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    1 GNU Emacs Installation Guide
    2 Copyright (C) 1992, 1994, 1996-1997, 2000-2018 Free Software Foundation,
    3 Inc.
    4 See the end of the file for license conditions.
    5 
    6 
    7 This file contains general information on building GNU Emacs.
    8 For more information specific to the MS-Windows, GNUstep/macOS, and
    9 MS-DOS ports, also read the files nt/INSTALL, nextstep/INSTALL, and
   10 msdos/INSTALL.  For information about building from a repository checkout
   11 (rather than a release), also read the file INSTALL.REPO.
   12 
   13 
   14 BASIC INSTALLATION
   15 
   16 On most Unix systems, you build Emacs by first running the 'configure'
   17 shell script.  This attempts to deduce the correct values for
   18 various system-dependent variables and features, and find the
   19 directories where certain system headers and libraries are kept.
   20 In a few cases, you may need to explicitly tell configure where to
   21 find some things, or what options to use.
   22 
   23 'configure' creates a 'Makefile' in several subdirectories, and a
   24 'src/config.h' file containing system-dependent definitions.
   25 Running the 'make' utility then builds the package for your system.
   26 
   27 Building Emacs requires GNU make, <https://www.gnu.org/software/make/>.
   28 On most systems that Emacs supports, this is the default 'make' program.
   29 
   30 Here's the procedure to build Emacs using 'configure' on systems which
   31 are supported by it.  In some cases, if the simplified procedure fails,
   32 you might need to use various non-default options, and maybe perform
   33 some of the steps manually.  The more detailed description in the other
   34 sections of this guide will help you do that, so please refer to those
   35 sections if you need to.
   36 
   37   1. Unpacking the Emacs release requires about 200 MB of free
   38   disk space.  Building Emacs uses about another 200 MB of space.
   39   The final installed Emacs uses about 150 MB of disk space.
   40   This includes the space-saving that comes from automatically
   41   compressing the Lisp source files on installation.
   42 
   43   2a. 'cd' to the directory where you unpacked Emacs and invoke the
   44       'configure' script:
   45 
   46 		 ./configure
   47 
   48   2b. Alternatively, create a separate directory, outside the source
   49       directory, where you want to build Emacs, and invoke 'configure'
   50       from there:
   51 
   52 		 SOURCE-DIR/configure
   53 
   54       where SOURCE-DIR is the top-level Emacs source directory.
   55 
   56   3. When 'configure' finishes, it prints several lines of details
   57      about the system configuration.  Read those details carefully
   58      looking for anything suspicious, such as wrong CPU and operating
   59      system names, wrong places for headers or libraries, missing
   60      libraries that you know are installed on your system, etc.
   61 
   62      If you find anything wrong, you may have to pass to 'configure'
   63      one or more options specifying the explicit machine configuration
   64      name, where to find various headers and libraries, etc.
   65      Refer to the section DETAILED BUILDING AND INSTALLATION below.
   66 
   67      If 'configure' didn't find some image support libraries, such as
   68      Xpm and jpeg, refer to "Image support libraries" below.
   69 
   70      If the details printed by 'configure' don't make any sense to
   71      you, but there are no obvious errors, assume that 'configure' did
   72      its job and proceed.
   73 
   74   4. Invoke the 'make' program:
   75 
   76 		 make
   77 
   78   5. If 'make' succeeds, it will build an executable program 'emacs'
   79      in the 'src' directory.  You can try this program, to make sure
   80      it works:
   81 
   82 		 src/emacs -Q
   83 
   84   6. Assuming that the program 'src/emacs' starts and displays its
   85      opening screen, you can install the program and its auxiliary
   86      files into their installation directories:
   87 
   88 		 make install
   89 
   90   You are now ready to use Emacs.  If you wish to conserve disk space,
   91   you may remove the program binaries and object files from the
   92   directory where you built Emacs:
   93 
   94 		 make clean
   95 
   96   You can delete the entire build directory if you do not plan to
   97   build Emacs again, but it can be useful to keep for debugging.
   98   If you want to build Emacs again with different configure options,
   99   first clean the source directories:
  100 
  101 		make distclean
  102 
  103   Note that the install automatically saves space by compressing
  104   (provided you have the 'gzip' program) those installed Lisp source (.el)
  105   files that have corresponding .elc versions, as well as the Info files.
  106 
  107 
  108 ADDITIONAL DISTRIBUTION FILES
  109 
  110 * Complex Text Layout support libraries
  111 
  112 On GNU and Unix systems, Emacs needs the optional libraries "m17n-db",
  113 "libm17n-flt", "libotf" to correctly display such complex scripts as
  114 Indic and Khmer, and also for scripts that require Arabic shaping
  115 support (Arabic and Farsi).  On some systems, particularly GNU/Linux,
  116 these libraries may be already present or available as additional
  117 packages.  Note that if there is a separate 'dev' or 'devel' package,
  118 for use at compilation time rather than run time, you will need that
  119 as well as the corresponding run time package; typically the dev
  120 package will contain header files and a library archive.  Otherwise,
  121 you can download the libraries from <http://www.nongnu.org/m17n/>.
  122 
  123 Note that Emacs cannot support complex scripts on a TTY, unless the
  124 terminal includes such a support.
  125 
  126 * intlfonts-VERSION.tar.gz
  127 
  128 The intlfonts distribution contains X11 fonts in various encodings
  129 that Emacs can use to display international characters.  If you see a
  130 non-ASCII character appear as a hollow box, that means you don't have
  131 a font for it.  You might find one in the intlfonts distribution.  If
  132 you do have a font for a non-ASCII character, but some characters
  133 don't look right, or appear improperly aligned, a font from the
  134 intlfonts distribution might look better.
  135 
  136 The fonts in the intlfonts distribution are also used by the ps-print
  137 package for printing international characters.  The file
  138 lisp/ps-mule.el defines the *.bdf font files required for printing
  139 each character set.
  140 
  141 The intlfonts distribution contains its own installation instructions,
  142 in the intlfonts/README file.
  143 
  144 * Image support libraries
  145 
  146 Emacs needs libraries to display images, with the exception of PBM and
  147 XBM images whose support is built-in.
  148 
  149 On some systems, particularly on GNU/Linux, these libraries may
  150 already be present or available as additional packages.  If
  151 there is a separate 'dev' or 'devel' package, for use at compilation
  152 time rather than run time, you will need that as well as the
  153 corresponding run time package; typically the dev package will
  154 contain header files and a library archive.  Otherwise, you can
  155 download and build libraries from sources.  Although none of them are
  156 essential for running Emacs, some are important enough that
  157 'configure' will report an error if they are absent from a system that
  158 has X11 support, unless 'configure' is specifically told to omit them.
  159 
  160 Here's a list of some of these libraries, and the URLs where they
  161 can be found (in the unlikely event that your distribution does not
  162 provide them).  By default, libraries marked with an X are required if
  163 X11 is being used.
  164 
  165     libXaw3d          https://directory.fsf.org/project/xaw3d/
  166   X libxpm for XPM:   http://www.x.org/releases/current/src/lib/
  167   X libpng for PNG:   http://www.libpng.org/
  168     libz (for PNG):   http://www.zlib.net/
  169   X libjpeg for JPEG: http://www.ijg.org/
  170   X libtiff for TIFF: http://www.remotesensing.org/libtiff/
  171   X libgif for GIF:   http://sourceforge.net/projects/giflib/
  172     librsvg2 for SVG: http://wiki.gnome.org/action/show/Projects/LibRsvg
  173 
  174 If you supply the appropriate --without-LIB option, 'configure' will
  175 omit the corresponding library from Emacs, even if that makes for a
  176 less-pleasant user interface.  Otherwise, Emacs will configure itself
  177 to build with these libraries if 'configure' finds them on your
  178 system, and 'configure' will complain and exit if a library marked 'X'
  179 is not found on a system that uses X11.  Use --without-LIB if your
  180 version of a library won't work because some routines are missing.
  181 
  182 * Extra fonts
  183 
  184 The Emacs distribution does not include fonts and does not install
  185 them.
  186 
  187 On the GNU system, Emacs supports both X fonts and local fonts
  188 (i.e. fonts managed by the fontconfig library).  If you need more
  189 fonts than your distribution normally provides, you must install them
  190 yourself.  See <https://www.gnu.org/software/freefont/> for a large
  191 number of free Unicode fonts.
  192 
  193 * GNU/Linux development packages
  194 
  195 Many GNU/Linux systems do not come with development packages by default;
  196 they include the files that you need to run Emacs, but not those you
  197 need to compile it.  For example, to compile Emacs with support for X
  198 and graphics libraries, you may need to install the X development
  199 package(s), and development versions of the jpeg, png, etc. packages.
  200 
  201 The names of the packages that you need varies according to the
  202 GNU/Linux distribution that you use, and the options that you want to
  203 configure Emacs with.  On Debian-based systems, you can install all the
  204 packages needed to build the installed version of Emacs with a command
  205 like 'apt-get build-dep emacs24'.  On Red Hat systems, the
  206 corresponding command is 'yum-builddep emacs'.
  207 
  208 
  209 DETAILED BUILDING AND INSTALLATION:
  210 
  211 (This is for a Unix or Unix-like system.  For GNUstep and macOS,
  212 see nextstep/INSTALL.  For non-ancient versions of MS Windows, see
  213 the file nt/INSTALL.  For MS-DOS and MS Windows 3.X, see msdos/INSTALL.)
  214 
  215 1) See the basic installation summary above for the disk space requirements.
  216 
  217 2) In the unlikely event that 'configure' does not detect your system
  218 type correctly, consult './etc/MACHINES' to see what --host, --build
  219 options you should pass to 'configure'.  That file also offers hints
  220 for getting around some possible installation problems.
  221 
  222 3) You can build Emacs in the top-level Emacs source directory
  223 or in a separate directory.
  224 
  225 3a) To build in the top-level Emacs source directory, go to that
  226 directory and run the program 'configure' as follows:
  227 
  228     ./configure [--OPTION[=VALUE]] ...
  229 
  230 If 'configure' cannot determine your system type, try again
  231 specifying the proper --build, --host options explicitly.
  232 
  233 If you don't want X support, specify '--with-x=no'.  If you omit this
  234 option, 'configure' will try to figure out for itself whether your
  235 system has X, and arrange to use it if present.
  236 
  237 The '--x-includes=DIR' and '--x-libraries=DIR' options tell the build
  238 process where the compiler should look for the include files and
  239 object libraries used with the X Window System.  Normally, 'configure'
  240 is able to find them; these options are necessary if you have your X
  241 Window System files installed in unusual places.  These options also
  242 accept a list of directories, separated with colons.
  243 
  244 To get more attractive menus, you can specify an X toolkit when you
  245 configure Emacs; use the option '--with-x-toolkit=TOOLKIT', where
  246 TOOLKIT is 'gtk' (the default), 'athena', or 'motif' ('yes' and
  247 'lucid' are synonyms for 'athena').  Compiling with Motif causes a
  248 standard File Selection Dialog to pop up when you invoke file commands
  249 with the mouse.  You can get fancy 3D-style scroll bars, even without
  250 Gtk or Motif, if you have the Xaw3d library installed (see
  251 "Image support libraries" above for Xaw3d availability).
  252 
  253 You can tell configure where to search for GTK by giving it the
  254 argument PKG_CONFIG='/full/name/of/pkg-config'.
  255 
  256 Emacs will autolaunch a D-Bus session bus, when the environment
  257 variable DISPLAY is set, but no session bus is running.  This might be
  258 inconvenient for Emacs when running as daemon or running via a remote
  259 ssh connection.  In order to completely prevent the use of D-Bus, configure
  260 Emacs with the options '--without-dbus --without-gconf --without-gsettings'.
  261 
  262 To read email via a network protocol like IMAP or POP, you can
  263 configure Emacs with the option '--with-mailutils', so that it always
  264 uses the GNU Mailutils 'movemail' program to retrieve mail; this is
  265 the default if GNU Mailutils is installed.  Otherwise the Emacs build
  266 procedure builds and installs an auxiliary 'movemail' program, a
  267 limited and insecure substitute; when this happens, there are several
  268 configure options such as --without-pop that provide fine-grained
  269 control over Emacs 'movemail' construction.
  270 
  271 The Emacs mail reader RMAIL is configured to be able to read mail from
  272 a POP3 server by default.  Versions of the POP protocol older than
  273 POP3 are not supported.  While POP3 support is typically enabled,
  274 whether Emacs actually uses POP3 is controlled by individual users;
  275 see the Rmail chapter of the Emacs manual.  Unless --with-mailutils is
  276 in effect, it is a good idea to configure without POP3 support so that
  277 users are less likely to inadvertently read email via insecure
  278 channels.  On native MS-Windows, --with-pop is the default; on other
  279 platforms, --without-pop is the default.
  280 
  281 For image support you may have to download, build, and install the
  282 appropriate image support libraries for image types other than XBM and
  283 PBM, see the list of URLs in "Image support libraries" above.
  284 (Note that PNG support requires libz in addition to libpng.)
  285 
  286 To disable individual types of image support in Emacs for some reason,
  287 even though configure finds the libraries, you can configure with one
  288 or more of these options:
  289 
  290   --without-xpm          for XPM image support
  291   --without-jpeg         for JPEG image support
  292   --without-tiff         for TIFF image support
  293   --without-gif          for GIF image support
  294   --without-png          for PNG image support
  295   --without-rsvg         for SVG image support
  296   --without-imagemagick  for Imagemagick support
  297 
  298 Use --without-toolkit-scroll-bars to disable Motif or Xaw3d scroll bars.
  299 
  300 Use --without-xim to inhibit the default use of X Input Methods.
  301 In this case, the X resource useXIM can be used to turn on use of XIM.
  302 
  303 Use --disable-largefile to omit support for files larger than 2GB on
  304 systems which support that.
  305 
  306 Use --without-sound to disable sound support.
  307 
  308 Use --without-all for a smaller executable with fewer dependencies on
  309 external libraries, at the cost of disabling many features.  Although
  310 --without-all disables libraries not needed for ordinary Emacs
  311 operation, it does enable X support, and using the GTK2 or GTK3
  312 toolkit creates a lot of library dependencies.  So if you want to
  313 build a small executable with very basic X support, use --without-all
  314 --with-x-toolkit=no.  For the smallest possible executable without X,
  315 use --without-all --without-x.  If you want to build with just a few
  316 features enabled, you can combine --without-all with --with-FEATURE.
  317 For example, you can use --without-all --without-x --with-dbus to
  318 build with D-Bus support and nothing more.
  319 
  320 Use --with-wide-int to implement Emacs values with the type 'long long',
  321 even on hosts where a narrower type would do.  With this option, on a
  322 typical 32-bit host, Emacs integers have 62 bits instead of 30.
  323 
  324 Use --with-cairo to compile Emacs with Cairo drawing.
  325 
  326 Use --with-modules to build Emacs with support for dynamic modules.
  327 This needs a C compiler that supports '__attribute__ ((cleanup (...)))',
  328 as in GCC 3.4 and later.
  329 
  330 Use --enable-gcc-warnings to enable compile-time checks that warn
  331 about possibly-questionable C code.  This is intended for developers
  332 and is useful with GNU-compatible compilers.  On a recent GNU system
  333 there should be no warnings; on older and on non-GNU systems the
  334 generated warnings may still be useful, though you may prefer
  335 configuring with --enable-gcc-warnings=warn-only so they are not
  336 treated as errors.  The default is --enable-gcc-warnings=warn-only if
  337 it appears to be a developer build, and is --disable-gcc-warnings
  338 otherwise.
  339 
  340 Use --disable-silent-rules to cause 'make' to give more details about
  341 the commands it executes.  This can be helpful when debugging a build
  342 that goes awry.  'make V=1' also enables the extra chatter.
  343 
  344 Use --enable-link-time-optimization to enable link-time optimization.
  345 With GCC, you need GCC 4.5.0 and later, and 'configure' arranges for
  346 linking to be parallelized if possible.  With Clang, you need GNU
  347 binutils with the gold linker and plugin support, along with the LLVM
  348 gold plugin <http://llvm.org/docs/GoldPlugin.html>.  Link time
  349 optimization is not the default as it tends to cause crashes and to
  350 make Emacs slower.
  351 
  352 The '--prefix=PREFIXDIR' option specifies where the installation process
  353 should put emacs and its data files.  This defaults to '/usr/local'.
  354 - Emacs (and the other utilities users run) go in PREFIXDIR/bin
  355   (unless the '--exec-prefix' option says otherwise).
  356 - The architecture-independent files go in PREFIXDIR/share/emacs/VERSION
  357   (where VERSION is the version number of Emacs, like '23.2').
  358 - The architecture-dependent files go in
  359   PREFIXDIR/libexec/emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION
  360   (where CONFIGURATION is the configuration name, like
  361   i686-pc-linux-gnu), unless the '--exec-prefix' option says otherwise.
  362 
  363 The '--exec-prefix=EXECDIR' option allows you to specify a separate
  364 portion of the directory tree for installing architecture-specific
  365 files, like executables and utility programs.  If specified,
  366 - Emacs (and the other utilities users run) go in EXECDIR/bin, and
  367 - The architecture-dependent files go in
  368   EXECDIR/libexec/emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION.
  369 EXECDIR/bin should be a directory that is normally in users' PATHs.
  370 
  371 For example, the command
  372 
  373     ./configure --build=i386-linux-gnu --without-sound
  374 
  375 configures Emacs to build for a 32-bit GNU/Linux distribution,
  376 without sound support.
  377 
  378 'configure' doesn't do any compilation or installation itself.
  379 It just creates the files that influence those things:
  380 './Makefile' in the top-level directory and several subdirectories;
  381 and './src/config.h'.
  382 
  383 When it is done, 'configure' prints a description of what it did and
  384 creates a shell script 'config.status' which, when run, recreates the
  385 same configuration.  If 'configure' exits with an error after
  386 disturbing the status quo, it removes 'config.status'.  'configure'
  387 also creates a file 'config.cache' that saves the results of its tests
  388 to make reconfiguring faster, and a file 'config.log' containing compiler
  389 output (useful mainly for debugging 'configure').  You can give
  390 'configure' the option '--cache-file=FILE' to use the results of the
  391 tests in FILE instead of 'config.cache'.  Set FILE to '/dev/null' to
  392 disable caching, for debugging 'configure'.
  393 
  394 If the description of the system configuration printed by 'configure'
  395 is not right, or if it claims some of the features or libraries are not
  396 available when you know they are, look at the 'config.log' file for
  397 the trace of the failed tests performed by 'configure' to check
  398 whether these features are supported.  Typically, some test fails
  399 because the compiler cannot find some function in the system
  400 libraries, or some macro-processor definition in the system headers.
  401 
  402 Some tests might fail because the compiler should look in special
  403 directories for some header files, or link against optional
  404 libraries, or use special compilation options.  You can force
  405 'configure' and the build process which follows it to do that by
  406 setting the variables CPPFLAGS, CFLAGS, LDFLAGS, LIBS, CPP and CC
  407 before running 'configure'.  CPP is the command which invokes the
  408 preprocessor, CPPFLAGS lists the options passed to it, CFLAGS are
  409 compilation options, LDFLAGS are options used when linking, LIBS are
  410 libraries to link against, and CC is the command which invokes the
  411 compiler.  By default, gcc is used if available.
  412 
  413 Here's an example of a 'configure' invocation, assuming a Bourne-like
  414 shell such as Bash, which uses these variables:
  415 
  416   ./configure \
  417     CPPFLAGS='-I/foo/myinclude' LDFLAGS='-L/bar/mylib' \
  418     CFLAGS='-O3' LIBS='-lfoo -lbar'
  419 
  420 (this is all one shell command).  This tells 'configure' to instruct the
  421 preprocessor to look in the '/foo/myinclude' directory for header
  422 files (in addition to the standard directories), instruct the linker
  423 to look in '/bar/mylib' for libraries, pass the -O3 optimization
  424 switch to the compiler, and link against libfoo and libbar
  425 libraries in addition to the standard ones.
  426 
  427 For some libraries, like Gtk+, fontconfig and ALSA, 'configure' uses
  428 pkg-config to find where those libraries are installed.
  429 If you want pkg-config to look in special directories, you have to set
  430 PKG_CONFIG_PATH to point to the directories where the .pc-files for
  431 those libraries are.  For example:
  432 
  433   ./configure \
  434     PKG_CONFIG_PATH='/usr/local/alsa/lib/pkgconfig:/opt/gtk+-2.8/lib/pkgconfig'
  435 
  436 3b) To build in a separate directory, go to that directory
  437 and run the program 'configure' as follows:
  438 
  439     SOURCE-DIR/configure CONFIGURATION-NAME [--OPTION[=VALUE]] ...
  440 
  441 SOURCE-DIR refers to the top-level Emacs source directory which is
  442 where Emacs's configure script is located.  'configure' looks for the
  443 Emacs source code in the directory that 'configure' is in.
  444 
  445 4) Put into './lisp/site-init.el' or './lisp/site-load.el' any Emacs
  446 Lisp code you want Emacs to load before it is dumped out.  Use
  447 site-load.el for additional libraries if you arrange for their
  448 documentation strings to be in the etc/DOC file (see
  449 src/Makefile.in if you wish to figure out how to do that).  For all
  450 else, use site-init.el.  Do not load byte-compiled code which
  451 was built with a non-nil value of 'byte-compile-dynamic'.
  452 
  453 It is not a good idea to edit the normal .el files that come with Emacs.
  454 Instead, use a file like site-init.el to change settings.
  455 
  456 To change the value of a variable that is already defined in Emacs,
  457 you should use the Lisp function 'setq', not 'defvar'.  For example,
  458 
  459      (setq news-inews-program "/usr/bin/inews")
  460 
  461 is how you would override the default value of the variable
  462 news-inews-program.
  463 
  464 Before you override a variable this way, *look at the value* that the
  465 variable gets by default!  Make sure you know what kind of value the
  466 variable should have.  If you don't pay attention to what you are
  467 doing, you'll make a mistake.
  468 
  469 The 'site-*.el' files are nonexistent in the distribution.  You do not
  470 need to create them if you have nothing to put in them.
  471 
  472 5) Refer to the file './etc/TERMS' for information on fields you may
  473 wish to add to various termcap entries.  (This is unlikely to be necessary.)
  474 
  475 6) Run 'make' in the top directory of the Emacs distribution to finish
  476 building Emacs in the standard way.  The final executable file is
  477 named 'src/emacs'.  You can execute this file "in place" without
  478 copying it, if you wish; then it automatically uses the sibling
  479 directories ../lisp, ../lib-src, ../info.
  480 
  481 Or you can "install" the executable and the other files into their
  482 installed locations, with 'make install'.  By default, Emacs's files
  483 are installed in the following directories:
  484 
  485 '/usr/local/bin' holds the executable programs users normally run -
  486 		'emacs', 'etags', 'ctags', 'emacsclient'.
  487 
  488 '/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/lisp' holds the Emacs Lisp library;
  489 		'VERSION' stands for the number of the Emacs version
  490 		you are installing, like '23.1' or '23.2'.  Since the
  491 		Lisp library changes from one version of Emacs to
  492 		another, including the version number in the path
  493 		allows you to have several versions of Emacs installed
  494 		at the same time; in particular, you don't have to
  495 		make Emacs unavailable while installing a new version.
  496 
  497 '/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/etc' holds the Emacs tutorial, the DOC
  498 		file, and other architecture-independent files Emacs
  499 		might need while running.
  500 
  501 '/usr/local/libexec/emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME' contains executable
  502 		programs used by Emacs that users are not expected to
  503 		run themselves.
  504 		'VERSION' is the number of the Emacs version you are
  505 		installing, and 'CONFIGURATION-NAME' is the value
  506 		deduced by the 'configure' program to identify the
  507 		architecture and operating system of your machine,
  508 		like 'i686-pc-linux-gnu' or 'sparc-sun-sunos'.  Since
  509 		these files are specific to the version of Emacs,
  510 		operating system, and architecture in use, including
  511 		the configuration name in the path allows you to have
  512 		several versions of Emacs for any mix of machines and
  513 		operating systems installed at the same time; this is
  514 		useful for sites at which different kinds of machines
  515 		share the file system Emacs is installed on.
  516 
  517 '/usr/local/share/info' holds the on-line documentation for Emacs,
  518 		known as "info files".  Many other GNU programs are
  519 		documented using info files as well, so this directory
  520 		stands apart from the other, Emacs-specific directories.
  521 
  522 '/usr/local/share/man/man1' holds the man pages for the programs installed
  523 		in '/usr/local/bin'.
  524 
  525 Any version of Emacs, whether installed or not, also looks for Lisp
  526 files in these directories.
  527 
  528 '/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/site-lisp' holds the local Emacs Lisp
  529 		files installed for Emacs version VERSION only.
  530 
  531 '/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp' holds the local Emacs Lisp
  532 		files installed for all Emacs versions.
  533 
  534 		When Emacs is installed, it searches for its Lisp files
  535 		in '/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/site-lisp', then in
  536 		'/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp', and finally in
  537 		'/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/lisp'.
  538 
  539 If these directories are not what you want, you can specify where to
  540 install Emacs's libraries and data files or where Emacs should search
  541 for its Lisp files by giving values for 'make' variables as part of
  542 the command.  See the section below called 'MAKE VARIABLES' for more
  543 information on this.
  544 
  545 7) Check the file 'dir' in your site's info directory (usually
  546 /usr/local/share/info) to make sure that it has a menu entry for the
  547 Emacs info files.
  548 
  549 8) If your system uses lock files to interlock access to mailer inbox files,
  550 and if --with-mailutils is not in effect, then you might need to
  551 make the Emacs-specific 'movemail' program setuid or setgid in order
  552 to enable it to write the lock files.  We believe this is safe.
  553 
  554 9) You are done!  You can remove executables and object files from
  555 the build directory by typing 'make clean'.  To also remove the files
  556 that 'configure' created (so you can compile Emacs for a different
  557 configuration), type 'make distclean'.
  558 
  559 
  560 MAKE VARIABLES
  561 
  562 You can change where the build process installs Emacs and its data
  563 files by specifying values for 'make' variables as part of the 'make'
  564 command line.  For example, if you type
  565 
  566     make install bindir=/usr/local/gnubin
  567 
  568 the 'bindir=/usr/local/gnubin' argument indicates that the Emacs
  569 executable files should go in '/usr/local/gnubin', not
  570 '/usr/local/bin'.
  571 
  572 Here is a complete list of the variables you may want to set.
  573 
  574 'bindir' indicates where to put executable programs that users can
  575 	run.  This defaults to /usr/local/bin.
  576 
  577 'datadir' indicates where to put the architecture-independent
  578 	read-only data files that Emacs refers to while it runs; it
  579 	defaults to /usr/local/share.  We create the following
  580 	subdirectories under 'datadir':
  581 	- 'emacs/VERSION/lisp', containing the Emacs Lisp library, and
  582 	- 'emacs/VERSION/etc', containing the tutorials, DOC file, etc.
  583 	'VERSION' is the number of the Emacs version you are installing,
  584 	like '23.1' or '23.2'.  Since these files vary from one version
  585 	of Emacs to another, including the version number in the path
  586 	allows you to have several versions of Emacs installed at the
  587 	same time; this means that you don't have to make Emacs
  588 	unavailable while installing a new version.
  589 
  590 'libexecdir' indicates where to put architecture-specific data files that
  591 	Emacs refers to as it runs; it defaults to '/usr/local/libexec'.
  592 	We create the following subdirectories under 'libexecdir':
  593 	- 'emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME', containing executable
  594 		programs used by Emacs that users are not expected to run
  595 		themselves.
  596 	'VERSION' is the number of the Emacs version you are installing,
  597 	and 'CONFIGURATION-NAME' is the value deduced by the
  598 	'configure' program to identify the architecture and operating
  599 	system of your machine, like 'i686-pc-linux-gnu' or 'sparc-sun-sunos'.
  600 	Since these files are specific to the version of Emacs,
  601 	operating system, and architecture in use, including the
  602 	configuration name in the path allows you to have several
  603 	versions of Emacs for any mix of machines and operating
  604 	systems installed at the same time; this is useful for sites
  605 	at which different kinds of machines share the file system
  606 	Emacs is installed on.
  607 
  608 'infodir' indicates where to put the info files distributed with
  609 	Emacs; it defaults to '/usr/local/share/info'.
  610 
  611 'mandir' indicates where to put the man pages for Emacs and its
  612 	utilities (like 'etags'); it defaults to
  613 	'/usr/local/share/man/man1'.
  614 
  615 'prefix' doesn't give a path for any specific part of Emacs; instead,
  616 	its value is used to determine the defaults for all the
  617 	architecture-independent path variables - 'datadir',
  618 	'sharedstatedir', 'infodir', and 'mandir'.  Its default value is
  619 	'/usr/local'; the other variables add on 'lib' or 'man' to it
  620 	by default.
  621 
  622 	For example, suppose your site generally places GNU software
  623 	under '/usr/users/software/gnusoft' instead of '/usr/local'.
  624 	By including
  625 	    'prefix=/usr/users/software/gnusoft'
  626 	in the arguments to 'make', you can instruct the build process
  627 	to place all of the Emacs data files in the appropriate
  628 	directories under that path.
  629 
  630 'exec_prefix' serves the same purpose as 'prefix', but instead
  631 	determines the default values for the architecture-dependent
  632 	path variables - 'bindir' and 'libexecdir'.
  633 
  634 The above variables serve analogous purposes in the makefiles for all
  635 GNU software; the following variables are specific to Emacs.
  636 
  637 'archlibdir' indicates where Emacs installs and expects the executable
  638 	files and other architecture-dependent data it uses while
  639 	running.  Its default value, based on 'libexecdir' (which
  640 	see), is '/usr/local/libexec/emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME'
  641 	(where VERSION and CONFIGURATION-NAME are as described above).
  642 
  643 'GZIP_PROG' is the name of the executable that compresses installed info,
  644 	manual, and .el files.  It defaults to gzip.  Setting it to
  645 	the empty string suppresses compression.
  646 
  647 Remember that you must specify any variable values you need each time
  648 you run 'make' in the top directory.  If you run 'make' once to build
  649 emacs, test it, and then run 'make' again to install the files, you
  650 must provide the same variable settings each time.  To make the
  651 settings persist, you can edit them into the 'Makefile' in the top
  652 directory, but be aware that running the 'configure' program erases
  653 'Makefile' and rebuilds it from 'Makefile.in'.
  654 
  655 The path for finding Lisp files is specified in src/epaths.h,
  656 a file which is generated by running configure.  To change the path,
  657 you can edit the definition of PATH_LOADSEARCH in that file
  658 before you run 'make'.
  659 
  660 The top-level Makefile stores the variable settings it used in the
  661 Makefiles for the subdirectories, so you don't have to specify them
  662 when running make in the subdirectories.
  663 
  664 
  665 PROBLEMS
  666 
  667 See the file './etc/PROBLEMS' for a list of various problems sometimes
  668 encountered, and what to do about them.
  669 
  670 This file is part of GNU Emacs.
  671 
  672 GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
  673 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  674 the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
  675 (at your option) any later version.
  676 
  677 GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  678 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  679 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
  680 GNU General Public License for more details.
  681 
  682 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  683 along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.