samhain  4.4.9
About: Samhain is a file integrity / host-based intrusion detection system (HIDS). It provides file integrity checking and logfile monitoring/analysis, as well as rootkit detection, port monitoring, detection of rogue SUID executables, and hidden processes.
  Fossies Dox: samhain-4.4.9.tar.gz  ("unofficial" and yet experimental doxygen-generated source code documentation)  

samhain Documentation

Some Fossies usage hints in advance:

  1. To see the Doxygen generated documentation please click on one of the items in the steelblue colored "quick index" bar above or use the side panel at the left which displays a hierarchical tree-like index structure and is adjustable in width.
  2. If you want to search for something by keyword rather than browse for it you can use the client side search facility (using Javascript and DHTML) that provides live searching, i.e. the search results are presented and adapted as you type in the Search input field at the top right.
  3. Doxygen doesn't incorporate all member files but just a definable subset (basically the main project source code files that are written in a supported language). So to search and browse all member files you may visit the Fossies samhain-4.4.9.tar.gz contents page and use the Fossies standard member browsing features (also with source code highlighting and additionally with optional code folding).


  +++                                                                     +++
  +++ NOTE: The distribution package contains a much more detailed MANUAL +++
  +++                                                                     +++
  +++        ----  See the docs/ subdirectory ----                        +++
  +++                                                                     +++

	- INSTALL             basic install procedure

	- PGP SIGNATURES      signing database and config file

	- CLIENT/SERVER       how to install and use with client/server mode
                              for distributed host monitoring

	- STEALTH             how to install and use with stealth mode enabled

	- USAGE               some usage examples 

	- CAVEATS             what the name says 

	- START AT BOOT TIME  how to start the daemon during the boot sequence

	- CONFIGURE OPTIONS   overview of supported options, and defaults

	- TESTING             test suite (also useful to see EXAMPLES)


	Unpack the source with:

		gunzip -c samhain-current.tar.gz | tar xvf -

	This will drop two files in your current directory:


	To check authenticity and integrity of the source code, verify
	the PGP signature on samhain-{version}.tar.gz
	(public PGP key for Rainer Wichmann at

		gpg --verify samhain-{version}.tar.gz.asc samhain-{version}.tar.gz

	Then unpack samhain-{version}.tar.gz:

		gunzip -c samhain-{version}.tar.gz | tar xvf -
		cd samhain-{version}

	If you have an incarnation of 'dialog' (xdialog, dialog, lxdialog)
	installed, you can use the GUI install tool:


	Otherwise use the commands:

		./configure [options]
		su root
		make install

	At least the following executable will be built:

	  +++ samhain +++ the monitoring agent, without any
                          client/server support (i.e. local use only)

	Additional executables will be built if you compile in client/server 
	and/or stealth mode (see below).

	The 'make install' target will strip the executable(s), i.e.
	discard symbols.

	For configuring the install paths/locations, 
	see the MANUAL.

	By default, samhain will report on the checksums of the database
	and configuration files on startup.

	You can always (clear)sign the database (once initialized) 
        with GnuPG, as well as the configuration file
	(recommended: gpg -a --clearsign --not-dash-escaped FILE).

	However, to have samhain check these signatures, rather than ignoring
	them, you need GnuPG and you must compile samhain with the option

		./configure --with-gpg=PATH

	where PATH is the path to the gpg/pgp binary. 

	Samhain will invoke gpg only after checking that 
	only trusted users (by default: root and the effective user) 
	have write access to any element in the path.

	The public key for verification must be in the keyring of the
	effective user (usually root)

	For more security, it is possible to compile in the checksum
	of the GnuPG executable, and/or the key fingerprint. See
	the MANUAL for more details.

	The public key will be searched in the gpg home directory 
	(~/.gnupg/) of the effective user (usually root).
	The key identification and fingerprint will be reported.


	samhain supports logging to a central server via TCP/IP.
	To enable this option, use the ./configure option

		./configure --enable-network=client|server [more options]

	NOTE: client and server are __distict__ applications, and must be
	built seperately. By default, installation names and paths are
	different. Do not blame us if you abuse './configure' options to 
	cause name clashes, if you install both on the same host.

	The following executables are built:
	  +++ samhain (client) +++ the monitoring agent, 
				   with client code included
				   if --enable-network=client

	  +++ yule    (server) +++ the log server  (no monitoring, just report
				   collecting !!!)
				   if --enable-network=server

	  +++ samhain_setpwd   +++ a utility program to set the password of
                                   a monitoring agent (see man page samhain.8).
				   Use it without options to get help. 

	To set up a monitoring agent, do the following:

 	  -- select a (16-digit hexadecimal) password. To generate
	     a random password, you can use:

		./yule -G

	  -- use 'samhain_setpwd samhain <suffix> <password>'
	     to generate an agent 'samhain.suffix' with the selected password
	     (you can rename the agent afterwards, of course) 

	  -- use 'yule -P password' to compute an entry to register the agent

	  -- in the servers's configuration file, insert the computed entry
	     (replace HOSTNAME with the host, on which the agent will run)
	     in the section called [Clients]

	By default, client/server authentication 
	is done with the SRP (Secure Remote Password) protocol.

	It is also possible to store configuration and database files
	on the server. See the manual for details.


	samhain supports a 'stealth' mode of operation, meaning that
	the program can be run without any obvious trace of its presence
	on disk. The supplied facilities are more sophisticated than 
	just running the program under a different name,
	and might thwart efforts using 'standard' Unix commands,
	but they will not resist a search using dedicated utilities. 
	To enable this mode, use the ./configure option

		./configure --enable-stealth=XOR_VAL [more options]

	XOR_VAL must be a decimal number in the range 0, 128..255
	(using 0 will have no effect).

	The runtime executable will contain no printable strings revealing
	its nature or purpose (strings are xor'ed with XOR_VAL at compile 
	time, and decoded at runtime). 

	The configuration file is expected to be
	a postscript file with _uncompressed_ image data, wherein 
	the configuration data are hidden by steganography.
	To create a suitable image file from an existing image, 
	you may use e.g. the ImageMagick program 'convert', such as:

		convert +compress ima.jpg

	The following additional executable will be built:
	  +++ samhain_stealth +++ steganography utility program to hide/extract
				  the configuration file data in/from a 
				  postscript file with
				  _uncompressed_ image data.
				  Use it without options to get help. 

	Database and log file entries are xor'ed with XOR_VAL to 'mask' 
	printable strings as binary data. No steganography is supported 
	for them, as this would require image files of unreasonable large
	However, if the database/log file is an existing image (say, a .jpg
	file), the data will be appended to the end of the image data.
	The image will display normally, and on examination of the file,
	the add-on data will look like binary (image) data at first sight.
	The built-in utility to verify and print log file entries 
	will handle this situation transparently.

	To re-name samhain to something unsuspicious, use the configure option

		./configure --enable-install-name=NAME

	'make install' will then re-name samhain upon installation. Also,
	database, log file, and pid file will have 'samhain' replaced by


	Review the default configuration file that comes with the
	source distribution. Read the man page (samhain.8).

	initialize database:  samhain -t init

	check files:          samhain -t check

	run as daemon:        samhain -t check -D

	report to log server: samhain -t check -D -e warn

	start the log server: yule -S 

	samhain needs root permissions to check some system files. 
	The log server does not require root permissions, unless
	you use a privileged port (port number below 1024).
	If you use --enable-udp to listen on the syslog socket, you need
	to start the log server with root permissions (it will drop them
	after binding to the port).

	samhain checks the path to critical files (database, configuration)
	for write access by untrusted users. By default, only root and
	the effective user are trusted. More UIDs can be added as a
	compile options (some systems habe 'bin' as owner of the root

	On startup, samhain will report on signatures or checksums of
	database and configuration files. You better check these reports.

	Both startup and exit will be reported. If you are using samhain
	as daemon and start it at boot time, you may want to check that
	startup/exit corresponds with scheduled reboots.

	If the path to the samhain binary is defined in the configuration
	file, samhain will checksum the binary at startup and compare 
	at program termination. This will minimize the time available
	for an intruder to modify the binary. 

	Mail address:
	For offsite mail, you may have to set a mail relay host 
	in the configuration file.

	the easy way (supported on Linux, FreeBSD, HP-UX, AIX): 

		su root
		make install-boot



    -- basic options --

		--enable-network        Compile with client/server support.

		--enable-udp		Enable the server to listen on
					port 514/udp (syslog).

		--enable-srp            Use SRP protocol to authenticate to 
					log server.

		--with-gpg=PATH         Use GnuPG to verify database/config.
					The public key of the effective
					user (in ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg) 
					will be used.

		--enable-login-watch    Watch for login/logout events.

		--enable-stealth=XOR_VAL  Enable stealth mode, and set XOR_VAL.
					XOR_VAL must be decimal in 
					0..32 or 127..255
					and will be used to 'mask' literal 
					strings as binary data.
					(0 has no effect).

					As --with-stealth, but without
					steganographic hidden configuration

		--enable-nocl=PW        Enable command line parsing ONLY if
					PW is the first argument on the command
					line. If PW is "" (empty string),
					command line parsing is completely

		--enable-base=BASE      Set base for one-time pads. Must be
					ONE string (no space) made of TWO
					comma-separated integers in the range
					(The default is compile time.)
					Binaries compiled with different
					values cannot verify the audit trail(s)
					of each other.

    --   paths       --

		${install_name} is "samhain" by default
			(see --with-install-name=NAME )

		configuration:  /etc/${install_name}rc
		state data:     /var/lib/${install_name}
		log file:       /var/log/${install_name}_log
		lock/pid file:  /var/run/${install_name}.pid

		mandir:         /usr/local/man
		bindir:         /usr/local/sbin/

		--exec-prefix=EPREFIX	Set sbindir prefix (default
					is /usr/local, ie. binaries
					go to /usr/local/sbin)	

		--prefix=PREFIX		install directory
					(default is NONE)

		IF PREFIX = USR; then

		   configuration:  /etc/${install_name}rc
		   state data:     /var/lib/${install_name}
		   log file:       /var/log/${install_name}_log
		   lock/pid file:  /var/run/${install_name}.pid

		   mandir:         /usr/share/man
		   bindir:         /usr/sbin/

		IF PREFIX = OPT; then

		   configuration:  /etc/opt/${install_name}rc
		   state data:     /var/opt/${install_name}/${install_name}
		   log file:       /var/opt/${install_name}/${install_name}_log
		   lock/pid file:  /var/opt/${install_name}/${install_name}.pid

		   mandir:         /opt/${install_name}/man
		   bindir:         /opt/${install_name}/bin/

		IF PREFIX = (something else); then

		   If EPREFIX is not set, it will be set to PREFIX.
		   configuration:  PREFIX/etc/${install_name}rc
		   state data:     PREFIX/var/lib/${install_name}
		   log file:       PREFIX/var/log/${install_name}_log
		   lock/pid file:  PREFIX/var/run/${install_name}.pid

		   mandir:         PREFIX/share/man
		   bindir:         PREFIX/sbin/


		--with-config-file=FILE	Set path of configuration file
					(default is PREFIX/etc/samhainrc)

		--with-data-file=FILE	   Set path of data file
		--with-html-file=FILE	   Set path of server status html file

		--with-log-file=FILE	 Set path of log file
		--with-pid-file=FILE	 Set path of lock file

    --  other        --

		--with-checksum=CHECKSUM   Compile in TIGER checksum of the
					gpg/pgp binary.
					CHECKSUM must be the full
					line output by samhain or GnuPG when
					computing the checksum.

		--with-fp=FINGERPRINT   Compile in public key fingerprint.
					FINGERPRINT must be without spaces.
					Only useful in combination with
					If used, samhain will check the 
					fingerprint, but still report on the 
					used public key.

		--enable-identity=USER	Set user when dropping root privileges
					(default is the user "nobody").
					Only needed if there is no user
					'nobody' on your system 
					(check /etc/passwd)

		--with-port=PORT	Set port number for TCP/IP
					(default is 49777).
					Only needed if this port is already 
					used by some other application.

		--with-logserver=HOST	Set host address for log server
					(default is NULL).
					You can set this in the configuration
					file as well.

		--with-timeserver=HOST	Set host address for time server
					(default is NULL - use own clock).
					You can set this in the configuration
					file as well.

		--with-sender=SENDER	Set sender for e-mail
					(default is daemon).

		--enable-xml-log 	Use XML format for log file.

		--enable-debug		Enable extended debugging

		--enable-ptrace		Use anti-debugging code.

		--with-trusted=UID	Comma-separated list of UID's of
					users that are always trusted
					(default is 0 = root).
					You will need this only if the
					path to the config file has directories
					owned neither by 'root' nor by the
					(effective) user of the program. 

	For testing compilation etc., you may use the test suite:

		./test/ n [hostname]

	The argument 'n' is the number of the test to run. Some tests require
        that the (fully qualified) hostname be given as second argument.

	Without options, you will get a short help/usage message, listing
	each test, its purpose, and the name of the configuration file used.
	You may want to review the respective configuration file before
        running a test.

	Also listed are the scripts used for each test. If you have problems
	getting samhain to run, you may use these scripts as examples.