p
   71 				  :
   72 				  :
   73    Backward, C-b .... Current cursor position .... Forward, C-f
   74 				  :
   75 				  :
   76 			    Next line, C-n
   77 
   78 >> Move the cursor to the line in the middle of that diagram
   79    using C-n or C-p.  Then type C-l to see the whole diagram
   80    centered in the screen.
   81 
   82 You'll find it easy to remember these letters by words they stand for:
   83 P for previous, N for next, B for backward and F for forward.  You
   84 will be using these basic cursor positioning commands all the time.
   85 
   86 >> Do a few C-n's to bring the cursor down to this line.
   87 
   88 >> Move into the line with C-f's and then up with C-p's.
   89    See what C-p does when the cursor is in the middle of the line.
   90 
   91 Each line of text ends with a Newline character, which serves to
   92 separate it from the following line.  (Normally, the last line in
   93 a file will have a Newline at the end, but Emacs does not require it.)
   94 
   95 >> Try to C-b at the beginning of a line.  It should move to
   96    the end of the previous line.  This is because it moves back
   97    across the Newline character.
   98 
   99 C-f can move across a Newline just like C-b.
  100 
  101 >> Do a few more C-b's, so you get a feel for where the cursor is.
  102    Then do C-f's to return to the end of the line.
  103    Then do one more C-f to move to the following line.
  104 
  105 When you move past the top or bottom of the screen, the text beyond
  106 the edge shifts onto the screen.  This is called "scrolling".  It
  107 enables Emacs to move the cursor to the specified place in the text
  108 without moving it off the screen.
  109 
  110 >> Try to move the cursor off the bottom of the screen with C-n, and
  111    see what happens.
  112 
  113 If moving by characters is too slow, you can move by words.  M-f
  114 (META-f) moves forward a word and M-b moves back a word.
  115 
  116 >> Type a few M-f's and M-b's.
  117 
  118 When you are in the middle of a word, M-f moves to the end of the word.
  119 When you are in whitespace between words, M-f moves to the end of the
  120 following word.  M-b works likewise in the opposite direction.
  121 
  122 >> Type M-f and M-b a few times, interspersed with C-f's and C-b's
  123    so that you can observe the action of M-f and M-b from various
  124    places inside and between words.
  125 
  126 Notice the parallel between C-f and C-b on the one hand, and M-f and
  127 M-b on the other hand.  Very often Meta characters are used for
  128 operations related to the units defined by language (words, sentences,
  129 paragraphs), while Control characters operate on basic units that are
  130 independent of what you are editing (characters, lines, etc).
  131 
  132 This parallel applies between lines and sentences: C-a and C-e move to
  133 the beginning or end of a line, and M-a and M-e move to the beginning
  134 or end of a sentence.
  135 
  136 >> Try a couple of C-a's, and then a couple of C-e's.
  137    Try a couple of M-a's, and then a couple of M-e's.
  138 
  139 See how repeated C-a's do nothing, but repeated M-a's keep moving one
  140 more sentence.  Although these are not quite analogous, each one seems
  141 natural.
  142 
  143 The location of the cursor in the text is also called "point".  To
  144 paraphrase, the cursor shows on the screen where point is located in
  145 the text.
  146 
  147 Here is a summary of simple cursor-moving operations, including the
  148 word and sentence moving commands:
  149 
  150 	C-f	Move forward a character
  151 	C-b	Move backward a character
  152 
  153 	M-f	Move forward a word
  154 	M-b	Move backward a word
  155 
  156 	C-n	Move to next line
  157 	C-p	Move to previous line
  158 
  159 	C-a	Move to beginning of line
  160 	C-e	Move to end of line
  161 
  162 	M-a	Move back to beginning of sentence
  163 	M-e	Move forward to end of sentence
  164 
  165 >> Try all of these commands now a few times for practice.
  166    These are the most often used commands.
  167 
  168 Two other important cursor motion commands are M-< (META Less-than),
  169 which moves to the beginning of the whole text, and M-> (META
  170 Greater-than), which moves to the end of the whole text.
  171 
  172 On most terminals, the "<" is above the comma, so you must use the
  173 shift key to type it.  On these terminals you must use the shift key
  174 to type M-< also; without the shift key, you would be typing M-comma.
  175 
  176 >> Try M-< now, to move to the beginning of the tutorial.
  177    Then use C-v repeatedly to move back here.
  178 
  179 >> Try M-> now, to move to the end of the tutorial.
  180    Then use M-v repeatedly to move back here.
  181 
  182 You can also move the cursor with the arrow keys, if your terminal has
  183 arrow keys.  We recommend learning C-b, C-f, C-n and C-p for three
  184 reasons.  First, they work on all kinds of terminals.  Second, once
  185 you gain practice at using Emacs, you will find that typing these Control
  186 characters is faster than typing the arrow keys (because you do not
  187 have to move your hands away from touch-typing position).  Third, once
  188 you form the habit of using these Control character commands, you can
  189 easily learn to use other advanced cursor motion commands as well.
  190 
  191 Most Emacs commands accept a numeric argument; for most commands, this
  192 serves as a repeat-count.  The way you give a command a repeat count
  193 is by typing C-u and then the digits before you type the command.  If
  194 you have a META (or EDIT or ALT) key, there is another, alternative way
  195 to enter a numeric argument: type the digits while holding down the
  196 META key.  We recommend learning the C-u method because it works on
  197 any terminal.  The numeric argument is also called a "prefix argument",
  198 because you type the argument before the command it applies to.
  199 
  200 For instance, C-u 8 C-f moves forward eight characters.
  201 
  202 >> Try using C-n or C-p with a numeric argument, to move the cursor
  203    to a line near this one with just one command.
  204 
  205 Most commands use the numeric argument as a repeat count, but some
  206 commands use it in some other way.  Several commands (but none of
  207 those you have learned so far) use it as a flag--the presence of a
  208 prefix argument, regardless of its value, makes the command do
  209 something different.
  210 
  211 C-v and M-v are another kind of exception.  When given an argument,
  212 they scroll the text up or down by that many lines, rather than by a
  213 screenful.  For example, C-u 8 C-v scrolls by 8 lines.
  214 
  215 >> Try typing C-u 8 C-v now.
  216 
  217 This should have scrolled the text up by 8 lines.  If you would like
  218 to scroll it down again, you can give an argument to M-v.
  219 
  220 If you are using a graphical display, such as X or MS-Windows, there
  221 should be a tall rectangular area called a scroll bar on one side of
  222 the Emacs window.  You can scroll the text by clicking the mouse in
  223 the scroll bar.
  224 
  225 If your mouse has a wheel button, you can also use this to scroll.
  226 
  227 
  228 * IF EMACS STOPS RESPONDING
  229 ---------------------------
  230 
  231 If Emacs stops responding to your commands, you can stop it safely by
  232 typing C-g.  You can use C-g to stop a command which is taking too
  233 long to execute.
  234 
  235 You can also use C-g to discard a numeric argument or the beginning of
  236 a command that you do not want to finish.
  237 
  238 >> Type C-u 100 to make a numeric argument of 100, then type C-g.
  239    Now type C-f.  It should move just one character, because you
  240    canceled the argument with C-g.
  241 
  242 If you have typed an <ESC> by mistake, you can get rid of it with a C-g.
  243 
  244 
  245 * DISABLED COMMANDS
  246 -------------------
  247 
  248 Some Emacs commands are "disabled" so that beginning users cannot use
  249 them by accident.
  250 
  251 If you type one of the disabled commands, Emacs displays a message
  252 saying what the command was, and asking you whether you want to go
  253 ahead and execute the command.
  254 
  255 If you really want to try the command, type <SPC> (the Space bar) in
  256 answer to the question.  Normally, if you do not want to execute the
  257 disabled command, answer the question with "n".
  258 
  259 >> Type C-x C-l (which is a disabled command),
  260    then type n to answer the question.
  261 
  262 
  263 * WINDOWS
  264 ---------
  265 
  266 Emacs can have several "windows", each displaying its own text.  We
  267 will explain later on how to use multiple windows.  Right now we want
  268 to explain how to get rid of extra windows and go back to basic
  269 one-window editing.  It is simple:
  270 
  271 	C-x 1	One window (i.e., kill all other windows).
  272 
  273 That is CONTROL-x followed by the digit 1.  C-x 1 expands the window
  274 which contains the cursor, to occupy the full screen.  It deletes all
  275 other windows.
  276 
  277 >> Move the cursor to this line and type C-u 0 C-l.
  278 >> Type C-h k C-f.
  279    See how this window shrinks, while a new one appears
  280    to display documentation on the C-f command.
  281 
  282 >> Type C-x 1 and see the documentation listing window disappear.
  283 
  284 There is a whole series of commands that start with CONTROL-x; many of
  285 them have to do with windows, files, buffers, and related things.
  286 These commands are two, three or four characters long.
  287 
  288 
  289 * INSERTING AND DELETING
  290 ------------------------
  291 
  292 If you want to insert text, just type the text.  Ordinary characters,
  293 like A, 7, *, etc., are inserted as you type them.  To insert a
  294 Newline character, type <Return> (this is the key on the keyboard
  295 which is sometimes labeled "Enter").
  296 
  297 To delete the character immediately before the current cursor
  298 position, type <DEL>.  This is the key on the keyboard usually labeled
  299 "Backspace"--the same one you normally use, outside Emacs, to delete
  300 the last character typed.
  301 
  302 There may also be another key on your keyboard labeled <Delete>, but
  303 that's not the one we refer to as <DEL>.
  304 
  305 >> Do this now--type a few characters, then delete them by
  306    typing <DEL> a few times.  Don't worry about this file
  307    being changed; you will not alter the master tutorial.
  308    This is your personal copy of it.
  309 
  310 When a line of text gets too big for one line on the screen, the line
  311 of text is "continued" onto a second screen line.  If you're using a
  312 graphical display, little curved arrows appear in the narrow spaces on
  313 each side of the text area (the left and right "fringes"), to indicate
  314 where a line has been continued.  If you're using a text terminal, the
  315 continued line is indicated by a backslash ('\') on the rightmost
  316 screen column.
  317 
  318 >> Insert text until you reach the right margin, and keep on inserting.
  319    You'll see a continuation line appear.
  320 
  321 >> Use <DEL>s to delete the text until the line fits on one screen
  322    line again.  The continuation line goes away.
  323 
  324 You can delete a Newline character just like any other character.
  325 Deleting the Newline character between two lines merges them into
  326 one line.  If the resulting combined line is too long to fit in the
  327 screen width, it will be displayed with a continuation line.
  328 
  329 >> Move the cursor to the beginning of a line and type <DEL>.  This
  330    merges that line with the previous line.
  331 
  332 >> Type <Return> to reinsert the Newline you deleted.
  333 
  334 The <Return> key is special, in that pressing it may do more than
  335 just insert a Newline character.  Depending on the surrounding text,
  336 it may insert whitespace after the Newline character, so that when
  337 you start typing on the newly created line, the text lines up with
  338 that on the previous line.  We call this behavior (where pressing a
  339 key does more than simply inserting the relevant character) "electric".
  340 
  341 >> Here is an example of <Return> being electric.
  342    Type <Return> at the end of this line.
  343 
  344 You should see that after inserting the Newline, Emacs inserts spaces
  345 so that the cursor moves under the "T" of "Type".
  346 
  347 Remember that most Emacs commands can be given a repeat count;
  348 this includes text characters.  Repeating a text character inserts
  349 it several times.
  350 
  351 >> Try that now -- type C-u 8 * to insert ********.
  352 
  353 You've now learned the most basic way of typing something in
  354 Emacs and correcting errors.  You can delete by words or lines
  355 as well.  Here is a summary of the delete operations:
  356 
  357 	<DEL>        Delete the character just before the cursor
  358 	C-d   	     Delete the next character after the cursor
  359 
  360 	M-<DEL>      Kill the word immediately before the cursor
  361 	M-d	     Kill the next word after the cursor
  362 
  363 	C-k	     Kill from the cursor position to end of line
  364 	M-k	     Kill to the end of the current sentence
  365 
  366 Notice that <DEL> and C-d vs M-<DEL> and M-d extend the parallel
  367 started by C-f and M-f (well, <DEL> is not really a control character,
  368 but let's not worry about that).  C-k and M-k are like C-e and M-e,
  369 sort of, in that lines are paired with sentences.
  370 
  371 You can also kill a segment of text with one uniform method.  Move to
  372 one end of that part, and type C-<SPC>.  (<SPC> is the Space bar.)
  373 Next, move the cursor to the other end of the text you intend to kill.
  374 As you do this, Emacs highlights the text between the cursor and the
  375 position where you typed C-<SPC>.  Finally, type C-w.  This kills all
  376 the text between the two positions.
  377 
  378 >> Move the cursor to the Y at the start of the previous paragraph.
  379 >> Type C-<SPC>.  Emacs should display a message "Mark set"
  380    at the bottom of the screen.
  381 >> Move the cursor to the n in "end", on the second line of the
  382    paragraph.
  383 >> Type C-w.  This will kill the text starting from the Y,
  384    and ending just before the n.
  385 
  386 The difference between "killing" and "deleting" is that "killed" text
  387 can be reinserted (at any position), whereas "deleted" things cannot
  388 be reinserted in this way (you can, however, undo a deletion--see
  389 below).  Reinsertion of killed text is called "yanking".  (Think of it
  390 as yanking back, or pulling back, some text that was taken away.)
  391 Generally, the commands that can remove a lot of text kill the text
  392 (they are set up so that you can yank the text), while the commands
  393 that remove just one character, or only remove blank lines and spaces,
  394 do deletion (so you cannot yank that text).  <DEL> and C-d do deletion
  395 in the simplest case, with no argument.  When given an argument, they
  396 kill instead.
  397 
  398 >> Move the cursor to the beginning of a line which is not empty.
  399    Then type C-k to kill the text on that line.
  400 >> Type C-k a second time.  You'll see that it kills the Newline
  401    which follows that line.
  402 
  403 Note that a single C-k kills the contents of the line, and a second
  404 C-k kills the line itself, and makes all the other lines move up.  C-k
  405 treats a numeric argument specially: it kills that many lines AND
  406 their contents.  This is not mere repetition.  C-u 2 C-k kills two
  407 lines and their Newlines; typing C-k twice would not do that.
  408 
  409 You can yank the killed text either at the same place where it was
  410 killed, or at some other place in the text you are editing, or even in
  411 a different file.  You can yank the same text several times; that
  412 makes multiple copies of it.  Some other editors call killing and
  413 yanking "cutting" and "pasting" (see the Glossary in the Emacs
  414 manual).
  415 
  416 The command for yanking is C-y.  It reinserts the last killed text,
  417 at the current cursor position.
  418 
  419 >> Try it; type C-y to yank the text back.
  420 
  421 If you do several C-k's in a row, all of the killed text is saved
  422 together, so that one C-y will yank all of the lines at once.
  423 
  424 >> Do this now, type C-k several times.
  425 
  426 Now to retrieve that killed text:
  427 
  428 >> Type C-y.  Then move the cursor down a few lines and type C-y
  429    again.  You now see how to copy some text.
  430 
  431 What do you do if you have some text you want to yank back, and then
  432 you kill something else?  C-y would yank the more recent kill.  But
  433 the previous text is not lost.  You can get back to it using the M-y
  434 command.  After you have done C-y to get the most recent kill, typing
  435 M-y replaces that yanked text with the previous kill.  Typing M-y
  436 again and again brings in earlier and earlier kills.  When you have
  437 reached the text you are looking for, you do not have to do anything to
  438 keep it.  Just go on with your editing, leaving the yanked text where
  439 it is.
  440 
  441 If you M-y enough times, you come back to the starting point (the most
  442 recent kill).
  443 
  444 >> Kill a line, move around, kill another line.
  445    Then do C-y to get back the second killed line.
  446    Then do M-y and it will be replaced by the first killed line.
  447    Do more M-y's and see what you get.  Keep doing them until
  448    the second kill line comes back, and then a few more.
  449    If you like, you can try giving M-y positive and negative
  450    arguments.
  451 
  452 
  453 * UNDO
  454 ------
  455 
  456 If you make a change to the text, and then decide that it was a
  457 mistake, you can undo the change with the undo command, C-/.
  458 
  459 Normally, C-/ undoes the changes made by one command; if you repeat
  460 C-/ several times in a row, each repetition undoes one more command.
  461 
  462 But there are two exceptions: commands that do not change the text
  463 don't count (this includes cursor motion commands and scrolling
  464 commands), and self-inserting characters are usually handled in groups
  465 of up to 20.  (This is to reduce the number of C-/'s you have to type
  466 to undo insertion of text.)
  467 
  468 >> Kill this line with C-k, then type C-/ and it should reappear.
  469 
  470 C-_ is an alternative undo command; it works exactly the same as C-/.
  471 On some text terminals, typing C-/ actually sends C-_ to Emacs.
  472 Alternatively, C-x u also works exactly like C-/, but is a little less
  473 convenient to type.
  474 
  475 A numeric argument to C-/, C-_, or C-x u acts as a repeat count.
  476 
  477 You can undo deletion of text just as you can undo killing of text.
  478 The distinction between killing something and deleting it affects
  479 whether you can yank it with C-y; it makes no difference for undo.
  480 
  481 
  482 * FILES
  483 -------
  484 
  485 In order to make the text you edit permanent, you must put it in a
  486 file.  Otherwise, it will go away when you exit Emacs.  In order to
  487 put your text in a file, you must "find" the file before you enter the
  488 text.  (This is also called "visiting" the file.)
  489 
  490 Finding a file means that you see the contents of the file within
  491 Emacs.  In many ways, it is as if you were editing the file itself.
  492 However, the changes you make using Emacs do not become permanent
  493 until you "save" the file.  This is so you can avoid leaving a
  494 half-changed file on the system when you do not want to.  Even when
  495 you save, Emacs leaves the original file under a changed name in case
  496 you later decide that your changes were a mistake.
  497 
  498 If you look near the bottom of the screen you will see a line that
  499 begins with dashes, and starts with " -:---  TUTORIAL" or something
  500 like that.  This part of the screen normally shows the name of the
  501 file that you are visiting.  Right now, you are visiting your personal
  502 copy of the Emacs tutorial, which is called "TUTORIAL".  When you find
  503 a file with Emacs, that file's name will appear in that precise spot.
  504 
  505 One special thing about the command for finding a file is that you
  506 have to say what file name you want.  We say the command "reads an
  507 argument" (in this case, the argument is the name of the file).  After
  508 you type the command
  509 
  510 	C-x C-f   Find a file
  511 
  512 Emacs asks you to type the file name.  The file name you type appears
  513 on the bottom line of the screen.  The bottom line is called the
  514 minibuffer when it is used for this sort of input.  You can use
  515 ordinary Emacs editing commands to edit the file name.
  516 
  517 While you are entering the file name (or any minibuffer input),
  518 you can cancel the command with C-g.
  519 
  520 >> Type C-x C-f, then type C-g.  This cancels the minibuffer,
  521    and also cancels the C-x C-f command that was using the
  522    minibuffer.  So you do not find any file.
  523 
  524 When you have finished entering the file name, type <Return> to
  525 terminate it.  The minibuffer disappears, and the C-x C-f command goes
  526 to work to find the file you chose.
  527 
  528 The file contents now appear on the screen, and you can edit the
  529 contents.  When you wish to make your changes permanent, type the
  530 command
  531 
  532 	C-x C-s   Save the file
  533 
  534 This copies the text within Emacs into the file.  The first time you
  535 do this, Emacs renames the original file to a new name so that it is
  536 not lost.  The new name is made by adding "~" to the end of the
  537 original file's name.  When saving is finished, Emacs displays the
  538 name of the file written.
  539 
  540 >> Type C-x C-s TUTORIAL <Return>.
  541    This should save this tutorial to a file named TUTORIAL, and show
  542    "Wrote ...TUTORIAL" at the bottom of the screen.
  543 
  544 You can find an existing file, to view it or edit it.  You can also
  545 find a file which does not already exist.  This is the way to create a
  546 file with Emacs: find the file, which starts out empty, and then begin
  547 inserting the text for the file.  When you ask to "save" the file,
  548 Emacs actually creates the file with the text that you have inserted.
  549 From then on, you can consider yourself to be editing an already
  550 existing file.
  551 
  552 
  553 * BUFFERS
  554 ---------
  555 
  556 If you find a second file with C-x C-f, the first file remains
  557 inside Emacs.  You can switch back to it by finding it again with
  558 C-x C-f.  This way you can get quite a number of files inside Emacs.
  559 
  560 Emacs stores each file's text inside an object called a "buffer".
  561 Finding a file makes a new buffer inside Emacs.  To see a list of the
  562 buffers that currently exist, type
  563 
  564 	C-x C-b   List buffers
  565 
  566 >> Try C-x C-b now.
  567 
  568 See how each buffer has a name, and it may also have a file name for
  569 the file whose contents it holds.  ANY text you see in an Emacs window
  570 is always part of some buffer.
  571 
  572 >> Type C-x 1 to get rid of the buffer list.
  573 
  574 When you have several buffers, only one of them is "current" at any
  575 time.  That buffer is the one you edit.  If you want to edit another
  576 buffer, you need to "switch" to it.  If you want to switch to a buffer
  577 that corresponds to a file, you can do it by visiting the file again
  578 with C-x C-f.  But there is an easier way: use the C-x b command.
  579 In that command, you have to type the buffer's name.
  580 
  581 >> Create a file named "foo" by typing C-x C-f foo <Return>.
  582    Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> to come back to this tutorial.
  583 
  584 Most of the time, the buffer's name is the same as the file name
  585 (without the file directory part).  However, this is not always true.
  586 The buffer list you make with C-x C-b shows you both the buffer name
  587 and the file name of every buffer.
  588 
  589 Some buffers do not correspond to files.  The buffer named
  590 "*Buffer List*", which contains the buffer list that you made with
  591 C-x C-b, does not have any file.  This TUTORIAL buffer initially did
  592 not have a file, but now it does, because in the previous section you
  593 typed C-x C-s and saved it to a file.
  594 
  595 The buffer named "*Messages*" also does not correspond to any file.
  596 This buffer contains the messages that have appeared on the bottom
  597 line during your Emacs session.
  598 
  599 >> Type C-x b *Messages* <Return> to look at the buffer of messages.
  600    Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> to come back to this tutorial.
  601 
  602 If you make changes to the text of one file, then find another file,
  603 this does not save the first file.  Its changes remain inside Emacs,
  604 in that file's buffer.  The creation or editing of the second file's
  605 buffer has no effect on the first file's buffer.  This is very useful,
  606 but it also means that you need a convenient way to save the first
  607 file's buffer.  Having to switch back to that buffer, in order to save
  608 it with C-x C-s, would be a nuisance.  So we have
  609 
  610 	C-x s     Save some buffers
  611 
  612 C-x s asks you about each buffer which contains changes that you have
  613 not saved.  It asks you, for each such buffer, whether to save the
  614 buffer.
  615 
  616 >> Insert a line of text, then type C-x s.
  617    It should ask you whether to save the buffer named TUTORIAL.
  618    Answer yes to the question by typing "y".
  619 
  620 
  621 * EXTENDING THE COMMAND SET
  622 ---------------------------
  623 
  624 There are many, many more Emacs commands than could possibly be put
  625 on all the control and meta characters.  Emacs gets around this with
  626 the X (eXtend) command.  This comes in two flavors:
  627 
  628 	C-x	Character eXtend.  Followed by one character.
  629 	M-x	Named command eXtend.  Followed by a long name.
  630 
  631 These are commands that are generally useful but are used less than the
  632 commands you have already learned about.  You have already seen a few
  633 of them: the file commands C-x C-f to Find and C-x C-s to Save, for
  634 example.  Another example is the command to end the Emacs
  635 session--this is the command C-x C-c.  (Do not worry about losing
  636 changes you have made; C-x C-c offers to save each changed file before
  637 it kills Emacs.)
  638 
  639 If you are using a graphical display, you don't need any special
  640 command to move from Emacs to another application.  You can do this
  641 with the mouse or with window manager commands.  However, if you're
  642 using a text terminal which can only show one application at a time,
  643 you need to "suspend" Emacs to move to any other application.
  644 
  645 C-z is the command to exit Emacs *temporarily*--so that you can go
  646 back to the same Emacs session afterward.  When Emacs is running on a
  647 text terminal, C-z "suspends" Emacs; that is, it returns to the shell
  648 but does not destroy the Emacs job.  In the most common shells, you
  649 can resume Emacs with the "fg" command or with "%emacs".
  650 
  651 The time to use C-x C-c is when you are about to log out.  It's also
  652 the right thing to use to exit an Emacs invoked for a quick edit, such
  653 as by a mail handling utility.
  654 
  655 There are many C-x commands.  Here is a list of the ones you have learned:
  656 
  657 	C-x C-f		Find file
  658 	C-x C-s		Save file
  659 	C-x s		Save some buffers
  660 	C-x C-b		List buffers
  661 	C-x b		Switch buffer
  662 	C-x C-c		Quit Emacs
  663 	C-x 1		Delete all but one window
  664 	C-x u		Undo
  665 
  666 Named eXtended commands are commands which are used even less
  667 frequently, or commands which are used only in certain modes.  An
  668 example is the command replace-string, which replaces one string with
  669 another in the buffer.  When you type M-x, Emacs prompts you at the
  670 bottom of the screen with M-x and you should type the name of the
  671 command; in this case, "replace-string".  Just type "repl s<TAB>" and
  672 Emacs will complete the name.  (<TAB> is the Tab key, usually found
  673 above the CapsLock or Shift key near the left edge of the keyboard.)
  674 Submit the command name with <Return>.
  675 
  676 The replace-string command requires two arguments--the string to be
  677 replaced, and the string to replace it with.  You must end each
  678 argument with <Return>.
  679 
  680 >> Move the cursor to the blank line two lines below this one.
  681    Then type M-x repl s<Return>changed<Return>altered<Return>.
  682 
  683    Notice how this line has changed: you've replaced the word
  684    "changed" with "altered" wherever it occurred, after the
  685    initial position of the cursor.
  686 
  687 
  688 * AUTO SAVE
  689 -----------
  690 
  691 When you have made changes in a file, but you have not saved them yet,
  692 they could be lost if your computer crashes.  To protect you from
  693 this, Emacs periodically writes an "auto save" file for each file that
  694 you are editing.  The auto save file name has a # at the beginning and
  695 the end; for example, if your file is named "hello.c", its auto save
  696 file's name is "#hello.c#".  When you save the file in the normal way,
  697 Emacs deletes its auto save file.
  698 
  699 If the computer crashes, you can recover your auto-saved editing by
  700 finding the file normally (the file you were editing, not the auto
  701 save file) and then typing M-x recover-file <Return>.  When it asks for
  702 confirmation, type yes<Return> to go ahead and recover the auto-save
  703 data.
  704 
  705 
  706 * ECHO AREA
  707 -----------
  708 
  709 If Emacs sees that you are typing multicharacter commands slowly, it
  710 shows them to you at the bottom of the screen in an area called the
  711 "echo area".  The echo area contains the bottom line of the screen.
  712 
  713 
  714 * MODE LINE
  715 -----------
  716 
  717 The line immediately above the echo area is called the "mode line".
  718 The mode line says something like this:
  719 
  720  -:**-  TUTORIAL       63% L749    (Fundamental)
  721 
  722 This line gives useful information about the status of Emacs and
  723 the text you are editing.
  724 
  725 You already know what the filename means--it is the file you have
  726 found.  NN% indicates your current position in the buffer text; it
  727 means that NN percent of the buffer is above the top of the screen.
  728 If the top of the buffer is on the screen, it will say "Top" instead
  729 of " 0%".  If the bottom of the buffer is on the screen, it will say
  730 "Bot".  If you are looking at a buffer so small that all of it fits on
  731 the screen, the mode line says "All".
  732 
  733 The L and digits indicate position in another way: they give the
  734 current line number of point.
  735 
  736 The stars near the front mean that you have made changes to the text.
  737 Right after you visit or save a file, that part of the mode line shows
  738 no stars, just dashes.
  739 
  740 The part of the mode line inside the parentheses is to tell you what
  741 editing modes you are in.  The default mode is Fundamental which is
  742 what you are using now.  It is an example of a "major mode".
  743 
  744 Emacs has many different major modes.  Some of them are meant for
  745 editing different languages and/or kinds of text, such as Lisp mode,
  746 Text mode, etc.  At any time one and only one major mode is active,
  747 and its name can always be found in the mode line just where
  748 "Fundamental" is now.
  749 
  750 Each major mode makes a few commands behave differently.  For example,
  751 there are commands for creating comments in a program, and since each
  752 programming language has a different idea of what a comment should
  753 look like, each major mode has to insert comments differently.  Each
  754 major mode is the name of an extended command, which is how you can
  755 switch to that mode.  For example, M-x fundamental-mode is a command to
  756 switch to Fundamental mode.
  757 
  758 If you are going to be editing human-language text, such as this file, you
  759 should probably use Text Mode.
  760 
  761 >> Type M-x text-mode <Return>.
  762 
  763 Don't worry, none of the Emacs commands you have learned changes in
  764 any great way.  But you can observe that M-f and M-b now treat
  765 apostrophes as part of words.  Previously, in Fundamental mode,
  766 M-f and M-b treated apostrophes as word-separators.
  767 
  768 Major modes usually make subtle changes like that one: most commands
  769 do "the same job" in each major mode, but they work a little bit
  770 differently.
  771 
  772 To view documentation on your current major mode, type C-h m.
  773 
  774 >> Move the cursor to the line following this line.
  775 >> Type C-l C-l to bring this line to the top of screen.
  776 >> Type C-h m, to see how Text mode differs from Fundamental mode.
  777 >> Type C-x 1 to remove the documentation from the screen.
  778 
  779 Major modes are called major because there are also minor modes.
  780 Minor modes are not alternatives to the major modes, just minor
  781 modifications of them.  Each minor mode can be turned on or off by
  782 itself, independent of all other minor modes, and independent of your
  783 major mode.  So you can use no minor modes, or one minor mode, or any
  784 combination of several minor modes.
  785 
  786 One minor mode which is very useful, especially for editing
  787 human-language text, is Auto Fill mode.  When this mode is on, Emacs
  788 breaks the line in between words automatically whenever you insert
  789 text and make a line that is too wide.
  790 
  791 You can turn Auto Fill mode on by doing M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>.
  792 When the mode is on, you can turn it off again by doing
  793 M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>.  If the mode is off, this command turns
  794 it on, and if the mode is on, this command turns it off.  We say that
  795 the command "toggles the mode".
  796 
  797 >> Type M-x auto-fill-mode <Return> now.  Then insert a line of "asdf "
  798    over again until you see it divide into two lines.  You must put in
  799    spaces between them because Auto Fill breaks lines only at spaces.
  800 
  801 The margin is usually set at 70 characters, but you can change it
  802 with the C-x f command.  You should give the margin setting you want
  803 as a numeric argument.
  804 
  805 >> Type C-x f with an argument of 20.  (C-u 2 0 C-x f).
  806    Then type in some text and see Emacs fill lines of 20
  807    characters with it.  Then set the margin back to 70 using
  808    C-x f again.
  809 
  810 If you make changes in the middle of a paragraph, Auto Fill mode
  811 does not re-fill it for you.
  812 To re-fill the paragraph, type M-q (META-q) with the cursor inside
  813 that paragraph.
  814 
  815 >> Move the cursor into the previous paragraph and type M-q.
  816 
  817 
  818 * SEARCHING
  819 -----------
  820 
  821 Emacs can do searches for strings (a "string" is a group of contiguous
  822 characters) either forward through the text or backward through it.
  823 Searching for a string is a cursor motion command; it moves the cursor
  824 to the next place where that string appears.
  825 
  826 The Emacs search command is "incremental".  This means that the
  827 search happens while you type in the string to search for.
  828 
  829 The command to initiate a search is C-s for forward search, and C-r
  830 for reverse search.  BUT WAIT!  Don't try them now.
  831 
  832 When you type C-s you'll notice that the string "I-search" appears as
  833 a prompt in the echo area.  This tells you that Emacs is in what is
  834 called an incremental search waiting for you to type the thing that
  835 you want to search for.  <Return> terminates a search.
  836 
  837 >> Now type C-s to start a search.  SLOWLY, one letter at a time,
  838    type the word "cursor", pausing after you type each
  839    character to notice what happens to the cursor.
  840    Now you have searched for "cursor", once.
  841 >> Type C-s again, to search for the next occurrence of "cursor".
  842 >> Now type <DEL> four times and see how the cursor moves.
  843 >> Type <Return> to terminate the search.
  844 
  845 Did you see what happened?  Emacs, in an incremental search, tries to
  846 go to the occurrence of the string that you've typed out so far.  To
  847 go to the next occurrence of "cursor" just type C-s again.  If no such
  848 occurrence exists, Emacs beeps and tells you the search is currently
  849 "failing".  C-g would also terminate the search.
  850 
  851 If you are in the middle of an incremental search and type <DEL>, the
  852 search "retreats" to an earlier location.  If you type <DEL> just
  853 after you had typed C-s to advance to the next occurrence of a search
  854 string, the <DEL> moves the cursor back to an earlier occurrence.  If
  855 there are no earlier occurrences, the <DEL> erases the last character
  856 in the search string.  For instance, suppose you have typed "c", to
  857 search for the first occurrence of "c".  Now if you type "u", the
  858 cursor will move to the first occurrence of "cu".  Now type <DEL>.
  859 This erases the "u" from the search string, and the cursor moves back
  860 to the first occurrence of "c".
  861 
  862 If you are in the middle of a search and type a control or meta
  863 character (with a few exceptions--characters that are special in a
  864 search, such as C-s and C-r), the search is terminated.
  865 
  866 C-s starts a search that looks for any occurrence of the search string
  867 AFTER the current cursor position.  If you want to search for
  868 something earlier in the text, type C-r instead.  Everything that we
  869 have said about C-s also applies to C-r, except that the direction of
  870 the search is reversed.
  871 
  872 
  873 * MULTIPLE WINDOWS
  874 ------------------
  875 
  876 One of the nice features of Emacs is that you can display more than
  877 one window on the screen at the same time.  (Note that Emacs uses the
  878 term "frames"--described in the next section--for what some other
  879 applications call "windows".  The Emacs manual contains a Glossary of
  880 Emacs terms.)
  881 
  882 >> Move the cursor to this line and type C-l C-l.
  883 
  884 >> Now type C-x 2 which splits the screen into two windows.
  885    Both windows display this tutorial.  The editing cursor stays in
  886    the top window.
  887 
  888 >> Type C-M-v to scroll the bottom window.
  889    (If you do not have a real META key, type <ESC> C-v.)
  890 
  891 >> Type C-x o ("o" for "other") to move the cursor to the bottom window.
  892 >> Use C-v and M-v in the bottom window to scroll it.
  893    Keep reading these directions in the top window.
  894 
  895 >> Type C-x o again to move the cursor back to the top window.
  896    The cursor in the top window is just where it was before.
  897 
  898 You can keep using C-x o to switch between the windows.  The "selected
  899 window", where most editing takes place, is the one with a prominent
  900 cursor which blinks when you are not typing.  The other windows have
  901 their own cursor positions; if you are running Emacs in a graphical
  902 display, those cursors are drawn as unblinking hollow boxes.
  903 
  904 The command C-M-v is very useful when you are editing text in one
  905 window and using the other window just for reference.  Without leaving
  906 the selected window, you can scroll the text in the other window with
  907 C-M-v.
  908 
  909 C-M-v is an example of a CONTROL-META character.  If you have a META
  910 (or Alt) key, you can type C-M-v by holding down both CONTROL and META
  911 while typing v.  It does not matter whether CONTROL or META "comes
  912 first," as both of these keys act by modifying the characters you
  913 type.
  914 
  915 If you do not have a META key, and you use <ESC> instead, the order
  916 does matter: you must type <ESC> followed by CONTROL-v, because
  917 CONTROL-<ESC> v will not work.  This is because <ESC> is a character
  918 in its own right, not a modifier key.
  919 
  920 >> Type C-x 1 (in the top window) to get rid of the bottom window.
  921 
  922 (If you had typed C-x 1 in the bottom window, that would get rid
  923 of the top one.  Think of this command as "Keep just one
  924 window--the window I am already in.")
  925 
  926 You do not have to display the same buffer in both windows.  If you
  927 use C-x C-f to find a file in one window, the other window does not
  928 change.  You can find a file in each window independently.
  929 
  930 Here is another way to use two windows to display two different things:
  931 
  932 >> Type C-x 4 C-f followed by the name of one of your files.
  933    End with <Return>.  See the specified file appear in the bottom
  934    window.  The cursor goes there, too.
  935 
  936 >> Type C-x o to go back to the top window, and C-x 1 to delete
  937    the bottom window.
  938 
  939 
  940 * MULTIPLE FRAMES
  941 ------------------
  942 
  943 Emacs can also create multiple "frames".  A frame is what we call one
  944 collection of windows, together with its menus, scroll bars, echo
  945 area, etc.  On graphical displays, what Emacs calls a "frame" is what
  946 most other applications call a "window".  Multiple graphical frames
  947 can be shown on the screen at the same time.  On a text terminal, only
  948 one frame can be shown at a time.
  949 
  950 >> Type M-x make-frame <Return>.
  951    See a new frame appear on your screen.
  952 
  953 You can do everything you did in the original frame in the new frame.
  954 There is nothing special about the first frame.
  955 
  956 >> Type M-x delete-frame <Return>.
  957    This removes the selected frame.
  958 
  959 You can also remove a frame by using the normal method provided by the
  960 graphical system (often clicking a button with an "X" at a top corner
  961 of the frame).  If you remove the Emacs job's last frame this way,
  962 that exits Emacs.
  963 
  964 
  965 * RECURSIVE EDITING LEVELS
  966 --------------------------
  967 
  968 Sometimes you will get into what is called a "recursive editing
  969 level".  This is indicated by square brackets in the mode line,
  970 surrounding the parentheses around the major mode name.  For
  971 example, you might see [(Fundamental)] instead of (Fundamental).
  972 
  973 To get out of the recursive editing level, type <ESC> <ESC> <ESC>.
  974 That is an all-purpose "get out" command.  You can also use it for
  975 eliminating extra windows, and getting out of the minibuffer.
  976 
  977 >> Type M-x to get into a minibuffer; then type <ESC> <ESC> <ESC> to
  978    get out.
  979 
  980 You cannot use C-g to get out of a recursive editing level.  This is
  981 because C-g is used for canceling commands and arguments WITHIN the
  982 recursive editing level.
  983 
  984 
  985 * GETTING MORE HELP
  986 -------------------
  987 
  988 In this tutorial we have tried to supply just enough information to
  989 get you started using Emacs.  There is so much available in Emacs that
  990 it would be impossible to explain it all here.  However, you may want
  991 to learn more about Emacs since it has many other useful features.
  992 Emacs provides commands for reading documentation about Emacs
  993 commands.  These "help" commands all start with the character
  994 CONTROL-h, which is called "the Help character".
  995 
  996 To use the Help features, type the C-h character, and then a
  997 character saying what kind of help you want.  If you are REALLY lost,
  998 type C-h ? and Emacs will tell you what kinds of help it can give.
  999 If you have typed C-h and decide you do not want any help, just
 1000 type C-g to cancel it.
 1001 
 1002 (If C-h does not display a message about help at the bottom of the
 1003 screen, try typing the F1 key or M-x help <Return> instead.)
 1004 
 1005 The most basic HELP feature is C-h c.  Type C-h, the character c, and
 1006 a command character or sequence; then Emacs displays a very brief
 1007 description of the command.
 1008 
 1009 >> Type C-h c C-p.
 1010 
 1011 The message should be something like this:
 1012 
 1013 	C-p runs the command previous-line
 1014 
 1015 This tells you the "name of the function".  Since function names
 1016 are chosen to indicate what the command does, they can serve as
 1017 very brief documentation--sufficient to remind you of commands you
 1018 have already learned.
 1019 
 1020 Multi-character commands such as C-x C-s and (if you have no META or
 1021 EDIT or ALT key) <ESC>v are also allowed after C-h c.
 1022 
 1023 To get more information about a command, use C-h k instead of C-h c.
 1024 
 1025 >> Type C-h k C-p.
 1026 
 1027 This displays the documentation of the function, as well as its name,
 1028 in an Emacs window.  When you are finished reading the output, type
 1029 C-x 1 to get rid of that window.  You do not have to do this right
 1030 away.  You can do some editing while referring to the help text, and
 1031 then type C-x 1.
 1032 
 1033 Here are some other useful C-h options:
 1034 
 1035    C-h f	Describe a function.  You type in the name of the
 1036 		function.
 1037 
 1038 >> Try typing C-h f previous-line <Return>.
 1039    This displays all the information Emacs has about the
 1040    function which implements the C-p command.
 1041 
 1042 A similar command C-h v displays the documentation of variables,
 1043 including those whose values you can set to customize Emacs behavior.
 1044 You need to type in the name of the variable when Emacs prompts for it.
 1045 
 1046    C-h a	Command Apropos.  Type in a keyword and Emacs will list
 1047 		all the commands whose names contain that keyword.
 1048 		These commands can all be invoked with META-x.
 1049 		For some commands, Command Apropos will also list a one
 1050 		or two character sequence which runs the same command.
 1051 
 1052 >> Type C-h a file <Return>.
 1053 
 1054 This displays in another window a list of all M-x commands with "file"
 1055 in their names.  You will see character-commands listed beside the
 1056 corresponding command names (such as C-x C-f beside find-file).
 1057 
 1058 >> Type C-M-v to scroll the help window.  Do this a few times.
 1059 
 1060 >> Type C-x 1 to delete the help window.
 1061 
 1062    C-h i	Read included Manuals (a.k.a. Info).  This command puts
 1063 		you into a special buffer called "*info*" where you
 1064 		can read manuals for the packages installed on your system.
 1065 		Type m emacs <Return> to read the Emacs manual.
 1066 		If you have never before used Info, type ? and Emacs
 1067 		will take you on a guided tour of Info mode facilities.
 1068 		Once you are through with this tutorial, you should
 1069 		consult the Emacs Info manual as your primary documentation.
 1070 
 1071 
 1072 * MORE FEATURES
 1073 ---------------
 1074 
 1075 You can learn more about Emacs by reading its manual, either as a
 1076 printed book, or inside Emacs (use the Help menu or type C-h r).
 1077 Two features that you may like especially are completion, which saves
 1078 typing, and dired, which simplifies file handling.
 1079 
 1080 Completion is a way to avoid unnecessary typing.  For instance, if you
 1081 want to switch to the *Messages* buffer, you can type C-x b *M<Tab>
 1082 and Emacs will fill in the rest of the buffer name as far as it can
 1083 determine from what you have already typed.  Completion also works for
 1084 command names and file names.  Completion is described in the Emacs
 1085 manual in the node called "Completion".
 1086 
 1087 Dired enables you to list files in a directory (and optionally its
 1088 subdirectories), move around that list, visit, rename, delete and
 1089 otherwise operate on the files.  Dired is described in the Emacs
 1090 manual in the node called "Dired".
 1091 
 1092 The manual also describes many other Emacs features.
 1093 
 1094 
 1095 * CONCLUSION
 1096 ------------
 1097 
 1098 To exit Emacs use C-x C-c.
 1099 
 1100 This tutorial is meant to be understandable to all new users, so if
 1101 you found something unclear, don't sit and blame yourself - complain!
 1102 
 1103 
 1104 * COPYING
 1105 ---------
 1106 
 1107 This tutorial descends from a long line of Emacs tutorials
 1108 starting with the one written by Stuart Cracraft for the original Emacs.
 1109 
 1110 This version of the tutorial is a part of GNU Emacs.  It is copyrighted
 1111 and comes with permission to distribute copies on certain conditions:
 1112 
 1113   Copyright (C) 1985, 1996, 1998, 2001-2017 Free Software Foundation,
 1114   Inc.
 1115 
 1116   This file is part of GNU Emacs.
 1117 
 1118   GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 1119   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 1120   the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 1121   (at your option) any later version.
 1122 
 1123   GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 1124   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 1125   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 1126   GNU General Public License for more details.
 1127 
 1128   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 1129   along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 1130 
 1131 Please read the file COPYING and then do give copies of GNU Emacs to
 1132 your friends.  Help stamp out software obstructionism ("ownership") by
 1133 using, writing, and sharing free software!