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1 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
2 Version 1, February 1989
4 Copyright (C) 1989 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
5 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
7 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
8 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
12 The license agreements of most software companies try to keep users
13 at the mercy of those companies. By contrast, our General Public
14 License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
15 software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. The
16 General Public License applies to the Free Software Foundation's
17 software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it.
18 You can use it for your programs, too.
20 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
21 price. Specifically, the General Public License is designed to make
22 sure that you have the freedom to give away or sell copies of free
23 software, that you receive source code or can get it if you want it,
24 that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free
25 programs; and that you know you can do these things.
27 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
28 anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
29 These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
30 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
32 For example, if you distribute copies of a such a program, whether
33 gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
34 you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
35 source code. And you must tell them their rights.
37 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
38 (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
39 distribute and/or modify the software.
41 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
42 that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
43 software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
44 want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
45 that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
46 authors' reputations.
48 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
49 modification follow.
51 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
52 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
54 0. This License Agreement applies to any program or other work which
55 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be
56 distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The
57 "Program", below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based
58 on the Program" means either the Program or any work containing the
59 Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications. Each
60 licensee is addressed as "you".
62 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source
63 code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
64 appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
65 disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this
66 General Public License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any
67 other recipients of the Program a copy of this General Public License
68 along with the Program. You may charge a fee for the physical act of
69 transferring a copy.
71 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of
72 it, and copy and distribute such modifications under the terms of Paragraph
73 1 above, provided that you also do the following:
75 a) cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that
76 you changed the files and the date of any change; and
78 b) cause the whole of any work that you distribute or publish, that
79 in whole or in part contains the Program or any part thereof, either
80 with or without modifications, to be licensed at no charge to all
81 third parties under the terms of this General Public License (except
82 that you may choose to grant warranty protection to some or all
83 third parties, at your option).
85 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when
86 run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use
87 in the simplest and most usual way, to print or display an
88 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice
89 that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a
90 warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these
91 conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this General
92 Public License.
94 d) You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a
95 copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in
96 exchange for a fee.
98 Mere aggregation of another independent work with the Program (or its
99 derivative) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring
100 the other work under the scope of these terms.
102 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a portion or derivative of
103 it, under Paragraph 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
104 Paragraphs 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
106 a) accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
107 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of
108 Paragraphs 1 and 2 above; or,
110 b) accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
111 years, to give any third party free (except for a nominal charge
112 for the cost of distribution) a complete machine-readable copy of the
113 corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of
114 Paragraphs 1 and 2 above; or,
116 c) accompany it with the information you received as to where the
117 corresponding source code may be obtained. (This alternative is
118 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
119 received the program in object code or executable form alone.)
121 Source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making
122 modifications to it. For an executable file, complete source code means
123 all the source code for all modules it contains; but, as a special
124 exception, it need not include source code for modules which are standard
125 libraries that accompany the operating system on which the executable
126 file runs, or for standard header files or definitions files that
127 accompany that operating system.
129 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, distribute or transfer the
130 Program except as expressly provided under this General Public License.
131 Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, distribute or transfer
132 the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your rights to use
133 the Program under this License. However, parties who have received
134 copies, or rights to use copies, from you under this General Public
135 License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties
136 remain in full compliance.
138 5. By copying, distributing or modifying the Program (or any work based
139 on the Program) you indicate your acceptance of this license to do so,
140 and all its terms and conditions.
142 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
143 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original
144 licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these
145 terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the
146 recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
148 7. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
149 of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
150 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
151 address new problems or concerns.
153 Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
154 specifies a version number of the license which applies to it and "any
155 later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
156 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
157 Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
158 the license, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
161 8. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
162 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
163 to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
164 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
165 make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
166 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
167 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
169 NO WARRANTY
171 9. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
172 FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
173 OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
174 PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
175 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
176 MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
177 TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
178 PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
179 REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
181 10. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
182 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
183 REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
184 INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
185 OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
186 TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
187 YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
188 PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
189 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
191 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
193 Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
195 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
196 possible use to humanity, the best way to achieve this is to make it
197 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
200 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to
201 attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey
202 the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
203 "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
205 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
206 Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author>
208 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
209 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
210 the Free Software Foundation; either version 1, or (at your option)
211 any later version.
213 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
214 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
215 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
216 GNU General Public License for more details.
218 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
219 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
220 Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston MA 02110-1301 USA
223 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
225 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
226 when it starts in an interactive mode:
228 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19xx name of author
229 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
230 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
231 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
233 The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the
234 appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the
235 commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show
236 c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your
239 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
240 school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
241 necessary. Here a sample; alter the names:
243 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the
244 program `Gnomovision' (a program to direct compilers to make passes
245 at assemblers) written by James Hacker.
247 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
248 Ty Coon, President of Vice
250 That's all there is to it!