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   38         <H2>5.2 Importing Data: Header File Examples</H2>
   39         <A NAME="IDX212"></A><A NAME="IDX213"></A>
   40 <A NAME="IDX214"></A>
   41 <P>
   42 The examples in this section are divided into three groups: single
   43 variable (a simplified case of record style), record style,
   44 and spreadsheet style.
   45 A review of these examples will provide a good grounding in the use of
   46 the Data Prompter and the creation of header files for importing data
   47 with the General Array Importer.
   48 <P>
   49 The examples in the first group are generally more detailed than those
   50 in the second and third groups.
   51 Since examples often build on previous examples, it is recommended that
   52 you start at the beginning of a group.
   53 <P> The instructional sequence in each example begins with the initial dialog 
   54   box of the Data Prompter. Most examples use the Data Prompter to create a header 
   55   file and each example shows the header file produced. (For the syntax of keyword 
   56   statements in a header file, see <A HREF="qikgu029.htm">5.3 , "Header File Syntax: 
   57   Keyword Statements"</A>.) The command that invokes the Data Prompter and generates 
   58   the initial dialog box is: 
   59 <PRE>
   60 dx -prompter
   61 </PRE>
   62 <P>
   63 <H3><A NAME="Header_125" ></A>Record Style: Single-Variable Data
   64 </H3>
   65 <A NAME="IDX216"></A>
   66 <A NAME="IDX217"></A>
   67 <A NAME="IDX218"></A>
   68 <A NAME="IDX219"></A>
   69 <A NAME="IDX220"></A>
   70 <P>
   71 It is recommended that you treat the first four examples as a unit and
   72 review them in sequence.
   73 <P>
   74 <H4><U>Example 1. Scalar Data on a Regular Grid</U></H4>
   75 <A NAME="IDX221"></A>
   76 <A NAME="IDX222"></A>
   77 <A NAME="IDX223"></A>
   78 <P>
   79 This example illustrates how a simple floating-point scalar field, on a
   80 regular grid, might be imported from a text file named
   81 "record_scalar".
   82 The origin of the grid is &#91;1 3 2&#93;, with deltas of 0.5, 1,
   83 and 0.75 in the x, y, and z directions respectively.
   84 <OL COMPACT>
   85 <LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box,
   86 
   87 choose Grid or Scattered File; then
   88 
   89 select the leftmost button in the
   90 row labeled <TT><STRONG>Grid type</STRONG></TT> (regular grid).
   91 <LI>Confirm that <TT><STRONG>Number of variables</STRONG></TT> is set to
   92 "1" and that the <TT><STRONG>Single time step</STRONG></TT>
   93 toggle button is activated.
   94 <LI>For <TT><STRONG>Data organization</STRONG></TT>, confirm that the
   95 <TT><STRONG>Block</STRONG></TT> (i.e., record) toggle button is
   96 activated.
   97 <LI>Click on
   98 
   99 <TT><STRONG>Describe Data</STRONG></TT>
  100 
  101 to bring up the "simplified"
  102 prompter.
  103 <LI>Enter the path name of the data file in the
  104 <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field:
  105 <PRE>
  106 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_scalar
  107 </PRE>
  108 
  109 <LI>Browse the data file if you like by choosing
  110 <TT><STRONG>Browser</STRONG></TT> from the ellipses to the right of the
  111 <TT><STRONG>Data Field</STRONG></TT> field.
  112 
  113 <LI>Enter the values "5," "8," and "6," in that order,
  114 in the first three <TT><STRONG>Grid size</STRONG></TT>
  115 fields.
  116 The number of data values is 240 (i.e.,
  117 5 &times; 8 &times; 6).
  118 <LI>Confirm that <TT><STRONG>Data format</STRONG></TT> is set to
  119 
  120 ASCII (text).
  121 
  122 <LI>Confirm that <TT><STRONG>Data order</STRONG></TT> is set to Row.
  123 <LI>Finally, set the first three origin-delta pairs (in the
  124 <TT><STRONG>Grid positions</STRONG></TT> section of the
  125 prompter) to: 1.0, 0.5; 3.0, 1.0; and
  126 2.0, 0.75, in that order.
  127 <P>
  128 Since the data order is Row (i.e., last index varies fastest), the first
  129 six data values are associated with positions &#91;1 3 2&#93;,
  130 &#91;1 3 2.75&#93;, &#91;1 3 3.5 &#93;,
  131 &#91;1 3 4.25&#93;, &#91;1 3 5&#93;,
  132 and &#91;1 3 5.75 &#93;.
  133 (If the data are stored so that "last index varies slowest,"
  134 <TT><STRONG>Data order</STRONG></TT> should be set to Column.)
  135 <LI>To save the header file:
  136 <A NAME="SPTEX1A"></A>
  137 <OL COMPACT>
  138 <LI>Select <TT><STRONG>Save As...</STRONG></TT> from the
  139 <TT><STRONG>File</STRONG></TT> pull-down menu.
  140 <LI>When the <TT><STRONG>Save a Data Prompter Header File...</STRONG></TT>
  141 dialog box appears, position the cursor in the
  142 <TT><STRONG>Selection</STRONG></TT> field (at the
  143 point indicated by the carat).
  144 <LI>Enter the name of the file (<TT>record_scalar</TT>).
  145 <LI>Click on <TT><STRONG>OK</STRONG></TT>.
  146 </OL>
  147 The file is saved in your current directory with the extension
  148 "<TT><STRONG>&#46;</STRONG></TT>general" and should look like:
  149 </OL>
  150 <PRE>
  151 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_scalar
  152 grid = 5 x 8 x 6
  153 format = text
  154 interleaving = record
  155 majority = row
  156 field = field0
  157 structure = scalar
  158 type = float
  159 dependency = positions
  160 positions = regular, regular, regular, 1.0, 0.5, 3.0, 1.0, 2.0, .75
  161 end
  162 </PRE>
  163 <P>
  164 Note the information that you have supplied directly (lines 1, 2,
  165 and 10).
  166 
  167 You can visualize the data file using the <TT><STRONG>Visualize
  168 Data</STRONG></TT> button in the initial Data Prompter window.
  169 
  170 <P>
  171 <H4><U>Example 2. Cell-centered Data</U></H4>
  172 <A NAME="IDX224"></A>
  173 <A NAME="IDX225"></A>
  174 <A NAME="IDX226"></A>
  175 <P>
  176 This example involves modifying the header file created
  177 in Example 1.
  178 The important difference is that the data here is cell-centered
  179 (connection dependent):
  180 instead of 240 data values (one for each of the 5 x 8 x 6 positions),
  181 there are 140 values (one for each of the 4 x 7 x 5 connections).
  182 The format is binary.
  183 <P>
  184 <OL COMPACT>
  185 <LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box, click on
  186 
  187 <TT><STRONG>Grid or Scattered File</STRONG></TT>, then
  188 <TT><STRONG>Describe Data</STRONG></TT>,
  189 
  190 to bring up the simplified prompter.
  191 <LI>Select <TT><STRONG>Open</STRONG></TT> from the
  192 <TT><STRONG>File</STRONG></TT>
  193 pull-down menu.
  194 A new dialog box appears called "Open a Data Prompter Header...."
  195 <LI>In the <TT><STRONG>Directories</STRONG></TT> column, highlight the
  196 directory in which you saved the <TT>record_scalar</TT>
  197 header file (if it is not already highlighted).
  198 <LI>Highlight <TT>record_scalar.general</TT> in the
  199 <TT><STRONG>File</STRONG></TT> column, and then click on
  200 <TT><STRONG>OK</STRONG></TT>.
  201 The simplified prompter now displays the information for the
  202 <TT>record_scalar</TT> header file.
  203 <LI>Change the path name in the <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field to:
  204 <PRE>
  205 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_depconnections
  206 </PRE>
  207 <LI>Select <TT><STRONG>Full prompter</STRONG></TT> from the
  208 <TT><STRONG>Options</STRONG></TT> pull-down menu.
  209 <LI>When the <TT><STRONG>Full prompter</STRONG></TT> dialog box appears, change
  210 <TT><STRONG>Dependency</STRONG></TT> from "positions" to
  211 "connections."
  212 To confirm this change, click on <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT> at the
  213 bottom of the dialog box (note the instruction there).
  214 <LI>Repeat Example 1, Step 10 (see above), to save the
  215 header file, which should look like:
  216 </OL>
  217 <PRE>
  218 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_depconnections
  219 grid = 5 x 8 x 6
  220 
  221 format = text
  222 
  223 interleaving = record
  224 majority = row
  225 field = field0
  226 structure = scalar
  227 type = float
  228 dependency = connections
  229 positions = regular, regular, regular, 1, .5, 3, 1.0, 2.0, .75
  230 end
  231 </PRE>
  232 <P>
  233 Note the information that you have supplied directly or changed
  234 (lines 1, 2, 3, and 9).
  235 <P>
  236 <H4><U>Example 3. Data with Header information</U></H4>
  237 <A NAME="IDX227"></A>
  238 <A NAME="IDX228"></A>
  239 <P>
  240 A data file may contain descriptive information in addition to
  241 the data to be imported.
  242 To import only the data, therefore, it is necessary to "skip" such
  243 information when the file is read.
  244 The <TT><STRONG>header</STRONG></TT> keyword statement enables you to do just
  245 that, by specifying a number of bytes or lines to be skipped or
  246 a string to be searched for.
  247 For example, suppose the scalar data field of Example 1 had 3 lines
  248 of descriptive text preceding the data.
  249 <P>
  250 <OL COMPACT>
  251 <LI>As in Example 2 (Steps 2 through 4), open the
  252 <TT>record_scalar</TT> header file.
  253 <LI>Change the path name in the <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field to:
  254 <PRE>
  255 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_withheader
  256 </PRE>
  257 <LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Header</STRONG></TT> toggle button and then click
  258 on the option button just to the right of it.
  259 <LI>From the list that appears, select <TT><STRONG># of lines</STRONG></TT>
  260 and enter the value "3" in the associated text field.
  261 <LI>Repeat Example 1, Step 10 (see <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header
  262 file</A>), to save the
  263 header file, which should look like:
  264 </OL>
  265 <P>
  266 <PRE>
  267 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_withheader
  268 grid = 5 x 8 x 6
  269 format = text
  270 interleaving = record
  271 majority = row
  272 header = lines 3
  273 field = field0
  274 structure = scalar
  275 type = float
  276 dependency = positions
  277 positions = regular, regular, regular, 1, .5, 3, 1.0, 2.0, .75
  278 end
  279 </PRE>
  280 <P>
  281 Note the addition of a <TT><STRONG>header</STRONG></TT> keyword
  282 statement (line 6).
  283 <P>
  284 <H4><U>Example 4. Naming a Field</U></H4>
  285 <A NAME="IDX229"></A>
  286 <A NAME="IDX230"></A>
  287 <A NAME="IDX231"></A>
  288 <P>
  289 By default, the Data Prompter names data fields in numerical order: field0,
  290 field1, and so on.
  291 But a data field can be named with a <TT><STRONG>field</STRONG></TT> keyword
  292 statement.
  293 <P>
  294 Once the data are imported into Data Explorer, you can, for example, extract the
  295 name (using the Attribute module) and include it in a caption (using
  296 the Caption module).
  297 So if there are two types of data (e.g., temperature and pressure),
  298 each can be automatically and appropriately labeled with an
  299 identifying name, thereby "tagging" the associated
  300 data for future reference.
  301 As a result, it is also possible to import a field <I>by name</I>
  302 when there is more than one field.
  303 <P>
  304 For this example suppose that the data in Example 1 are temperature
  305 values (see <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header file</A>).
  306 <OL COMPACT>
  307 <LI>Open the <TT>record_scalar</TT> header file, as in Example 2.
  308 <LI>In the right-hand panel of the prompter, change <TT><STRONG>Field
  309 name</STRONG></TT> from "Field0" to "Temperature."
  310 To confirm this change, click on <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT> at the
  311 bottom of the dialog box (note the instruction there).
  312 <LI>Repeat Example 1, Step 10 (see <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header
  313 file</A>), to save the
  314 header file, which should look like:
  315 </OL>
  316 <P>
  317 <PRE>
  318 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_scalar
  319 grid = 5 x 8 x 6
  320 format = text
  321 interleaving = record
  322 majority = row
  323 field = Temperature
  324 structure = scalar
  325 type = float
  326 dependency = positions
  327 positions = regular, regular, regular, 1, .5, 3, 1.0, 2.0, .75
  328 end
  329 </PRE>
  330 <P>
  331 Note the change in the <TT><STRONG>field</STRONG></TT> keyword statement
  332 (line 6).
  333 <P>
  334 <H4><U>Example 5. Deriving Grid Information from a Data File</U></H4>
  335 <A NAME="IDX232"></A>
  336 <A NAME="IDX233"></A>
  337 <P>
  338 Being able to derive grid information directly from a data file is
  339 particularly useful if you import data with a standard format
  340 but with grid dimensions that vary from data set to
  341 data set.
  342 For example, if the first line of the data file is:
  343 <PRE>
  344       dimensions 100 300
  345 </PRE>
  346 <P>
  347 you can use any of the following <TT><STRONG>grid</STRONG></TT> keyword
  348 statements to obtain the grid dimensions from the data file.
  349 <UL COMPACT>
  350 <LI><TT>grid = lines 0, 11, 3, 1, 3</TT>
  351 <P>
  352 This statement says
  353 <OL COMPACT>
  354 <LI>Skip 0 (zero) lines of the file.
  355 <LI>Skip 11 characters (the word "dimensions" and one space).
  356 <LI>Read the first dimension from 3 characters.
  357 <LI>Skip 1 character.
  358 <LI>Read the second dimension from 3 characters.
  359 </OL>
  360 <LI><TT>grid = bytes 11</TT>
  361 <P>
  362 This statement says to skip 11 characters and begin reading.
  363 <LI><TT>grid = marker "dimensions"</TT>
  364 <P>
  365 This statement says to start reading after the string marker
  366 "dimensions."
  367 </UL>
  368 <P>
  369 See <A HREF="qikgu029.htm#HDRGRIDKWD">"grid"</A>.
  370 See also <A HREF="usrgu067.htm#HDRKWIFDF">B.1 , "General Array Importer: Keyword
  371 Information from Data Files"</A> in <I>IBM Visualization Data Explorer
  372 User&#39;s Guide</I>.
  373 <P><B>Note: </B>This derivation feature is not available with the Data Prompter.
  374 <P>
  375 <H4><U>Examples 6 and 7. Vector Data</U></H4>
  376 <A NAME="IDX234"></A>
  377 <A NAME="IDX235"></A>
  378 <A NAME="IDX236"></A>
  379 <P>
  380 The General Array Importer supports three representations, or
  381 "styles," of vector data: record, record-vector,
  382 and series-vector.
  383 The first two are illustrated here.
  384 For the third, see <A HREF="qikgu029.htm#HDRINTRKWD">"interleaving"</A>.
  385 <P>
  386 Which representation matches the data depends on a characteristic
  387 called <I>interleaving</I>.
  388 <A NAME="IDX237"></A>
  389 <A NAME="IDX238"></A>
  390 <A NAME="IDX239"></A>
  391 In record interleaving, the data for each vector component are stored
  392 together in individual blocks (e.g., <TT>
  393 X<SUB>0</SUB>,
  394 X<SUB>1</SUB>,...,
  395 X<SUB>n</SUB>,
  396 Y<SUB>0</SUB>,
  397 Y<SUB>1</SUB>,...,
  398 Y<SUB>n</SUB></TT>).
  399 In record-vector interleaving, the components of each vector are stored
  400 consecutively (e.g., <TT>
  401 X<SUB>0</SUB>Y<SUB>0</SUB>,
  402 X<SUB>1</SUB>Y<SUB>1</SUB>,...,
  403 X<SUB>n</SUB>Y<SUB>n</SUB></TT>).
  404 <P>
  405 The following pair of examples illustrates the differences between the
  406 two representations and between the header files used to
  407 import them.
  408 The header files are identical in that they both specify a unit
  409 2-vector that parallels the x-axis and is defined on a 5 x 4
  410 regular grid.
  411 That is, the data consists of 20 instances of the vector &#91;1 0&#93;.
  412 <P>
  413 In Example 7, the interleaving style of the data file is
  414 <I>record</I>:
  415 <PRE>
  416 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  417 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  418 1 1 1 1
  419 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  420 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  421 0 0 0 0
  422 </PRE>
  423 <OL COMPACT>
  424 <LI>In the Data Prompter simplified dialog box, select
  425 <TT><STRONG>New</STRONG></TT>
  426 in the <TT><STRONG>File</STRONG></TT> pull-down menu (this selection
  427 clears the dialog box of any information from a previous
  428 file).
  429 <LI>Enter the path name of the data file in the
  430 <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field:
  431 <PRE>
  432 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_vectordata1.
  433 </PRE>
  434 <LI>Enter the values "5" and "4," in that order, in the first
  435 two <TT><STRONG>Grid size</STRONG></TT> fields.
  436 (Note that the origin-delta values default to &#91;0
  437 1&#93;.)
  438 
  439 <LI>Add a field to the Field list by typing a name (e.g. field0) in the
  440 <TT><STRONG>Field name</STRONG></TT> text field, and then pressing the
  441 <TT><STRONG>Add</STRONG></TT> button.
  442 
  443 <LI>Change <TT><STRONG>Type</STRONG></TT> (right-hand panel)
  444 to "int."
  445 <P><B>Note: </B>To implement this change, you must click on
  446 <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT> at the bottom of the
  447 dialog box.
  448 However, you can delay implementation to Step 5, and implement both
  449 steps at the same time.
  450 <LI>Change <TT><STRONG>Structure</STRONG></TT> (right-hand panel)
  451 to "2-vector."
  452 To implement this change, click on <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT> at the
  453 bottom of the dialog box (note the instruction there).
  454 <LI>Step 5 activates the <TT><STRONG>Vector interleaving</STRONG></TT>
  455 button.
  456 Select
  457 <TT>X<SUB>0</SUB>,X<SUB>1</SUB>,...,X<SUB>n</SUB>,Y<SUB>0</SUB>,Y<SUB>1</SUB>,..
  458 .,Y<SUB>n</SUB></TT> (the notation used for record style).
  459 <LI>Repeat Example 1, Step 10 (see <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header
  460 file</A>), to save the
  461 header file, which should look like:
  462 </OL>
  463 <PRE>
  464 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_vectordata1
  465 grid = 5 x 4
  466 format = text
  467 interleaving = record
  468 majority = row
  469 field = field0
  470 structure = 2-vector
  471 type = int
  472 dependency = positions
  473 positions = regular, regular, 0, 1, 0, 1
  474 end
  475 </PRE>
  476 <P>
  477 In Example 7, the interleaving style of the data file is
  478 <I>record-vector</I>:
  479 <P>
  480 <PRE>
  481 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
  482 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
  483 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
  484 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
  485 </PRE>
  486 <OL>
  487 <P><LI>If you have not closed the simplified dialog box from Example 5,
  488 all you need do is:
  489 <OL COMPACT>
  490 <LI>Change the path name for the data file (in the
  491 <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field) to:
  492 <PRE>
  493 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_vectordata2.
  494 </PRE>
  495 <LI>For <TT><STRONG>Vector interleaving</STRONG></TT>, select
  496 <TT>X<SUB>0</SUB>Y<SUB>0</SUB>,X<SUB>1</SUB>Y<SUB>1</SUB>,...,X<SUB>n</SUB>Y<SUB
  497 >n</SUB></TT>
  498 (the notation used for record-vector style).
  499 </OL>
  500 Otherwise you can repeat Example 6 (or open the header file
  501 <TT>record_vectordata1</TT>) and make the appropriate
  502 changes.
  503 <P><LI>Repeat Example 1, Step 10 (see <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header
  504 file</A>), to save the
  505 new header file, which should look like the one shown at the top of
  506 the next page.
  507 </OL>
  508 <PRE>
  509 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_vectordata2
  510 grid = 5 x 4
  511 format = text
  512 interleaving = record-vector
  513 majority = row
  514 field = field0
  515 structure = 2-vector
  516 type = int
  517 dependency = positions
  518 positions = regular, regular, 0, 1, 0, 1
  519 end
  520 </PRE>
  521 <P><B>Note: </B>If the interleaving is not specified, the default is
  522 record-vector.
  523 <P>
  524 <H4><U>Example 8. Series Data</U></H4>
  525 <A NAME="IDX242"></A>
  526 <A NAME="IDX243"></A>
  527 <A NAME="IDX244"></A>
  528 <P>
  529 This example illustrates how a 7-step time series of a single
  530 scalar field might be imported.
  531 The field is on a regular 5 &times; 5 grid, the data are connections
  532 dependent, and the style is record.
  533 <PRE>
  534 # Time-Series Data
  535 Time Step 1
  536 12  9 14  1 10 16  7 20
  537 19  6 11 15 18  8 13 17
  538 Time Step 2
  539 12  9  1 21 10 16  7  1
  540 19  6 11 15 18  8 13 17
  541 Time Step 3
  542 12  1 14 21 10 16  1 20
  543 19  6 11  1 18  8 13 17
  544 Time Step 4
  545  1  9 14 21 16  1  7 20
  546 19  6  1 15 18  8 13  1
  547 Time Step 5
  548 12  9 14 21  1 16  7 20
  549  1  6 11 15 18  1 13 17
  550 Time Step 6
  551 12  9 14 21 10 16  7 20
  552  1  6 11 15 18  1 13 17
  553 Time Step 7
  554 12  9 14 21 10 16  7 20
  555 19  6 11 15  1  8 13 17
  556 </PRE>
  557 <OL>
  558 <P><LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box,
  559 
  560 select <TT><STRONG>Grid or Scattered File</STRONG></TT>,
  561 
  562 select the leftmost button in the
  563 <TT><STRONG>Grid type</STRONG></TT> row (regular grid) and deactivate the
  564 <TT><STRONG>Single time step</STRONG></TT> toggle button.
  565 <P><LI>Confirm that the <TT><STRONG>Block</STRONG></TT> toggle button is
  566 activated and click on
  567 <TT><STRONG>Describe Data</STRONG></TT>.
  568 The <TT><STRONG>Full prompter</STRONG></TT> dialog box appears.
  569 (Because this example <I>requires</I> the full prompter, the
  570 simplified dialog box is not accessible.)
  571 <P><LI>Enter the path name of the data file in the
  572 <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field:
  573 <PRE>
  574 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_series
  575 </PRE>
  576 <P><LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Header</STRONG></TT> toggle button.
  577 <P><LI>Step 4 also enables the <TT><STRONG># of bytes</STRONG></TT> button to
  578 the right.
  579 Click on this button and select <TT><STRONG>string
  580 marker</STRONG></TT>.
  581 <P><LI>Enter "Time Step 1 \n" in the associated text field to
  582 <A NAME="SPTSVARX86"></A>
  583 specify that the data file is to be read starting with the line
  584 after "Time Step 1" (see Note).
  585 Alternatively, selecting <TT><STRONG># of lines</STRONG></TT> and specifying
  586 the value "2" in the text field would produce the
  587 same result.
  588 <P><B>Note: </B>The new-line character "\n" must be included in the
  589 specification, and the spacing between it and the marker must
  590 match that in the data file (e.g., if "Time Step 1"
  591 and "\n" are separated by three spaces in the
  592 file, they must be separated by three spaces
  593 in the specification).
  594 This spacing is easily determined in the Data Browser by placing the
  595 cursor at each point and reading the corresponding offset value
  596 (see <A HREF="qikgu031.htm#FIGDP6">Figure 18</A>).
  597 <P>
  598 <P><LI>Enter the value "5" in each of the first two
  599 <TT><STRONG>Grid size</STRONG></TT> fields.
  600 <P><LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Series</STRONG></TT> toggle button and specify
  601 the number of series members by entering the value "7" in
  602 the associated <TT><STRONG>n</STRONG></TT> field.
  603 (Leave the <TT><STRONG>start</STRONG></TT> and <TT><STRONG>delta</STRONG></TT>
  604 fields unchanged.)
  605 <P><LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Series separator</STRONG></TT> toggle button,
  606 select <TT><STRONG># of lines</STRONG></TT>, and enter the value
  607 "1" in the associated text field.
  608 (When the Import module reads the data file, it will skip the lines
  609 "Time Step 2," "Time Step 3," and so on.)
  610 <P><LI>Change <TT><STRONG>Dependency</STRONG></TT> from "positions" to
  611 "connections."
  612 To confirm this change, click on <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT> at the
  613 bottom of the dialog box (note the instruction there).
  614 <P><LI>Repeat Example 1, Step 10 (see <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header
  615 file</A>), to save the
  616 header file, which should look like:
  617 </OL>
  618 <PRE>
  619 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_series
  620 grid = 5 x 5
  621 format = text
  622 interleaving = record
  623 majority = row
  624 header = marker "Time Step 1 \n"
  625 series = 7, 1, 1, separator = lines 1
  626 field = field0
  627 structure = scalar
  628 type = float
  629 dependency = connections
  630 positions = regular, regular, 0, 1, 0, 1
  631 end
  632 </PRE>
  633 <P>
  634 <P><B>Note: </B>For scalar data, as in this example, the
  635 <TT><STRONG>interleaving</STRONG></TT> keyword is
  636 not required (it defaults to record).
  637 However, when series data include vectors, this keyword must be
  638 included and the appropriate value specified.
  639 For more information, see <A HREF="qikgu029.htm#HDRINTRKWD">"interleaving"</A>.
  640 <P>
  641 <H4><U>Example 9. Data and Header in the Same File</U></H4>
  642 <A NAME="IDX245"></A>
  643 <A NAME="IDX246"></A>
  644 <A NAME="IDX247"></A>
  645 <A NAME="IDX248"></A>
  646 <P>
  647 The <TT><STRONG>header</STRONG></TT> and <TT><STRONG>end</STRONG></TT> keywords
  648 make it possible to combine header information and data in
  649 the same file.
  650 <P><B>Note: </B>Although the General Array Importer is designed to process files
  651 that contain both header information and data, the Data Prompter is not.
  652 It cannot create them or read them in.
  653 Such files, like the one in this example, must be created with an
  654 editor.
  655 <PRE>
  656 # The Importer disregards this line, since it is a comment line.
  657 grid = 5 x 5
  658 dependency = connections
  659 type = byte
  660 structure = scalar
  661 format = ascii
  662 header = marker "Start data \n"
  663 end
  664 # There may be comments about the data here (e.g., who created it and
  665 # when).  These will be passed over because of the marker specified
  666 # in the header keyword statement.
  667 Start data
  668 17811 41218 3 9
  669 1021913 1 71420
  670 </PRE>
  671 <P>
  672 The <TT><STRONG>end</STRONG></TT> keyword marks the end of the header
  673 section.
  674 The <TT><STRONG>header</STRONG></TT> keyword statement specifies "Start
  675 data" as the search string and the next line as the
  676 start of the actual data.
  677 Note that if the data starts on the <I>same</I> line, the new-line
  678 character (\n) is not required as part of the marker
  679 (see also Step 6 of Example 8 in <A HREF="#SPTSVARX86">Enter &quot;Time Step 1
  680 \n&quot;</A>).
  681 <P>
  682 The "positions" keyword, omitted in this example, defaults to an
  683 origin of &#91;0 0&#93; and deltas of &#91;1 1&#93;.
  684 <P>
  685 <H3><A NAME="HDRMVARDAT" ></A>Record Style: Multivariable Data
  686 </H3>
  687 <A NAME="IDX249"></A>
  688 <A NAME="IDX250"></A>
  689 <A NAME="IDX251"></A>
  690 <A NAME="IDX252"></A>
  691 <P>
  692 To import record-style data, you must set the
  693 <TT><STRONG>interleaving</STRONG></TT> keyword
  694 to record, record-vector, or
  695 series-vector.
  696 (When using the Data Prompter, select Block for <TT><STRONG>Field
  697 interleaving</STRONG></TT>.)
  698 If the data includes vectors, select the appropriate vector
  699 interleaving, as discussed in <A HREF="#HDREX6N7">"Examples 6 and 7. Vector
  700 Data"</A>;
  701 see also <A HREF="qikgu029.htm#HDRINTRKWD">"interleaving"</A>.
  702 <P>
  703 <H4><U>Example 1. Multiple Scalar Fields</U></H4>
  704 <A NAME="IDX253"></A>
  705 <A NAME="IDX254"></A>
  706 <A NAME="IDX255"></A>
  707 <A NAME="IDX256"></A>
  708 <A NAME="IDX257"></A>
  709 <P>
  710 This example illustrates the importation of multiple scalar
  711 fields.
  712 The grid is 4 &times; 2 &times; 3, with an origin of &#91;0 0 0&#93;
  713 and deltas of &#91;1 1 1&#93;.
  714 The three data variables are scalar.
  715 The data file looks like:
  716 <PRE>
  717 Energy
  718     2.158719      1.45419     1.566509     1.551361     2.215095     1.726923
  719     2.080461     1.418617     1.373206     2.231642     1.316575     1.445211
  720     1.673182     1.445737     1.820333     2.167849     1.721611     1.554906
  721     1.604594     2.061092     1.398391     2.062042     1.996196      1.50964
  722 Pressure
  723     34.81398     18.81529     29.65139       42.499     22.96053     31.41604
  724     19.92936     27.79935     26.34873     28.91081     21.17855     28.89354
  725     6.320079      43.9068     6.597938     20.41342     14.83351     43.53309
  726     16.36901     18.19812     4.628566     43.64742     44.99699     26.32183
  727 Temperature
  728     295.3329     302.5431      301.835     296.0127     297.8344     295.5451
  729     301.6786     298.4496     302.0944     296.7458     296.3459     296.4179
  730     303.1223     300.3094     297.9714     300.0774     299.1322     296.9368
  731      302.096     294.8137      300.662     299.5744     304.1986     302.4216
  732 </PRE>
  733 <P>
  734 The header file to import this data should look like:
  735 <PRE>
  736 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_multiscalar
  737 grid = 4 x 2 x 3
  738 format = text
  739 interleaving = record
  740 majority = row
  741 header = lines 1
  742 field = Energy, Pressure, Temperature
  743 recordseparator = lines 1
  744 end
  745 </PRE>
  746 <P>
  747 <H4><U>Example 2. Cell-Centered Data</U></H4>
  748 <A NAME="IDX258"></A>
  749 <A NAME="IDX259"></A>
  750 <A NAME="IDX260"></A>
  751 <P>
  752 This example is identical to the preceding one except that each of the
  753 data variables is dependent on the connections between data points
  754 rather than on their positions.
  755 Thus there are only six data values per field (3 &times; 1 &times; 2).
  756 The data file looks like:
  757 <PRE>
  758 Energy
  759     2.158719      1.45419     1.566509     1.551361     2.215095     1.726923
  760 Pressure
  761     34.81398     18.81529     29.65139       42.499     22.96053     31.41604
  762 Temperature
  763     295.3329     302.5431      301.835     296.0127     297.8344     295.5451
  764 </PRE>
  765 <P>
  766 The header file to import this data should look like:
  767 <PRE>
  768 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_multiscalardepconn
  769 grid = 4 x 2 x 3
  770 format = test
  771 interleaving = record
  772 majority = row
  773 header = lines 1
  774 field = Energy, Pressure, Temperature
  775 recordseparator = lines 1
  776 dependency = connections
  777 end
  778 </PRE>
  779 <P>
  780 <H4><U>Example 3. Multiple Scalars with Mixed Dependencies</U></H4>
  781 <A NAME="IDX261"></A>
  782 <A NAME="IDX262"></A>
  783 <A NAME="IDX263"></A>
  784 <A NAME="IDX264"></A>
  785 <A NAME="IDX265"></A>
  786 <P>
  787 This example differs from the preceding one in that Energy and
  788 Temperature are dependent on the positions of the grid,
  789 while Pressure is dependent on the grid elements
  790 (connection dependent).
  791 The data file looks like:
  792 <PRE>
  793 Energy
  794     2.158719      1.45419     1.566509     1.551361     2.215095     1.726923
  795     2.080461     1.418617     1.373206     2.231642     1.316575     1.445211
  796     1.673182     1.445737     1.820333     2.167849     1.721611     1.554906
  797     1.604594     2.061092     1.398391     2.062042     1.996196      1.50964
  798 Pressure
  799     34.81398     18.81529     29.65139       42.499     22.96053     31.41604
  800 Temperature
  801     295.3329     302.5431      301.835     296.0127     297.8344     295.5451
  802     301.6786     298.4496     302.0944     296.7458     296.3459     296.4179
  803     303.1223     300.3094     297.9714     300.0774     299.1322     296.9368
  804      302.096     294.8137      300.662     299.5744     304.1986     302.4216
  805 </PRE>
  806 <P>
  807 The header file looks like the one shown at the top of the next page.
  808 <PRE>
  809 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_multiscalarmixed
  810 grid = 4 x 2 x 3
  811 format = text
  812 interleaving = record
  813 majority = row
  814 header = lines 1
  815 field = Energy, Pressure, Temperature
  816 dependency = positions, connections, positions
  817 recordseparator = lines 1
  818 end
  819 </PRE>
  820 <P>
  821 <H4><U>Examples 4 and 5. Scalar and Vector Data</U></H4>
  822 <A NAME="IDX266"></A>
  823 <A NAME="IDX267"></A>
  824 <A NAME="IDX268"></A>
  825 
  826 <A NAME="IDX269"></A>
  827 <P>
  828 This example uses the same grid as the previous 3, but here the second
  829 data field (velocity) consists of 2-vectors.
  830 In Example 4, all the x-components of the 2-vectors are listed first,
  831 followed by all the y-components.
  832 For example, the x- and y-components of the first 2-vector are 34.81398
  833 and 2.158719, respectively.
  834 <PRE>
  835 Energy
  836     2.158719      1.45419     1.566509     1.551361     2.215095     1.726923
  837     2.080461     1.418617     1.373206     2.231642     1.316575     1.445211
  838     1.673182     1.445737     1.820333     2.167849     1.721611     1.554906
  839     1.604594     2.061092     1.398391     2.062042     1.996196     1.509640
  840 Velocity
  841     34.81398     18.81529     29.65139       42.499     22.96053     31.41604
  842     19.92936     27.79935     26.34873     28.91081     21.17855     28.89354
  843     6.320079      43.9068     6.597938     20.41342     14.83351     43.53309
  844     16.36901     18.19812     4.628566     43.64742     44.99699     26.32183
  845     2.158719      1.45419     1.566509     1.551361     2.215095     1.726923
  846     2.080461     1.418617     1.373206     2.231642     1.316575     1.445211
  847     1.673182     1.445737     1.820333     2.167849     1.721611     1.554906
  848     1.604594     2.061092     1.398391     2.062042     1.996196     1.509640
  849 Temperature
  850     295.3329     302.5431      301.835     296.0127     297.8344     295.5451
  851     301.6786     298.4496     302.0944     296.7458     296.3459     296.4179
  852     303.1223     300.3094     297.9714     300.0774     299.1322     296.9368
  853     302.0960     294.8137      300.662     299.5744     304.1986     302.4216
  854 </PRE>
  855 <P>
  856 The header file should look like:
  857 <PRE>
  858 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_scalarvector1
  859 grid = 4 x 2 x 3
  860 format = text
  861 interleaving = record
  862 majority = row
  863 header = lines 1
  864 field = Energy, Velocity, Temperature
  865 structure = scalar, 2-vector, scalar
  866 recordseparator = lines 1, lines 0, lines 1
  867 end
  868 </PRE>
  869 <P>
  870 Note that the interleaving specified for the vectors (line 4) is record
  871 (see <A HREF="qikgu029.htm#HDRINTRKWD">"interleaving"</A>) and that the record
  872 separator (line 9) specifies:
  873 one (1) line separating the Energy and Velocity data; no lines
  874 separating the records containing the components of the
  875 Velocity data; and one (1) line separating the
  876 Velocity and the Temperature data (see <A
  877 HREF="qikgu029.htm#HDRRSEPKWD">"recordseparator"</A>).
  878 <P>
  879 The data values in Example 5 are the same as those in Example 4, but the
  880 components of each vector in the Velocity field appear together (e.g.,
  881 34.813980 is followed by 2.158719 in the same row):
  882 <PRE>
  883 Energy
  884    2.158719   1.454190     1.566509   1.551361     2.215095   1.726923
  885    2.080461   1.418617     1.373206   2.231642     1.316575   1.445211
  886    1.673182   1.445737     1.820333   2.167849     1.721611   1.554906
  887    1.604594   2.061092     1.398391   2.062042     1.996196   1.509640
  888 Velocity
  889   34.813980   2.158719    18.815290   1.454190    29.651390   1.566509
  890   42.499001   1.551361    22.960529   2.215095    31.416040   1.726923
  891   19.929359   2.080461    27.799351   1.418617    26.348730   1.373206
  892   28.910810   2.231642    21.178551   1.316575    28.893539   1.445211
  893 </PRE>
  894 <PRE>
  895    6.320079   1.673182    43.906799   1.445737     6.597938   1.820333
  896   20.413420   2.167849    14.833510   1.721611    43.533089   1.554906
  897   16.369011   1.604594    18.198120   2.061092     4.628566   1.398391
  898   43.647419   2.062042    44.996990   1.996196    26.321831   1.509640
  899 Temperature
  900  295.332886  302.543091  301.834991  296.012695  297.834412  295.545105
  901  301.678589  298.449585  302.094391  296.745789  296.345886  296.417908
  902  303.122314  300.309387  297.971405  300.077393  299.132202  296.936798
  903  302.096008  294.813690  300.661987  299.574402  304.198608  302.421600
  904 </PRE>
  905 <P>
  906 The header file should look like:
  907 <PRE>
  908 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_scalarvector2
  909 grid = 4 x 2 x 3
  910 format = text
  911 interleaving = record-vector
  912 majority = row
  913 header = lines 1
  914 structure = scalar, 2-vector, scalar
  915 field = Energy, Velocity, Temperature
  916 recordseparator = lines 1
  917 end
  918 </PRE>
  919 <P>
  920 Note that the interleaving specified for the vectors (line 4) has
  921 been changed to record-vector and that the record separator
  922 (line 9) specifies one (1) line separating successive
  923 records.
  924 <P>
  925 <H4><U>Example 6. Deformed (Warped) Regular Grid</U></H4>
  926 <A NAME="IDX270"></A>
  927 <A NAME="IDX271"></A>
  928 <A NAME="IDX272"></A>
  929 <A NAME="IDX273"></A>
  930 <A NAME="IDX274"></A>
  931 <A NAME="IDX275"></A>
  932 <P>
  933 A deformed regular grid (sometimes referred to as a warped grid) is
  934 one in which the positions are irregular but the connections
  935 are regular.
  936 In this example the grid is 5 &times; 4.
  937 The data consists of three records, the first two of which contain
  938 scalar data defined on the grid.
  939 The third contains 2-vector values defining the grid positions.
  940 The Data Prompter uses the reserved word <TT><STRONG>locations</STRONG></TT> as
  941 a field
  942 name for the x,y values of the grid positions.
  943 The data file contains no descriptive information.
  944 <OL COMPACT>
  945 <LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box, click on
  946 
  947 <TT><STRONG>Grid or Scattered File</STRONG></TT>, then on
  948 
  949 the button representing
  950 deformed data (third from the left) in the row labeled
  951 <TT><STRONG>Grid type</STRONG></TT>.
  952 <LI>Set <TT><STRONG>Number of variables</STRONG></TT> to "2."
  953 <LI>Step 1 automatically activates the <TT><STRONG>Positions in data
  954 file</STRONG></TT> toggle button (the positions of warped regular
  955 data are assumed to be listed in the data file) and displays
  956 a <TT><STRONG>Dimension</STRONG></TT> stepper button.
  957 Set the <TT><STRONG>Dimension</STRONG></TT> value to "2" for 2-dimensional
  958 (x,y) data.                                            .
  959 <LI>For <TT><STRONG>Data organization</STRONG></TT>, confirm that the
  960 <TT><STRONG>Block</STRONG></TT> (i.e., record) toggle button is
  961 activated.
  962 <LI>Click on
  963 
  964 <TT><STRONG>Data Prompter</STRONG></TT>
  965 
  966 to bring up the simplified
  967 data prompter.
  968 <LI>Enter the path name of the data file in the
  969 <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field:
  970 <PRE>
  971 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_deformed
  972 </PRE>
  973 <LI>Enter the values "5," and "4," in that order, in the first
  974 two <TT><STRONG>Grid size</STRONG></TT> fields.
  975 <LI>Confirm that <TT><STRONG>Data format</STRONG></TT>,
  976 <TT><STRONG>Data order</STRONG></TT>, and
  977 <TT><STRONG>Vector interleaving</STRONG></TT>
  978 are set respectively to Text, Row, and
  979 record-vector (X<SUB>0</SUB>Y<SUB>0</SUB>,
  980 X<SUB>1</SUB>Y<SUB>1</SUB>, ...).
  981 <LI>In the <TT><STRONG>Field list</STRONG></TT>, click on "locations" and
  982 use the "Move field" stepper arrows to position it after
  983 "field1" (i.e., at the bottom of the list).
  984 This change is necessary to reflect the actual data file, where the two
  985 scalar fields precede the x,y positions.
  986 (By default, the Data Prompter lists "locations" as the first
  987 field.)
  988 <LI>Click on "field0" in the list and then change the name to
  989 "rainfall" in the <TT><STRONG>Field name</STRONG></TT> field.
  990 To confirm this change, click on <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT> at the
  991 bottom of the dialog box (note the instruction there).
  992 <LI>Now change "field1" to "temperature" and the
  993 <TT><STRONG>Type</STRONG></TT> option from "float" to
  994 "int" (the temperature values are integers).
  995 These changes can be confirmed together by clicking on
  996 <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT> at the
  997 bottom of the panel.
  998 <LI>Save the header file (Step 10 of Example 1 in
  999 <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header file</A>), which should look
 1000 like:
 1001 </OL>
 1002 <PRE>
 1003 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_deformed
 1004 grid = 5 x 4
 1005 format = text
 1006 interleaving = record-vector
 1007 majority = row
 1008 field = rainfall, temperature, locations
 1009 structure = scalar, scalar, 2-vector
 1010 type = float, int, float
 1011 dependency = positions, positions, positions
 1012 end
 1013 </PRE>
 1014 <P>
 1015 <H4><U>Example 7. Scattered Data</U></H4>
 1016 <A NAME="IDX276"></A>
 1017 <A NAME="IDX277"></A>
 1018 <A NAME="IDX278"></A>
 1019 <P>
 1020 This example illustrating the importation of scattered data differs from
 1021 Example 6 in only a few details, mainly in specifying the number of
 1022 data points instead of the dimensions of a data grid.
 1023 <OL>
 1024 <P><LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box,
 1025 
 1026 select <TT><STRONG>Grid or Scattered File</STRONG></TT>, then
 1027 
 1028 click on the rightmost button
 1029 (scattered data) in the row labeled
 1030 <TT><STRONG>Grid type</STRONG></TT>.
 1031 <P><LI>Set <TT><STRONG>Number of variables</STRONG></TT> to "2."
 1032 <P><LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Positions in data file</STRONG></TT> toggle
 1033 button and set the <TT><STRONG>Dimension</STRONG></TT> value
 1034 to "2".
 1035 <P><LI>Repeat Steps 5 through 11 of Example 6, with the following
 1036 exception: in Step 7, enter the value "20" in the
 1037 <TT><STRONG># of points</STRONG></TT> field (this change
 1038 from Example 6 is a result of the original
 1039 selection for scattered data in the
 1040 initial dialog box).
 1041 </OL>
 1042 The header file should look like:
 1043 <PRE>
 1044 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/record_deformed
 1045 points = 20
 1046 format = text
 1047 interleaving = record-vector
 1048 field = rainfall, temperature, locations
 1049 structure = scalar, scalar, 2-vector
 1050 type = float, int, float
 1051 dependency = positions, positions, positions
 1052 end
 1053 </PRE>
 1054 <P>
 1055 <H4><U>Example 8. Using the Block Keyword</U></H4>
 1056 <A NAME="IDX279"></A>
 1057 <A NAME="IDX280"></A>
 1058 <A NAME="IDX281"></A>
 1059 <A NAME="IDX282"></A>
 1060 <P>
 1061 The <TT><STRONG>block</STRONG></TT> keyword is used with record-style,
 1062 fixed-format ASCII data to skip information in a block
 1063 of data.
 1064 For example, consider the following data file:
 1065 <PRE>
 1066 row 1 temperature 39 29 33 56 32
 1067 row 2 temperature 32 33 25 33 22
 1068 row 3 temperature 31 23 41 53 19
 1069 row 4 temperature 43 59 43 21 28
 1070 row 5 temperature 23 19 35 46 32
 1071 </PRE>
 1072 
 1073 <OL>
 1074 <P><LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box,
 1075 
 1076 select <TT><STRONG>Grid or Scattered File</STRONG></TT>, then
 1077 
 1078 ensure that the leftmost button
 1079 in the row labeled <TT><STRONG>Grid type</STRONG></TT>
 1080 is selected.
 1081 <P><LI>Click on
 1082 
 1083 <TT><STRONG>Data Prompter</STRONG></TT>
 1084 
 1085 to bring up the simplified prompter.
 1086 <P><LI>Enter  the path name of the data file in the <TT><STRONG>data
 1087 file</STRONG></TT> field:
 1088 <PRE>
 1089 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/block_example.data
 1090 </PRE>
 1091 <P><LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>header</STRONG></TT> toggle button, reset
 1092 <TT><STRONG># of bytes</STRONG></TT> to  <TT><STRONG># of
 1093 lines</STRONG></TT>, and type 1 in the associated
 1094 field.
 1095 <P><LI>Set <TT><STRONG>Grid size</STRONG></TT> to  5 &times; 5.
 1096 <P><LI>Now click on <TT><STRONG>Full prompter</STRONG></TT> in the
 1097 <TT><STRONG>Options</STRONG></TT> pull-down menu.
 1098 <P><LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Block</STRONG></TT> toggle button (right-hand
 1099 panel).
 1100 <P><LI>Set <TT><STRONG>skip</STRONG></TT> to 17, <TT><STRONG>#
 1101 elem</STRONG></TT> to
 1102 5, and <TT><STRONG>width</STRONG></TT> to 3.
 1103 <P><LI>Repeat Example 1, Step 10 (<A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header
 1104 file</A>), to save the
 1105 header file, which should look like:
 1106 </OL>
 1107 <PRE>
 1108 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/block_example.data
 1109 grid = 5 x 5
 1110 format = text
 1111 interleaving = record
 1112 majority = row
 1113 header = lines 1
 1114 field = field0
 1115 structure = scalar
 1116 type = int
 1117 dependency = positions
 1118 block = 17, 5, 3
 1119 positions = regular, regular, 0, 1, 0, 1
 1120 end
 1121 </PRE>
 1122 <P>
 1123 The <TT><STRONG>block</STRONG></TT> statement instructs the importer to skip
 1124 17 characters and read 5 (temperature) values (per line in this
 1125 case), reading each value from a field of three characters.
 1126 
 1127 <P>
 1128 <H3><A NAME="Header_142" ></A>Columnar Style</H3>
 1129 <A NAME="IDX283"></A>
 1130 <A NAME="IDX284"></A>
 1131 
 1132 <P>
 1133 Importing
 1134 
 1135 columnar-style
 1136 
 1137 data requires setting the
 1138 <TT><STRONG>interleaving</STRONG></TT> keyword to
 1139 "field":
 1140 Activate the
 1141 
 1142 <TT><STRONG>Columnar</STRONG></TT>
 1143 
 1144 toggle button in the Data Prompter
 1145 initial dialog box or select "Field" for the
 1146 <TT><STRONG>Field interleaving</STRONG></TT>
 1147 option in the full prompter.
 1148 <P>
 1149 <H4><U>Example 1. Scalar and Vector Data on a Regular Grid.</U></H4>
 1150 <A NAME="IDX285"></A>
 1151 <A NAME="IDX286"></A>
 1152 <A NAME="IDX287"></A>
 1153 <A NAME="IDX288"></A>
 1154 <P>
 1155 This example illustrates the importation of a data file that contains
 1156 two variables (pressure and velocity) in spreadsheet style.
 1157 The data are in row majority order (last index varies fastest) and
 1158 organized in four columns: the first contains the pressure
 1159 data; the other three, the velocity components.
 1160 The grid is 5 &times; 8 &times; 6.
 1161 <OL COMPACT>
 1162 <LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box,
 1163 
 1164 select <TT><STRONG>Grid or Scattered File</STRONG></TT>, then
 1165 
 1166 select the leftmost button in the
 1167 row labeled <TT><STRONG>Grid type</STRONG></TT> (regular grid).
 1168 <LI>Set <TT><STRONG>Number of variables</STRONG></TT> to
 1169 "2."
 1170 <LI>For <TT><STRONG>Data organization</STRONG></TT>, activate the
 1171 
 1172 <TT><STRONG>Columnar</STRONG></TT>
 1173 
 1174 toggle button.
 1175 <LI>Click on
 1176 
 1177 <TT><STRONG>Describe Data</STRONG></TT>
 1178 
 1179 to bring up the simplified
 1180 prompter.
 1181 <LI>Enter the path name of the data file in the
 1182 <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field:
 1183 <PRE>
 1184 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/spreadsheet_2var
 1185 </PRE>
 1186 <LI>Enter the values "5," "8," and "6," in that order,
 1187 in the first three <TT><STRONG>Grid size</STRONG></TT> fields.
 1188 <LI>In the <TT><STRONG>Field list</STRONG></TT>, change the name "field0"
 1189 to "pressure" and confirm the change by clicking on the
 1190 <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT> button at the bottom of
 1191 the panel.
 1192   <LI>Change the name of "field1" to "velocity" and its <TT><STRONG>Structure</STRONG></TT> 
 1193     to "3-vector." (See Steps 9 through 11 of Example 6 in the preceding section, 
 1194     <A HREF="#HDREX6N7">"Example 6. Deformed (Warped) Regular Grid"</A>, for procedure.) 
 1195   <LI>Save the header file (Step 10 of Example 1 in
 1196 <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header file</A>), which should look
 1197 like:
 1198 </OL>
 1199 &nbsp;
 1200 <PRE>
 1201 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/spreadsheet_2var
 1202 grid = 5 x 8 x 6
 1203 format = text
 1204 interleaving = field
 1205 majority = row
 1206 field = temperature, velocity
 1207 structure = scalar, 3-vector
 1208 type = float, float
 1209 dependency = positions, positions
 1210 positions = regular, regular, regular, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1
 1211 end
 1212 </PRE>
 1213 <P>
 1214 <H4><U>Example 2. Deformed (Warped) Regular Grid</U></H4>
 1215 <A NAME="IDX289"></A>
 1216 <A NAME="IDX290"></A>
 1217 <A NAME="IDX291"></A>
 1218 <A NAME="IDX292"></A>
 1219 <P> This example differs from Example 6 in the preceding section (<A HREF="#HDREX6N7">"Example 
 1220   6. Deformed (Warped) Regular Grid"</A>) in its data style (spreadsheet), smaller 
 1221   data grid (5 &times; 4), and number of variables (1). Follow the first 7 steps 
 1222   of that example, except for the following: 
 1223 <UL COMPACT>
 1224 <LI>In Step 2, set <TT><STRONG>Number of variables</STRONG></TT> to "1."
 1225 <LI>In Step 4, activate the
 1226 
 1227 <TT><STRONG>Columnar</STRONG></TT>
 1228 
 1229 toggle
 1230 button.
 1231 <LI>In Step 6, use the path name:
 1232 <PRE>
 1233 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/spreadsheet_deformed.
 1234 </PRE>
 1235 <LI>In Step 7, use the values "3" and "4."
 1236 </UL>
 1237 The header file should look like:
 1238 <P>
 1239 <PRE>
 1240 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/spreadsheet_deformed
 1241 grid = 3 x 4
 1242 format = text
 1243 interleaving = field
 1244 majority = row
 1245 field = locations, field0
 1246 structure = 2-vector, scalar
 1247 type = float, float
 1248 end
 1249 </PRE>
 1250 <P>
 1251 <H4><U>Example 3. Scattered Scalar Data</U></H4>
 1252 <A NAME="IDX294"></A>
 1253 <A NAME="IDX295"></A>
 1254 <A NAME="IDX296"></A>
 1255 <A NAME="IDX297"></A>
 1256 <P>
 1257 This example uses the same data set as Example 2 but treats the values
 1258 as scattered data points.
 1259 The data file contains an x,y position followed by a data value.
 1260 There are no implied connections for these data.
 1261 <OL COMPACT>
 1262 <LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box:
 1263 <OL COMPACT>
 1264 <LI>
 1265 
 1266 Select <TT><STRONG>Grid or Scattered File</STRONG></TT>, then
 1267 
 1268 select for scattered data (rightmost grid button).
 1269 <LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Position</STRONG></TT> toggle button.
 1270 <LI>Set <TT><STRONG>Dimension</STRONG></TT> to "2."
 1271 <LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Spreadsheet</STRONG></TT> toggle
 1272 button.
 1273 <LI>Click on
 1274 
 1275 <TT><STRONG>Describe Data</STRONG></TT>
 1276 
 1277 to bring up the simplified
 1278 data prompter.
 1279 </OL>
 1280 <LI>Enter the path name used in Example 2.
 1281 <LI>Enter "12" in the <TT><STRONG># of points</STRONG></TT> field.
 1282 <LI>Save the header file (Step 10 of Example 1 in
 1283 <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header file</A>), which should look like:
 1284 </OL>
 1285 <PRE>
 1286 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/spreadsheet_deformed
 1287 points = 12
 1288 format = text
 1289 interleaving = field
 1290 field = locations, field0
 1291 structure = 2-vector, scalar
 1292 type = float, float
 1293 end
 1294 </PRE>
 1295 <P>
 1296 <H4><U>Example 4. Handling Interspersed Text</U></H4>
 1297 <A NAME="IDX298"></A>
 1298 <A NAME="IDX299"></A>
 1299 <A NAME="IDX300"></A>
 1300 <A NAME="IDX301"></A>
 1301 <P>
 1302 The <TT><STRONG>layout</STRONG></TT> keyword is used to specify which
 1303 locations in a data file are to be read, thereby
 1304 avoiding interspersed text.
 1305 In the example data file shown here, there are no implied connections
 1306 between data values.
 1307 <P>
 1308 <OL COMPACT>
 1309 <LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box:
 1310 <OL COMPACT>
 1311 <LI>
 1312 
 1313 Select <TT><STRONG>Grid or Scattered File</STRONG></TT>, then
 1314 
 1315 select for scattered data (rightmost grid button).
 1316 <LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Position</STRONG></TT> toggle
 1317 button.
 1318 <LI>Set <TT><STRONG>Number of variables</STRONG></TT> to "1."
 1319 <LI>The data positions (latitude and longitude) are in the data file
 1320 and are 2-dimensional: set <TT><STRONG>Dimension</STRONG></TT> to
 1321 "2."
 1322 <LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Columnar</STRONG></TT> toggle
 1323 button.
 1324 <LI>Click on
 1325 
 1326 <TT><STRONG>Describe Data</STRONG></TT>
 1327 
 1328 to bring up the simplified
 1329 data prompter.
 1330 </OL>
 1331 <LI>In the <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field enter the path name:
 1332 <PRE>
 1333 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/CO2fragment.lis
 1334 </PRE>
 1335 <LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Header</STRONG></TT> toggle button, select the
 1336 "String marker" option, and enter "CO2_CONC \n" in the
 1337 associated text field.
 1338 (Note that the marker text is the heading for the third column of data
 1339 and that the reading of data will start after the new-line
 1340 character, at the point marked by "<TT><STRONG>*</STRONG></TT>"
 1341 on the following line.
 1342 See also Step 6 of Example 7 in <A HREF="#SPTSVARX86">Enter &quot;Time Step 1
 1343 \n&quot;</A>.)
 1344 <P>
 1345 <P><B>Note: </B>The asterisk (<TT><STRONG>*</STRONG></TT>) at the beginning of
 1346 the first data
 1347 line and the interval scale following the data are for reference
 1348 purposes only and do not appear in the actual file
 1349 (see Steps 3 and 5f-j in this example).
 1350 <PRE>
 1351  VARIABLES AND SPECIFIED RANGES
 1352 _________________________________________________________________________
 1353  EPOCH                01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000 31-Dec-1987 00:00:00.000
 1354  LATITUDE                               -90.00                    90.00
 1355  LONGITUD                              -180.00                   180.00
 1356  CO2_CONC                             -10000.0                  10000.0
 1357          EPOCH                  LATITUDE      LONGITUD      CO2_CONC
 1358 <TT><STRONG>*</STRONG></TT>01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000        -37.95         77.53         341.4
 1359  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000        -89.98        -24.80         341.0
 1360  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         -7.92        -14.42         343.4
 1361  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000        -40.68        144.68        -100.0
 1362  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         19.52       -154.82         341.9
 1363  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000        -14.25       -170.57         342.0
 1364  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000          2.00       -157.30        -100.0
 1365  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         55.20       -162.72         335.3
 1366  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000        -75.67        -27.00         341.7
 1367  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000        -43.83       -172.63         341.3
 1368  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         25.67        -80.17         343.8
 1369  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         -4.67         55.17         339.1
 1370  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         13.43        144.78         344.0
 1371  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         19.53       -155.58         343.5
 1372  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         76.23       -119.33         339.8
 1373  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         40.05       -105.63         339.5
 1374  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         66.00          2.00         338.7
 1375  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000        -64.92        -64.00         341.4
 1376  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         71.32       -156.60         340.1
 1377  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         17.75        -64.77         342.3
 1378  01-Jul-1983 00:00:00.000         38.75        -27.08         341.1
 1379 <A NAME="SPTDBRINTV"></A>
 1380 <STRONG>
 1381 |-----------skip 33-------------| width  12 | width  12 | width 10 |
 1382 </STRONG>
 1383 </PRE>
 1384 <LI>Enter "21" in the <TT><STRONG># of points</STRONG></TT>
 1385 field.
 1386 <LI>Use the <TT><STRONG>layout</STRONG></TT> option to "skip"
 1387 interspersed text:
 1388 <OL COMPACT>
 1389 <LI>Select <TT><STRONG>Full prompter</STRONG></TT> from the
 1390 <TT><STRONG>Options</STRONG></TT> menu.
 1391 <LI>Select "locations" in the <TT><STRONG>Field list</STRONG></TT> of
 1392 the Data Prompter.
 1393 <LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Layout</STRONG></TT> toggle button (in the
 1394 right-hand panel of the prompter).
 1395 <LI>Bring up the Browser for the data file by clicking on the
 1396 ellipsis button (<TT><STRONG>...</STRONG></TT>) next to the
 1397 <TT><STRONG>Data file</STRONG></TT> field.
 1398 <LI>Click on <TT><STRONG>Browser...</STRONG></TT> to view the data file.
 1399 <LI>In the data file, position the cursor at the beginning of the first
 1400 data value in the first data line (-37.95) and note the
 1401 <TT><STRONG>Byte Offsets</STRONG></TT> value (counting
 1402 from the start of the line).
 1403 Enter this number (33) in the <TT><STRONG>skip</STRONG></TT> field of the
 1404 <TT><STRONG>Layout</STRONG></TT> option.
 1405 <LI>Enter the value "12" in the <TT><STRONG>width</STRONG></TT> field
 1406 of the <TT><STRONG>Layout</STRONG></TT> option.
 1407 Since the latitude-longitude pairs are 2-vectors, the Data Prompter will read
 1408 the specified width <I>twice</I> in succession, once for
 1409 each component.
 1410 (Thus, the Data Prompter skips 33 characters, reads 12 characters, and then
 1411 reads 12 more, as specified by the first
 1412 <TT><STRONG>layout</STRONG></TT> settings.
 1413 See the marked intervals at the bottom of the data file in
 1414 <A HREF="#SPTDBRINTV">skip 33</A>.)
 1415 <LI>To confirm these changes, click on <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT>
 1416 at the bottom of the panel.
 1417 <LI>Select "field0" in the <TT><STRONG>Field list</STRONG></TT> and
 1418 rename it "CO2_concentration."
 1419 <LI>Enter the value "0" (zero) in the <TT><STRONG>skip</STRONG></TT>
 1420 field and "10" in the <TT><STRONG>width</STRONG></TT> field.
 1421 (Now the Data Prompter skips zero characters and then reads 10 characters.
 1422 See the marked intervals at the bottom of the data file in
 1423 <A HREF="#SPTDBRINTV">skip 33</A>.)
 1424 <LI>To confirm these changes, click on <TT><STRONG>Modify</STRONG></TT> at
 1425 the bottom of the panel.
 1426 </OL>
 1427 <LI>Save the header file (Step 10 of Example 1 in
 1428 <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header file</A>), which should look
 1429 like:
 1430 </OL>
 1431 <P>
 1432 <PRE>
 1433 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/CO2fragment.lis
 1434 points = 21
 1435 format = text
 1436 interleaving = field
 1437 header = marker "CO2_CONC \n"
 1438 field = locations, CO2_concentration
 1439 structure = 2-vector, scalar
 1440 type = float, float
 1441 layout = 33, 12, 0, 10
 1442 end
 1443 </PRE>
 1444 <P>
 1445 <H4><U>Example 5. Time Series with Interspersed Text</U></H4>
 1446 <A NAME="IDX302"></A>
 1447 <A NAME="IDX303"></A>
 1448 <A NAME="IDX304"></A>
 1449 <A NAME="IDX305"></A>
 1450 <P>
 1451 The 21 lines of data in the preceding example represent a portion of
 1452 a larger file (<TT>/usr/local/dx/samples/data/CO2.lis</TT>)
 1453 containing a time series with 53 members.
 1454 <OL>
 1455 <P><LI>In the Data Prompter initial dialog box,
 1456 
 1457 select <TT><STRONG>Grid or Scattered File</STRONG></TT>, then
 1458 click on <TT><STRONG>Describe Data</STRONG></TT>
 1459 
 1460 to bring up the simplified Data Prompter.
 1461 <P><LI>Select <TT><STRONG>Open</STRONG></TT> from the
 1462 <TT><STRONG>File</STRONG></TT>
 1463 menu.
 1464 <P><LI>In the <TT><STRONG>Open a Data Prompter Header</STRONG></TT> dialog box,
 1465 select
 1466 <TT>CO2fragment.lis.general</TT> in the
 1467 <TT><STRONG>Files</STRONG></TT> list and then
 1468 click on <TT><STRONG>OK</STRONG></TT>.
 1469 <P><LI>Change the path name to:
 1470 <PRE>
 1471 /usr/local/dx/samples/data/CO2.lis
 1472 </PRE>
 1473 <P><LI>Activate the <TT><STRONG>Series</STRONG></TT> toggle button and change
 1474 the value in the <TT><STRONG>n</STRONG></TT> field from
 1475 "1" to "53."
 1476 Do not change the <TT><STRONG>start</STRONG></TT> or
 1477 <TT><STRONG>delta</STRONG></TT>
 1478 field.
 1479 <P><LI>Save the header file (Step 10 of Example 1 in
 1480 <A HREF="#SPTEX1A">To save the header file</A>), which should look
 1481 like:
 1482 </OL>
 1483 <PRE>
 1484 file = /usr/local/dx/samples/data/CO2.lis
 1485 points = 21
 1486 format = text
 1487 interleaving = field
 1488 header = marker "CO2_CONC \n"
 1489 series = 53, 1, 1
 1490 field = locations, CO2_concentration
 1491 structure = 2-vector, scalar
 1492 type = float, float
 1493 dependency = positions, positions
 1494 layout = 33, 12, 0, 10
 1495 end
 1496 </PRE>
 1497 <P>
 1498 <H4><U><a name="HDREX6N7"></a>Example 6. Column Majority Data</U></H4>
 1499 <A NAME="IDX306"></A>
 1500 <A NAME="IDX307"></A>
 1501 <A NAME="IDX308"></A>
 1502 <A NAME="IDX309"></A>
 1503 <P>
 1504 The General Array Importer assumes that the order of the data it
 1505 imports is row majority (last index varies fastest).
 1506 That is, on a 2-dimensional n &times; m grid, the order of data is:
 1507 <PRE>
 1508 f(X<SUB>0</SUB>,Y<SUB>0</SUB>), f(X<SUB>0</SUB>,Y<SUB>1</SUB>), ..., f(X<SUB>0</SUB>,Y<SUB>m</SUB>), f(X<SUB>1</SUB>,Y<SUB>0</SUB>), f(X<SUB>1</SUB>,Y<SUB>1</SUB>), ...
 1509 </PRE>
 1510 <P>
 1511 If the order of data is column majority (first index varies fastest),
 1512 the order of data is:
 1513 <PRE>
 1514 f(X<SUB>0</SUB>,Y<SUB>0</SUB>), f(X<SUB>1</SUB>,Y<SUB>0</SUB>), ..., f(X<SUB>n</SUB>,Y<SUB>0</SUB>), f(X<SUB>0</SUB>,Y<SUB>1</SUB>), f(X<SUB>1</SUB>, Y<SUB>1</SUB>), ...
 1515 </PRE>
 1516 <P>
 1517 The General Array Importer will accept column-majority data if you
 1518 select "Column" for the <TT><STRONG>Data order</STRONG></TT>
 1519 option in the Data Prompter.
 1520 <P>
 1521 The file <TT>/usr/local/dx/samples/data/temp_wind.lis.</TT> contains
 1522 data in column majority order.
 1523 A header file that imports this data is:
 1524 <PRE>
 1525 file = temp_wind.lis
 1526 grid = 144 x 73
 1527 format = text
 1528 interleaving = field
 1529 majority = column
 1530 header = lines 9
 1531 field = temperature, wind_velocity
 1532 structure = scalar, 2-vector
 1533 type = float, float
 1534 dependency = positions, positions
 1535 layout = 39, 14, 0, 14
 1536 positions = regular, regular, -178.75, 2.5, 90.0, -2.5
 1537 end
 1538 </PRE>
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