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2 CONTENTS OF THIS FILE
5 * Quickstart
6 * Requirements and notes
7 * Optional server requirements
8 * Installation
9 * Reinstall
10 * Building and customizing your site
11 * Multisite configuration
12 * Multilingual configuration
18 - PHP 7.4.0 (or greater) (https://php.net).
20 In the instructions below, replace the version x.y.z with the specific version
21 you wish to download. Example: 8.6.0.zip. You can find the latest stable version
22 at https://www.drupal.org/project/drupal.
24 Download and extract the Drupal package:
25 - curl -sS https://ftp.drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-x.y.z.zip --output drupal-x.y.z.zip
26 - unzip drupal-x.y.z.zip
27 - cd /path/to/drupal-x.y.z
28 - php core/scripts/drupal quick-start
30 Wait… installation can take a minute or two. A successful installation will
31 result in opening the new site in your browser.
33 Run the following command for a list of available options that you may need to
34 configure quick-start:
35 - php core/scripts/drupal quick-start --help
37 Follow the instructions in the REINSTALL section below to start over.
39 NOTE: This quick start solution uses PHP's built-in web server and is not
40 intended for production use. Read more about how to run Drupal in a production
41 environment below.
43 REQUIREMENTS AND NOTES
46 Drupal requires:
48 - A web server with PHP support, for example:
49 - Apache 2.4.7 (or greater) (http://httpd.apache.org/).
50 - Nginx 1.1 (or greater) (http://nginx.com/).
51 - PHP 7.4.0 (or greater) (http://php.net/). For better security support it is
52 recommended to update to at least 8.1.0.
53 - One of the following databases:
54 - MySQL 5.7.8 (or greater) (http://www.mysql.com/).
55 - MariaDB 10.3.7 (or greater) (https://mariadb.org/). MariaDB is a fully
56 compatible drop-in replacement for MySQL.
57 - Percona Server 5.7.8 (or greater) (http://www.percona.com/). Percona
58 Server is a backwards-compatible replacement for MySQL.
59 - PostgreSQL 10 (or greater) (http://www.postgresql.org/).
60 - SQLite 3.26 (or greater) (http://www.sqlite.org/).
62 For more detailed information about Drupal requirements, including a list of
63 PHP extensions and configurations that are required, see "System requirements"
64 (https://www.drupal.org/docs/system-requirements) in the Drupal.org online
67 For detailed information on how to configure a test server environment using a
68 variety of operating systems and web servers, see "Local server setup"
69 (https://www.drupal.org/node/157602) in the Drupal.org online documentation.
71 Note that all directories mentioned in this document are always relative to the
72 directory of your Drupal installation, and commands are meant to be run from
73 this directory (except for the initial commands that create that directory).
75 OPTIONAL SERVER REQUIREMENTS
78 - If you want to use Drupal's "Clean URLs" feature on an Apache web server, you
79 will need the mod_rewrite module and the ability to use local .htaccess
80 files. For Clean URLs support on IIS, see "Clean URLs with IIS"
81 (https://www.drupal.org/node/3854) in the Drupal.org online documentation.
83 - If you plan to use XML-based services such as RSS aggregation, you will need
84 PHP's XML extension. This extension is enabled by default on most PHP
87 - To serve gzip compressed CSS and JS files on an Apache web server, you will
88 need the mod_headers module and the ability to use local .htaccess files.
90 - Some Drupal functionality (e.g., checking whether Drupal and contributed
91 modules need updates, RSS aggregation, etc.) require that the web server be
92 able to go out to the web and download information. If you want to use this
93 functionality, you need to verify that your hosting provider or server
94 configuration allows the web server to initiate outbound connections. Most web
95 hosting setups allow this.
100 1. Download and extract Drupal.
102 You can obtain the latest Drupal release from https://www.drupal.org -- the
103 files are available in .tar.gz and .zip formats and can be extracted using
104 most compression tools.
106 To download and extract the files, on a typical Unix/Linux command line, use
107 the following commands (assuming you want version x.y.z of Drupal in .tar.gz
110 wget https://www.drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-x.y.z.tar.gz
111 tar -zxvf drupal-x.y.z.tar.gz
113 This will create a new directory drupal-x.y.z/ containing all Drupal files
114 and directories. Then, to move the contents of that directory into a
115 directory within your web server's document root or your public HTML
116 directory, continue with this command:
118 mv drupal-x.y.z/* drupal-x.y.z/.htaccess drupal-x.y.z/.csslintrc drupal-x.y.z/.editorconfig drupal-x.y.z/.eslintignore drupal-x.y.z/.eslintrc.json drupal-x.y.z/.gitattributes /path/to/your/installation
120 You can also download the latest version of Drupal using Git on the command
121 line and set up a repository by following the instructions at
122 https://www.drupal.org/project/drupal/git-instructions for "Setting up
123 repository for the first time".
125 Once you have downloaded Drupal successfully, you may install Composer
126 globally using the instructions at
129 With Composer installed, run the following command from the Drupal web root:
131 composer install
133 2. Create the Drupal database.
135 Because Drupal stores all site information in a database, the Drupal
136 installer will attempt to create this database for you. If you create the
137 database manually, you must grant Drupal certain database privileges (such as
138 the ability to create tables). For details, consult INSTALL.mysql.txt,
139 INSTALL.pgsql.txt, or INSTALL.sqlite.txt. You may also need to consult your
140 web hosting provider for instructions specific to your web host.
142 Take note of the username, password, database name, and hostname as you
143 create the database. You will enter this information during the install.
145 3. Run the install script.
147 To run the install script, point your browser to the base URL of your
148 website (e.g., http://www.example.com).
150 You will be guided through several screens to set up the database, add the
151 site maintenance account (the first user, also known as user/1), and provide
152 basic website settings.
154 During installation, several files and directories need to be created, which
155 the install script will try to do automatically. However, on some hosting
156 environments, manual steps are required, and the install script will tell
157 you that it cannot proceed until you fix certain issues. This is normal and
158 does not indicate a problem with your server.
160 The most common steps you may need to perform are:
162 a. Missing files directory.
164 The install script will attempt to create a public file storage directory
165 in the default location at sites/default/files (the location of the files
166 directory may be changed after Drupal is installed).
168 If auto-creation fails, you can create the directory yourself. (If you are
169 creating a multisite installation, substitute the correct sites directory
170 for sites/default; see the Multisite Configuration section of this file,
171 below.) Sample commands from a Unix/Linux command line:
173 mkdir sites/default/files
174 chmod a+w sites/default/files
176 Alternatively, you can make the install script work by changing
177 permissions on the sites/default directory. The web server can then
178 create the files directory within it for you.
180 For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can grant everyone
181 (including the web server) permission to write to the sites/default
182 directory with this command:
184 chmod a+w sites/default
186 Then re-run install.php (e.g. by clicking "try again" at the bottom of
187 the Requirements problem page. Once the files directory is created, you
188 will need to grant everyone (including the web server) permission to
189 write to it with this command:
191 chmod a+w sites/default/files
193 Be sure to set the permissions for the default directory back after the
194 installation is finished! (Leave the files directory writable.)
195 Sample command:
197 chmod go-w sites/default
199 b. Missing settings file.
201 Drupal will try to automatically create a settings.php configuration file,
202 which is normally in the directory sites/default (to avoid problems when
203 upgrading, Drupal is not packaged with this file). If auto-creation fails,
204 you will need to create this file yourself, using the file
205 sites/default/default.settings.php as a template.
207 For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can make a copy of the
208 default.settings.php file with the command:
210 cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php
212 Next, grant write privileges to the file to everyone (including the web
213 server) with the command:
215 chmod a+w sites/default/settings.php
217 Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
218 Sample command:
220 chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
222 c. Write permissions after install.
224 The install script will attempt to write-protect the settings.php file and
225 the sites/default directory after saving your configuration. If this
226 fails, you will be notified, and you can do it manually. Sample commands
227 from a Unix/Linux command line:
229 chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
230 chmod go-w sites/default
232 4. Verify that the site is working.
234 When the install script finishes, you will be logged in with the site
235 maintenance account on a "Welcome" page. If the default Drupal theme is not
236 displaying properly and links on the page result in "Page Not Found" errors,
237 you may be experiencing problems with clean URLs. Visit
238 https://www.drupal.org/docs/8/clean-urls-in-drupal-8 to troubleshoot.
240 5. Change file system storage settings (optional).
242 The files directory created in step 3 is the default file system path used to
243 store all uploaded files, as well as some temporary files created by
244 Drupal. After installation, you can modify the file system path to store
245 uploaded files in a different location.
247 It is not necessary to modify this path, but you may wish to change it if:
249 - Your site runs multiple Drupal installations from a single codebase (modify
250 the file system path of each installation to a different directory so that
251 uploads do not overlap between installations).
253 - Your site runs on a number of web servers behind a load balancer or reverse
254 proxy (modify the file system path on each server to point to a shared file
257 - You want to restrict access to uploaded files.
259 To modify the file system path:
261 a. Ensure that the new location for the path exists and is writable by the
262 web server. For example, to create a new directory named uploads and grant
263 write permissions, use the following commands on a Unix/Linux command
266 mkdir uploads
267 chmod a+w uploads
269 b. Open your settings.php in a plain-text editor, and uncomment (remove the #
270 at the start of line) this line:
272 # $settings['file_public_path'] = 'sites/default/files';
274 Enter the desired path and save the file.
276 If you want to use private file storage, you need to uncomment (remove
277 the # at the start of line) the following line in settings.php:
279 # $settings['file_private_path'] = '';
281 Enter the path for private files and save the file.
283 Changing the file system path after files have been uploaded may cause
284 unexpected problems on an existing site. If you modify the file system path
285 on an existing site, remember to copy all files from the original location
286 to the new location.
288 6. Revoke documentation file permissions (optional).
290 Some administrators suggest making the documentation files, especially
291 CHANGELOG.txt, non-readable so that the exact version of Drupal you are
292 running is slightly more difficult to determine. If you wish to implement
293 this optional security measure, from a Unix/Linux command line you can use
294 the following command:
296 chmod a-r core/CHANGELOG.txt
298 Note that the example only affects CHANGELOG.txt. To completely hide all
299 documentation files from public view, repeat this command for each of the
300 Drupal documentation files in the installation directory, substituting the
301 name of each file for CHANGELOG.txt in the example.
303 For more information on setting file permissions, see "Modifying Linux,
304 Unix, and Mac file permissions" (https://www.drupal.org/node/202483) or
305 "Modifying Windows file permissions" (https://www.drupal.org/node/202491) in
306 the Drupal.org online documentation.
308 7. Set up independent "cron" maintenance jobs.
310 Many Drupal modules have tasks that must be run periodically, including the
311 Search module (building and updating the index used for keyword searching),
312 the Aggregator module (retrieving feeds from other sites), and the System
313 module (performing routine maintenance and pruning of database tables). These
314 tasks are known as "cron maintenance tasks", named after the Unix/Linux
315 "cron" utility.
317 When you install Drupal, its built-in cron feature is enabled, which
318 automatically runs the cron tasks periodically, triggered by people visiting
319 pages of your site. You can configure the built-in cron feature by navigating
320 to Administration > Configuration > System > Cron.
322 It is also possible to run the cron tasks independent of site visits; this is
323 recommended for most sites. To do this, you will need to set up an automated
324 process to visit the page /cron on your site, which executes the cron
327 The URL of the cron page requires a "cron key" to protect against
328 unauthorized access. Your site's cron key is automatically generated during
329 installation and is specific to your site. The full URL of the page, with the
330 cron key, is available in the "Cron maintenance tasks" section of the Status
331 report page at Administration > Reports > Status report.
333 As an example of how to set up this automated process, you can use the
334 crontab utility on Unix/Linux systems. The following crontab line uses the
335 wget command to visit the cron page, and runs each hour, on the hour:
337 0 * * * * wget -O - -q -t 1 http://example.com/cron/YOURKEY
339 Replace the text "http://example.com/cron/YOURKEY" in the example with the
340 full URL displayed under "Cron maintenance tasks" on the "Status report"
343 More information about cron maintenance tasks is available at
344 https://www.drupal.org/cron, and sample cron shell scripts can be found in
345 the core/scripts/ directory. (Note that these scripts must be customized like
346 the above example, to add your site-specific cron key and domain name.)
351 Drupal can be reinstalled without downloading and extracting the Drupal release.
353 1. Drop all the tables in your database.
355 2. Remove everything in sites/default/files.
357 3. Remove sites/default/settings.php.
359 4. Follow the Installation Instructions above starting from Step 3 (Run the
360 install script).
362 BUILDING AND CUSTOMIZING YOUR SITE
365 A new installation of Drupal defaults to a very basic configuration. To extend
366 your site, you use "modules" and "themes". A module is a plugin that adds
367 functionality to Drupal, while a theme changes the look of your site. The core
368 of Drupal provides several optional modules and themes, and you can download
369 more at https://www.drupal.org/project/project_module and
372 Do not mix downloaded or custom modules and themes with Drupal's core modules
373 and themes. Drupal's modules and themes are located in the /core/modules and
374 /core/themes directories, while the modules and themes you add to Drupal are
375 normally placed in the /modules and /themes directories. If you run a multisite
376 installation, you can also place modules and themes in the site-specific
377 directories -- see the Multisite Configuration section, below.
379 Never edit Drupal's core modules and themes; instead, use the hooks available in
380 the Drupal API. To modify the behavior of Drupal, develop a module as described
381 at https://www.drupal.org/developing/modules. To modify the look of Drupal,
382 create a subtheme as described at https://www.drupal.org/node/2165673, or a
383 completely new theme as described at https://www.drupal.org/docs/8/theming
385 MULTISITE CONFIGURATION
388 A single Drupal installation can host several Drupal-powered sites, each with
389 its own individual configuration.
391 For this to work you need the file sites/sites.php to exist. Make a copy of
392 the example.sites.php file:
394 $ cp sites/example.sites.php sites/sites.php
396 Additional site configurations are created in subdirectories within the 'sites'
397 directory. Each subdirectory must have a 'settings.php' file, which specifies
398 the configuration settings. The easiest way to create additional sites is to
399 copy file 'default.settings.php' from the 'sites/default' directory into the
400 new site directory with file name 'settings.php' and modify as appropriate.
401 The new directory name is constructed from the site's URL. The configuration
402 for www.example.com could be in 'sites/example.com/settings.php' (note that
403 'www.' should be omitted if users can access your site at http://example.com/).
405 $ cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/example.com/settings.php
407 Sites do not have to have a different domain. You can also use subdomains and
408 subdirectories for Drupal sites. For example, example.com, sub.example.com, and
409 sub.example.com/site3 can all be defined as independent Drupal sites. The setup
410 for a configuration such as this would look like the following:
417 When searching for a site configuration (for example www.sub.example.com/site3),
418 Drupal will search for configuration files in the following order, using the
419 first configuration it finds:
429 If you are installing on a non-standard port, the port number is treated as the
430 deepest subdomain. For example: http://www.example.com:8080/ could be loaded
431 from sites/8080.www.example.com/. The port number will be removed according to
432 the pattern above if no port-specific configuration is found, just like a real
435 Each site configuration can have its own site-specific modules and themes in
436 addition to those installed in the standard 'modules' and 'themes' directories.
437 To use site-specific modules or themes, simply create a 'modules' or 'themes'
438 directory within the site configuration directory. For example, if
439 sub.example.com has a custom theme and a custom module that should not be
440 accessible to other sites, the setup would look like this:
447 For more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration
448 settings, consult https://www.drupal.org/docs/8/multisite
450 For more information on configuring Drupal's file system path in a multisite
451 configuration, see step 6 above.
453 MULTILINGUAL CONFIGURATION
456 By default, Drupal is installed in one language, and further languages may be
457 installed later.
459 For detailed instructions, visit