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2 <title>Using X</title>
5 This chapter provides some hints and tips for using DOSEMU in X.
9 <title>Basic information</title>
12 If you start <command>dosemu</command> in X it brings up its own window,
13 in which you can
14 also execute graphical programs such as games. To force text-only execution
15 of DOSEMU in an xterm or other terminal (konsole, gnome-terminal, and so on),
16 you need to run <command>dosemu -t</command>.
20 Use <command>dosemu -w</command> to start DOSEMU in fullscreen mode.
21 When running DOSEMU,
22 you can flip between fullscreen and windowed mode by pressing
24 The graphics window is resizeable.
28 Some DOS applications want precise mouse control that is only possible
29 if the mouse cursor is trapped in the DOSEMU window. To enable this you
30 need to grab the mouse by pressing <Ctrl><Alt><Home>.
31 Similarly, you can grab the keyboard by pressing
32 <Ctrl><Alt><K>, or
33 <Ctrl><Alt><Shift><K> if your
34 window manager already grabs <Ctrl><Alt><K>.
35 After you grab the keyboard
36 all key combinations (including <Alt><Tab> and so on)
37 are passed to DOSEMU.
38 In fullscreen mode the mouse and keyboard are both automatically grabbed.
42 Use <Ctrl><Alt><Pause> to pause and unpause
43 the DOSEMU session, which is useful if you want it to sit silently
44 in the background when it is eating too much CPU time.
45 Press <Ctrl><Alt><PgDn> or click the close button
46 of the window to exit DOSEMU.
50 DOSEMU uses bitmapped internal fonts by default, so it can accurately
51 simulate a real VGA card text mode. It is also possible to use X fonts.
52 The advantages of these is that they may be easier on the eyes, and
53 are faster, in particular if you use DOSEMU remotely. Any native DOS font
54 setting utilities do not work, however. To set an X font use the
55 provided xmode.com utility, using
57 xmode -font vga
59 at the DOS prompt or
61 $_X_font = "vga"
63 in dosemu.conf. The provided fonts are vga, vga8x19, vga11x19, vga10x24,
64 vga12x30, vga-cp866, and vga10x20-cp866.
68 If the mouse is not grabbed, then you can copy and paste text if the DOSEMU
69 window is in text mode. This uses the standard X mechanism: select by
70 dragging the left mouse button, and paste by pressing the middle mouse
76 <title> More detailed information, hints and tips</title>
79 What you might take care of:
88 If backspace and delete do not work, you can try
89 'xmodmap -e "keycode 22 = 0xff08"' to get use of your backspace key, and
95 'xmodmap -e "keycode 107 = 0xffff"' to get use of your delete key.
101 Make sure DOSEMU has X support compiled in. The configure script
102 complains loudly if it does not find X development libraries.
108 There are some X-related configuration options for dosemu.conf.
109 See the file itself for details.
115 Keyboard support of course depends on your X keyboard mappings (xmodmap).
116 If certain keys don't work (like Pause, Backspace,...), it *might* be
117 because you haven't defined them in your xmodmap, or defined to something
118 other than DOSEMU expects.
123 using the provided icon (dosemu.xpm):
132 you need the xpm (pixmaps) package. If you're not sure, look for
133 a file like /usr/X11R6/lib/libXpm.so.*
139 you also need a window manager which supports pixmaps. Fvwm is fine,
140 but I can't tell you about others. Twm probaby won't do.
146 copy dosemu.xpm to where you usually keep your pixmap (not bitmap!)
147 files (perhaps /usr/share/pixmaps)
152 tell your window manager to use it. For fvwm, add the following
153 line to your fvwmrc file:
160 Icon "xdosemu" dosemu.xpm
166 This assumes you have defined a PixmapPath. Otherwise, specify the
167 entire pathname.
173 note that if you set a different icon name than "xdosemu" in your
174 dosemu.conf, you will also have to change the fvwmrc entry.
180 restart the window manager. There's usually an option in the
181 root menu to do so.
190 Now you should see the icon whenever you iconify xdosemu.
194 Note that the xdosemu program itself does not include the icon - that's
195 why you have to tell the window manager. I chose to do it this way
196 to avoid xdosemu <emphasis>requiring</emphasis> the Xpm library.
202 If anything else does not work as expected, don't panic :-)
203 Remember the thing is still under construction.
204 However, if you think it's a real bug, please tell me.
214 <title>The VGA Emulator</title>
217 In X, a VGA card is emulated. The same happens if you use the SDL library
218 using <command>dosemu -S</command>. This emulation (vgaemu) enables
219 X to run graphics modes.
223 Some features:
228 Video memory. 1 Mb is allocated. It is mapped with mmap() in the VGA
229 memory region of DOSEMU (0xa00000-0xbfffff) to support bank switching.
230 This is very i386-Linux specific, don't be surprised if it doesn't work
231 under NetBSD or another Linux flavour (Alpha/Sparc/MIPS/etc).
237 The DAC (Digital to Analog Converter). The DAC is completely emulated,
238 except for the pelmask. This is not difficult to implement, but it is
239 terribly slow because a change in the pelmask requires a complete redraw
240 of the screen. Fortunately, the pelmask changes aren't used often so
241 nobody will notice ;-)
247 The attribute controller is emulated.
253 The emulator emulates a basic Trident TVGA8900C graphics card.
254 All standard VGA modes are emulated, most VGA hardware features (mode-X,
255 320x240 and so on), some Trident extensions, and on
256 top of that many high-resolution VESA 2.0 modes, that were not present
257 in the original Trident card.
258 Some (very few) programs, such as Fast Tracker, play intimately with the
259 VGA hardware and may not work. As vgaemu improves these problems should
266 Nearly full VESA 2.0 support.
272 A VESA compatible video BIOS is mapped at 0xc00000. It is small because
273 it only contains some glue code and the BIOS fonts (8x8, 8x14, 8x16).
279 support for hi- and true-color modes (using Trident SVGA mode numbers
280 and bank switching)
286 Support for mode-X type graphics modes (non-chain4 modes as used by e.g. DOOM)
292 gamma correction for graphics modes
298 video memory size is configurable via dosemu.conf
304 initial graphics window size is configurable
310 The current hi- (16bpp) and true (24/32bpp) color support does
311 not allow resizing of the graphics window and gamma correction
312 is ignored.
318 As the typical graphics mode with 320x200x8 will be used often
319 with large scalings and modern graphics boards are pretty fast,
320 Steffen Winterfeldt added something to eat up your CPU time: you can turn on
321 the bilinear interpolation. It greatly improves the display
322 quality (but is rather slow as I haven't had time yet to implement
323 an optimized version - it's plain C for now).
324 If the bilinear filter is too slow, you might instead try the linear
325 filter which interpolates only horizontally.
329 Note that (bi)linear filtering is not available on all
330 VGA/X display combinations. The standard drawing routines
331 are used instead in such cases.
335 If a VGA mode is not supported on your current X display, the graphics
336 screen will just remain black. Note that this <emphasis remap="bf">does not</emphasis> mean
337 that DOSEMU has crashed.
341 The only unsupported VBE function is VGA state save/restore. But this
342 functionality is rarely used and its lack should not cause
343 too much problems.
347 VBE allows you to use the horizontal and vertical scrolling
348 function even in text modes. This feature is not implemented.
352 If you think it causes problems, the linear frame buffer (LFB)
353 can be turned of via dosemu.conf as well as the protected mode
354 interface. Note, however, that LFB modes are faster than
355 banked modes, even in DOSEMU.
359 The default VBE mode list defines a lot of medium resolution
360 modes suitable for games (like Duke3D). You can still
361 create your own modes via dosemu.conf. Note that you
362 cannot define the same mode twice; the second (and all
363 subsequent) definitions will be ignored.
367 Modes that are defined but cannot be supported due
368 to lack of video memory or because they cannot be
369 displayed on your X display, are marked as unsupported
370 in the VBE mode list (but are still in it).
374 The current interface between VGAEmu and X will try to update
375 all invalid video pages at a time. This may, particularly
376 in hi-res VBE/SVGA modes, considerably disturb DOSEMU's signal
377 handling. That cannot be helped for the moment, but will
378 be addressed soon (by running an extra update thread).
382 If you really think that this is the cause of your problem, you might
383 try to play with veut.max_max_len in env/video/render.c.
384 This variable limits the amount of video memory that is updated
385 during one timer interrupt. This way you can dramatically
386 reduce the load of screen updates, but at the same rate reduce your
387 display quality.
391 Gamma correction works in both 4 and 8 bit modes. It must be specified
392 as a float value, e.g. $_X_gamma=(1.0). Higher values
393 give brighter graphics, lower make them darker. Reasonable
394 values are within a range of 0.5 ... 2.0.
398 You can specify the video memory size that the VGA emulator
399 should use in dosemu.conf. The value will be rounded up
400 to the nearest 256 kbyte boundary. You should stick to typical
401 values like 1024, 2048 or 4096 as not to confuse DOS applications.
402 Note that whatever value you give, 4 bit modes are only
403 supported up to a size of 800x600.
407 You can influence the initial size of the graphics window in various
408 ways. Normally it will have the same size (in pixel) as the VGA graphics
409 mode, except for mode 0x13 (320x200, 256 colors), which will be scaled by
410 the value of <emphasis>mode13fact</emphasis> (defaults to 2).
411 Alternatively, you can directly specify a window size in dosemu.conf via
412 <emphasis>$_X_winsize</emphasis>. You can still resize the window later.
416 The config option <emphasis>$_X_fixed_aspect</emphasis> allows you to fix the aspect ratio
417 of the graphics window while resizing it. Alternatively, <emphasis>$_X_aspect_43</emphasis>
418 ties the aspect ratio to a value of 4:3. The idea behind this is that, whatever
419 the actual resolution of a graphics mode is in DOS, it is displayed on
420 a 4:3 monitor. This way you won't run into problems with modes such
421 as 640x200 (or even 320x200) which would look somewhat distorted otherwise.
425 For planar modes (for instance, most 16 colour modes, but also certain
426 256-colour modes: mode-X), vgaemu has to
427 switch to partial cpu emulation. This can be slow, but expect it to
428 improve over time.