scala  2.13.1
About: Scala is a general purpose programming language designed to express common programming patterns in a concise, elegant, and type-safe way. It smoothly integrates features of object-oriented and functional languages, enabling Java and other programmers to be more productive. Source code.
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README.md

Welcome!

This is the official repository for the Scala Programming Language standard library, compiler, and language spec.

How to contribute

To contribute in this repo, please open a pull request from your fork of this repository.

We do have to ask you to sign the Scala CLA before we can merge any of your work, to protect its open source nature.

For more information on building and developing the core of Scala, make sure to read the rest of this README!

In order to get in touch with other Scala contributors, join scala/contributors (Gitter) or post on contributors.scala-lang.org (Discourse).

Bugs / issues

Please report bugs at the scala/bug issue tracker. This tracker is also where new contributors may find good first issues to work on.

We use the scala/scala-dev tracker for coordinating bigger work items.

Get in touch!

If you need some help with your PR at any time, please feel free to @-mention anyone from the list below, and we will do our best to help you out:

username talk to me about...
@adriaanm type checker, pattern matcher, infrastructure, language spec
@SethTisue getting started, build, developer docs, community build, Jenkins, library
@retronym compiler performance, weird compiler bugs, Java 8 lambdas, REPL
@szeiger collections, build
@lrytz back end, optimizer, named & default arguments, reporters
@Ichoran collections library, performance
@viktorklang concurrency, futures
@axel22 concurrency, parallel collections, specialization
@dragos specialization, back end
@janekdb documentation
@sjrd interactions with Scala.js

P.S.: If you have some spare time to help out around here, we would be delighted to add your name to this list!

Repository structure

scala/
+--build.sbt                 The main sbt build script
+--lib/                      Pre-compiled libraries for the build
+--src/                      All sources
   +---/library              Scala Standard Library
   +---/reflect              Scala Reflection
   +---/compiler             Scala Compiler
   +---/intellij             IntelliJ project templates
+--spec/                     The Scala language specification
+--scripts/                  Scripts for the CI jobs (including building releases)
+--test/                     The Scala test suite
   +---/files                Partest tests
   +---/junit                JUnit tests
   +---/scalacheck           ScalaCheck tests
+--build/                    [Generated] Build output directory

Get ready to contribute

Requirements

You need the following tools:

  • Java SDK. The baseline version is 8 for both 2.12.x and 2.13.x. It may be possible to use a later SDK for local development, but the CI will verify against the baseline version.
  • sbt (sbt 0.13 on the 2.12.x branch, sbt 1 on the 2.13.x branch)

MacOS and Linux work. Windows may work if you use Cygwin. Community help with keeping the build working on Windows is appreciated.

Tools we use

We are grateful for the following OSS licenses:

Build setup

Basics

During ordinary development, a new Scala build is built by the previously released version. For short we call the previous release "starr": the stable reference release. Building with starr is sufficient for most kinds of changes.

However, a full build of Scala (a bootstrap, as performed by our CI) requires two layers. This guarantees that every Scala version can build itself. If you change the code generation part of the Scala compiler, your changes will only show up in the bytecode of the library and compiler after a bootstrap. See below for how to do a bootstrap build locally.

For history on how the current scheme was arrived at, see https://groups.google.com/d/topic/scala-internals/gp5JsM1E0Fo/discussion.

Using the sbt build

Once you've started an sbt session you can run one of the core commands:

  • compile compiles all sub-projects (library, reflect, compiler, scaladoc, etc)
  • scala / scalac run the REPL / compiler directly from sbt (accept options / arguments)
  • dist/mkBin generates runner scripts (scala, scalac, etc) in build/quick/bin
  • dist/mkPack creates a build in the Scala distribution format in build/pack
  • test runs the JUnit test, testOnly *immutable.ListTest runs a subset
  • partest runs partest tests (accepts options, try partest --help)
  • scalacheck/test runs scalacheck tests, scalacheck/testOnly *FloatFormatTest runs a subset
  • publishLocal publishes a distribution locally (can be used as scalaVersion in other sbt projects)
    • Optionally set baseVersionSuffix := "-bin-abcd123-SNAPSHOT" where abcd123 is the git hash of the revision being published. You can also use something custom like "-bin-mypatch". This changes the version number from 2.12.2-SNAPSHOT to something more stable (2.12.2-bin-abcd123-SNAPSHOT).
    • Note that the -bin string marks the version binary compatible. Using it in sbt will cause the scalaBinaryVersion to be 2.12. If the version is not binary compatible, we recommend using -pre, e.g., 2.13.0-pre-abcd123-SNAPSHOT.
    • Optionally set publishArtifact in (Compile, packageDoc) in ThisBuild := false to skip generating / publishing API docs (speeds up the process).

If a command results in an error message like a module is not authorized to depend on itself, it may be that a global sbt plugin is resulting in a cyclical dependency. Try disabling global sbt plugins (perhaps by temporarily commenting them out in ~/.sbt/1.0/plugins/plugins.sbt).

Sandbox

We recommend to keep local test files in the sandbox directory which is listed in the .gitignore of the Scala repo.

Incremental compilation

Note that sbt's incremental compilation is often too coarse for the Scala compiler codebase and re-compiles too many files, resulting in long build times (check sbt#1104 for progress on that front). In the meantime you can:

  • Use IntelliJ IDEA for incremental compiles (see IDE Setup below) - its incremental compiler is a bit less conservative, but usually correct.

Bootstrapping locally

To perform a bootstrap using sbt

  • first a build is published either locally or on a temporary repository,
  • then a separate invocation of sbt (using the previously built version as starr) is used to build / publish the actual build.

Assume the current starr version is 2.12.0 (defined in versions.properties) and the current version is 2.12.0-SNAPSHOT (defined in build.sbt). To perform a local bootstrap:

  • Run publishLocal (you may want to specify a custom version suffix and skip generating API docs, see above).
  • Quit sbt and start a new sbt instance using sbt -Dstarr.version=<version> where <version> is the version number you published locally.

IDE setup

We suggest using IntelliJ IDEA (see src/intellij/README.md.

(Metals should also work, but we don't yet have instructions or sample configuration for that. A pull request in this area would be exceedingly welcome.)

In order to use IntelliJ's incremental compiler:

  • run dist/mkBin in sbt to get a build and the runner scripts in build/quick/bin
  • run "Build" - "Make Project" in IntelliJ

Now you can edit and build in IntelliJ and use the scripts (compiler, REPL) to directly test your changes. You can also run the scala, scalac and partest commands in sbt. Enable "Ant mode" (explained above) to prevent sbt's incremental compiler from re-compiling (too many) files before each partest invocation.

Coding guidelines

Our guidelines for contributing are explained in CONTRIBUTING.md. It contains useful information on our coding standards, testing, documentation, how we use git and GitHub and how to get your code reviewed.

You may also want to check out the following resources:

Scala CI

Build Status

Once you submit a PR your commits will be automatically tested by the Scala CI.

If you see a spurious build failure, you can post /rebuild as a PR comment. The scabot README lists all available commands.

If you'd like to test your patch before having everything polished for review, feel free to submit a PR and add the WIP label. In case your WIP branch contains a large number of commits (that you didn't clean up / squash yet for review), consider adding [ci: last-only] to the PR title. That way only the last commit will be tested, saving some energy and CI-resources. Note that inactive WIP PRs will be closed eventually, which does not mean the change is being rejected.

CI performs a full bootstrap. The first task, validate-publish-core, publishes a build of your commit to the temporary repository https://scala-ci.typesafe.com/artifactory/scala-pr-validation-snapshots. Note that this build is not yet bootstrapped, its bytecode is built using the current starr. The version number is 2.12.2-bin-abcd123-SNAPSHOT where abcd123 is the commit hash. For binary incompatible builds, the version number is 2.13.0-pre-abcd123-SNAPSHOT.

You can use Scala builds in the validation repository locally by adding a resolver and specifying the corresponding scalaVersion:

$ sbt
> set resolvers += "pr" at "https://scala-ci.typesafe.com/artifactory/scala-pr-validation-snapshots/"
> set scalaVersion := "2.12.2-bin-abcd123-SNAPSHOT"
> console

Nightly builds

The Scala CI builds nightly download releases and publishes them to the following locations:

The CI also publishes nightly API docs:

Using a nightly build in sbt is explained in this Stack Overflow answer

Scala CI internals

The Scala CI runs as a Jenkins instance on scala-ci.typesafe.com, configured by a chef cookbook at scala/scala-jenkins-infra.

The build bot that watches PRs, triggers testing builds and applies the "reviewed" label after an LGTM comment is in the scala/scabot repo.

Community build

The Scala community build is an important method for testing Scala releases. A community build can be launched for any Scala commit, even before the commit's PR has been merged. That commit is then used to build a large number of open-source projects from source and run their test suites.

To request a community build run on your PR, just ask in a comment on the PR and a Scala team member (probably @SethTisue) will take care of it. (details)

Community builds run on the Scala Jenkins instance. The jobs are named ..-integrate-community-build. See the scala/community-builds repo.