berkeley_upc_translator  2.28.4
About: Berkeley UPC (Unified Parallel C) is an extension of the C programming language designed for high performance computing on large-scale parallel machines. The Berkeley UPC-to-C translator (source distribution).
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This is the UPC-to-C translator component of the Berkeley UPC system.  

Note that you do not need to build this code to use Berkeley UPC. Our runtime
system by default uses a public translator (built from this source code) that we
provide on our website, via HTTP.

The translator code is derived from the Open64 compiler, open-sourced by Silicon
Graphics, and now largely maintained by the open source community and AMD.


Unfortunately, due to C++ portability issues the translator currently builds on
a limited number of systems and compilers.  The configurations that have been
most extensively tested are:

	- Linux x86-64 			(32- or 64-bit)
	- Apple macOS Intel x86		(32- or 64-bit)
	- Linux PowerPC (little-endian) (64-bit only)

   (Note bit width refers to the ABI of the translator binaries only - 
    all translators can generate code for any supported runtime platform)

The translator has been built and passed our testing on the following platforms
but we do not test these platforms as actively as those above:

	- Linux i686                    (32-bit only)
	- Linux PowerPC (big-endian)	(32- or 64-bit)
	- Solaris 11 Intel (i86pc)      (32- or 64-bit)
	- FreeBSD i386                  (32-bit only)
	- FreeBSD amd64                 (64-bit only)
	- OpenBSD i386                  (32-bit only)
	- OpenBSD amd64                 (64-bit only)
	- NetBSD i386                   (32-bit only)
	- NetBSD amd64                  (64-bit only)
	- Linux ARM			(32-bit only)
	- Linux ARM64           	(64-bit only)

We no longer support the following platforms.  While we could still build the
translator on these platforms when we last tested, we no longer test these
platforms.  No support will be provided for platform-specific bugs:

	- Linux IA64			(64-bit only)
	- Linux mips64el (SiCortex)	(64-bit only)
	- Apple OSX PowerPC		(32- or 64-bit)
	- Solaris 10 Intel (i86pc)      (32- or 64-bit)
	- Solaris 10 SPARC              (32- or 64-bit)
	- Compaq/HP Tru64/Alpha 
	- IBM AIX PowerPC 		(32-bit only)

On all of these platforms, g++ version 3.4 or above was used.  Success has been
reported using older versions of g++, but this has not been regularly tested.  
We primarily test with g++ 4.x through 10.x versions at this time, but see the
Release Notes section, below.

Our testing also indicates that the following compilers build correct translator
executables with no known platform-specific bugs:
	- Apple Xcode (including gcc, llvm-gcc and clang compilers)
	- gccfss distributed by Oracle (formerly Sun)
	- llvm-gcc-4.2.1 compilers (llvm-2.8)
	- Clang/clang++ compilers
	- Intel compilers (tested with various versions from v9.1 through v18.0)
And the following worked when we were last able to test (not recently):
	- PathScale compilers for x86-64 (tested with 6.0)
	- PathScale compilers version v3.3a_sicortex for MIPS64

Testing of the Open64 compiler distributed by AMD also appears to produce
correct results 99% of the time, but has at least one known bug.  Additionally,
only version 4.5.1 and earlier work - a translator built with 4.5.2+ will fail
to run (due to an undefined symbol).

You must have GNU 'make' on your system and use it to build the translator.
The build scripts will require that 'perl' and 'csh' be in your $PATH.

Neither yacc nor bison is required to build from these sources.  However,
if modifying the parser grammar (c-parse.y), you will need Berkeley yacc
(aka byacc) or GNU Bison.  Solaris yacc is known NOT to work, and other yacc
implementations are suspected not to.  If your system's default "yacc" is
neither of these supported variants, you will need to set the YACC variable
on the make command line, for instance to YACC=byacc or YACC='bison -y'.
We test mostly with byacc-1.9, and less with Bison-1.x and Bison-2.x.

Building and "installing" the translator

To facilitate eventually merging our UPC-specific changes into the general
Open64 code base, we have changed as little as possible about the Open64 build

1) You must use GNU 'make' to build the translator (on some systems it will be
   called 'gmake', on others, just 'make':  try 'make --version' to determine).

2) Run GNU make to build the translator:

    make    // or 'gmake', if that is what GNU make is called on your system

   You must either ensure that the versions of gcc/g++/bison that you wish to
   use are in your $PATH, or you may set the CC, CXX or YACC variables on the
   gmake command line as needed.

   The translator is written using an older dialect of C++, with GNU extensions.
   Therefore, if by default your C++ compiler excludes GNU extensions or expects
   C++11 compliant code, then you will need '-std=gnu98' or an equivalent in the
   setting of CXX on the gmake command line.  Example:
      gmake CC=clang CXX='clang++ -std=gnu++98'

   The build tree will occupy approximately 600 Megabytes of disk space, and
   can safely be moved after the build without any side effects.

   The top of Makefile contains a few tweakable settings, but in most cases you
   probably want to keep the defaults.

3) (Optional) Install the translator
   To install the translator to a selected location after the build step above
   completes, run GNU make as follows:

     make install PREFIX=/path/to/install

   The install tree will occupy approximately 200 Megabytes of disk space, 
   and can safely be moved after build without any side effects.

In order to invoke the translator, you need to provide the upcc compiler driver 
in the runtime distribution with the appropriate pathname for where you have placed
the translator. If you plan to run the translator directly from the build tree
created in step 2, the correct path to use is:

  (path to your BUILD tree)/open64/osprey1.0/$(BUILDDIR)

If you want to use the translator installed in step 3, the correct path is: 

  (path provided as PREFIX)/targ
You should provide the appropriate path to the runtime in the 'translator'
setting of the 'upcc.conf' file in the runtime's build/install tree. Examples
are provided in upcc.conf.  Users can also select alternate translators in a
~/.upccrc file or with 'upcc -translator=path'.

See the runtime's INSTALL documentation for information on how to point the
'upcc' Berkeley UPC front-end at a translator that resides on a remote machine,
using HTTP or ssh.  Any translator can support any UPC runtime on any
architecture, and so this is our current method for supporting UPC on systems
where the translator will not build.

Release Notes

== Version 2.28.4 ==

+ Portability of the translator
  - Fix build failure on Linux when BRK_RANGE is undefined
  - Accept GCC-11's expanded syntax for the __malloc__ attribute

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug 4489 - Recent glibc headers choke translator with __malloc__
    attribute arguments

== Version 2.28.2 ==

+ Portability of the translator
  - Updates for Apple Xcode 10.2 through at least 12.2 and for macOS
    Mojave (10.14), Catalina (10.15) and Big Sur (11.0).

== Version 2.28.0 ==

+ Portability of the translator
  - Expand list of ignored attributes to accommodate UPC sources built
    against, for instance, glibc-2.24 and gcc-6.3.0 (or newer).

== Version 2.26.0 ==

+ Portability of the translator
 - Minor changes to allow building with clang++-4.0
 - Updated config.guess

== Version 2.24.2 ==

+ Portability of the translator
 - Minor changes to allow building with gcc-6.3
 - More changes to accept attribute usage in OS X 10.12 system headers

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug 3397 - build failure with gcc-6.2
  - bug 3402 - malformed floating constant in string.h

== Version 2.24.0 ==

+ Portability of the translator
  - Minor fix to allow building the translator with GNU Make 4
  - Enhance grammar to accept attribute usage in OS X 10.12 system headers

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug 3313 - build failure w/ gmake-4.2.1
  - bug 3331 - OS X 10.12: enum attributes in system headers 

== Version 2.22.2 ==

+ No changes since 2.22.0
  - The version number has been advanced to maintain the correspondence
    between runtime and translator releases.

== Version 2.22.0 ==

+ Portability of the translator
  - Can now build with clang compilers (include those from Apple Xcode)

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - Parsing of clang-specific attribute syntax in OS X system headers

== Version 2.20.2 ==

+ Portability of the translator
  - Can now build with gcc-5.0 (snapshots at this point)
  - Initial EXPERIMENTAL translator port to ARM64 (aka aarch64)

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug 2907 - translator crash on bug2504.upc
  - bug 3256 - Cannot build translator with g++-5.0.0 (snapshot)
  - bug 3266 - Bad codegen for "X ? A : A + 1" 
  - User-after-realloc caused crashes w/ certain inputs on OpenBSD

== Version 2.20.0 ==

+ Portability of the translator
  - Can now build with gcc-4.9
  - Can now build on recent OpenBSD releases which lack a stab.h header

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug 3235 - translator allows PTS compare w/ differing blocksizes
  - gen_util.cxx may try to define inline via __inline circularly

+ Misc.
  - Remove (unused) caterr linux/x86 binary from distribution

== Version 2.18.2 ==

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug3192 - syntax error on "array[restrict]" in parameter list
  - bug3194 - bad code gen on upc_forall with 64-bit affinity expression
  - bug3201 - bad translation for volatile pointer to shared array
  - bug3202 - function defn incompatible with its prototype

+ Misc.
  - Starting with this release, the set of UPC-level optimizations enabled
    by ``upcc -opt'' no longer includes the split-phase optimization.
    See bug 2662 for details.
  - The complete sources for the Berkeley UPC-to-C translator, and all of
    our development work, are now hosted in Git at BitBucket.  See

== Version 2.18.0 ==

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug349 - (PARTIAL fix) inconsistent conversion of PTS to integral types
  - bug3172 - function definition after declaration loses block size

== Version 2.16.2 ==

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug3141: translator buffer overrun
  - bug3143: conformance to issue #64 in UPC 1.3 draft specification
  - bug3145: conformance to issue #104 in UPC 1.3 draft specification
  - bug3146: conformance to issue #71 in UPC 1.3 draft specification
  - bug3147: conformance to issue #70 in UPC 1.3 draft specification

== Version 2.16.0 ==

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug858: translator fails to lower C99 array designators
  - bug2698: bad code gen for "short" string initializers 
  - bug3048: code generated with incorrect blocking factor
  - bug3052: failure to diagnose automatic layout qualifier with pointers
  - bug3101: translator crash on extern decl after defn w/ initializer
  - bug3105: -opt generates multiply defined initializers
  - bug3111: ..../targ//be/ undefined symbol: dlopen
  - bug3124/3126: crashes on declarations using incomplete types
  - Misc. additional fixes for improved UPC and C99 conformance

== Version 2.14.2 ==

+ Portability of the translator
  - Can now build with llvm-gcc-4.2.1 from the llvm-2.8 release (bug 3077)
  - Can now process c-parse.y with bison-2.x (bug 3091)
  - Can now build with gcc-4.7.0 (bug 3097)

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug3098: error on static string initializers containing newlines

== Version 2.14.0 ==

  - Now tolerant of recent changes in gcc's pre-processor output
  - Now tolerant of attribute additions to gcc (e.g. in OpenBSD headers)

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug1319: refixed to reject expansion of asm()-based macros in UPC code
  - bug3017: erroneous type error involving shared[1] int and shared int
  - bug3039: silent truncation of large enum values (now issues a warning)
  - bug3037: Wrong spill for conditional operator with string literal 

== Version 2.12.2 ==

+ GNU Make
  - Problems building with GNU Make version 3.82 have been resolved

+ New Ports
  - Initial EXPERIMENTAL translator ports to additional platforms:
    - IBM AIX 6.x PowerPC 32-bit translator executable
    - Linux mips64el (SiCortex) 64-bit translator executable
  - Additional compilers tested for building of the translator:
    - Intel compilers on x86-64 and ia64
    - PathScale 3.x compilers for x86-64 and mips64el

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug1382: limited size of static char arrays
  - bug1664/2364/2963: PTS in shared struct always treated as indefinite
  - bug1797/2358: backend SEGV on AIX
  - bug1926: translator generates conflicting struct definition for typedefs
  - bug2308/2967: missing struct definition in translated output
  - bug2500: incorrect type for pointer to FIRST field of shared struct
  - bug2693: TLD not applied accessing array field of a struct at file-scope
  - bug2702: SEGV writing WHIRL for array of structures with a string
  - bug2723: regression in 2.10.0 translator accessing union
  - bug2867: problem(s) with function pointers in nested shared struct
  - bug2890: translator error on accessing a struct member of an union
  - bug2900: initializer failure w/ symmetric pointers
  - bug2947: (partial fix) struct initializers violate alignment restrictions
  - bug2949: UPC translation failing on arrA[1UL * (THREADS )]
  - bug2956: side-effects of upc_for_all() affinity expression are lost
  - bug2958: temporaries used for initialization can shadow shared vars
  - bug2959: incorrect blocksize warnings with default blocksize
  - bug2960: incorrect upc_localsizeof()
  - bug2961: translator crash on upc_localsizeof() with dynamic threads
  - bug2962: translator crash on addr of shared PTS as nested struct field
  - bug2968: wrong type from upc_blocksizeof(indefinite)
  - bug2971: arbitrary limit on depth of struct/union field access
  - bug2972: function address translated as TLD initializing file scope var
  - bug2973: crash on initialized shared pointer-to-private
  - bug2979: warning on NULL initializer for PTS in struct with struct-PTS
  - bug2981: bad behavior(s) converting integer constant to PTS
  - bug2982: redundant errors on private to shared pointer conversion
  - bug2989: translator build failure if CFLAGS set in environment
  - bug3009: loss of local-scoped variables with C99 for loops

== Version 2.12.1 ==

+ The following user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug1965/2831: problems with #include when not at file scope
  - bug2306: sizeof(A[0]) miscomputed as sizeof(A)
  - bug2936: translator truncates sizeof(struct) to 32 bits

== Version 2.12.0 ==

+ G++ 4.X
  To the best of our knowledge the G++ 4.4.x problems (see 2.10.2 notes,
  below) have been fixed.  In our testing G++ 4.5.x has shown no problems.

+ New Ports
  - Initial EXPERIMENTAL translator ports to additional platforms:
    - NetBSD/i386 32-bit translator executable
    - NetBSD/amd64 64-bit translator executable
  - Additional compilers tested for building of the translator:
    - Apple's gcc well tested
    - Sun's gccfss lightly tested
    - AMD's openCC lightly tested (one known bug)

+ Several user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug2061: pointer arith on shared PTS incorrectly yields a shared value
  - bug2690: translator crash on EXAMPLE2 from p31 of UPC spec 1.2
  - bug2778/2893: bad code gen for UPC automatic block size
  - bug2851: translator corrupting internal type info
  - bug2862: incorrect debug line numbers in body of upc_forall()
  - bug2877: translator may truncate PTS arithmetic operands
  - bug2878: some internal prototypes susceptible to identifier capture
  - bug2882: violation of strict semantics when -opt passed to upcc

== Version 2.10.2 ==

+ G++ 4.X
  The link failures described in the 2.8.0 notes (below) have been resolved
  (to the best of our knowledge), and we have tested with g++ as recent as
  4.3.x.  However, we have seen problems with g++-4.4.x.

+ New Ports
  - Added support for additional platforms:
    - MacOS/x86 64-bit translator executable (previously only 32-bit)
    - MacOS/PPC 64-bit translator executable (previously only 32-bit)
    - Linux/PPC 32-bit translator executable (previously only 64-bit)
  - Initial EXPERIMENTAL translator ports to additional platforms:
    - Solaris/i86pc 32- and 64-bit translator executables
    - Solaris/SPARC 32- and 64-bit translator executables
    - FreeBSD/i386 32-bit translator executable
    - FreeBSD/amd64 64-bit translator executable
    - OpenBSD/i386 32-bit translator executable
    - OpenBSD/amd64 64-bit translator executable

+ General portability improvements
  - Fixed support for building with some vendors' g++-4.1.x (bug 2202)
  - Fixed DependencyGenerator for use with perl 5.10 and newer (bug 2661)

+ Several user-visible bugs are fixed in this release
  (see for details):
  - bug600: #line directives broken for #include of file in same directory
  - bug819: incorrect overflow warning on upc_io_test/64
  - bug846: overflows computing sizeof() or upc_localsizeof() large arrays
  - bug896: warning on correct assignment involving pointer to an array
  - bug1020: comparison of ptr to local w/ ptr to shared should be an error
  - bug1113/1647: crashes with certain nested for() or upc_forall() loops
  - bug1442/2679: over-zealous DSE w/ -opt on MacOS-build translators
  - bug1464: ppc64 translator crash on some code for 32-bit targets
  - bug1668: translator crash on arithmetic on (shared void *)
  - bug1748/2403: translator crash when outputting NaN or INFINITY
  - bug1965: problems with #include when not at file scope
  - bug2703: garbage collection error that could cause translator crashes

== Version 2.10.0 ==

+ EXPERIMENTAL compiler optimizations
  This release contains numerous bug fixes related to the UPC-level optimization
  introduced in the 2.8.0 release.

+ G++ 4.X
  See the 2.8.0 notes (below) for information on link failures that are still
  present in this release when using some g++ 4.x versions.

+ AIX deprecation
  We will no longer support building the UPC translator on AIX.

== Version 2.8.0 ==

+ EXPERIMENTAL compiler optimizations
  This release adds experimental support for UPC-level optimizations of user's
  code via the '-opt' flag to upcc.  See the upcc man page for documentation.

+ G++ 4.X
  With g++ version 4.x, the code we maintain builds correctly for the various
  versions of g++ compiled from source obtained from  However, there
  are "vendor" versions (e.g. Debian, Red Hat, etc.) that behave differently and
  produce link failures with messages containing text such as
      relocation R_X86_64_PC32 against 'Phi_To_Idx_Map' can not be used ....
      final link failed: Nonrepresentable section on output
  Unfortunately, the affected compiler versions lack compile-time identification
  that would allow us to adjust automatically.
  This has been assigned Bug #2202 in our bug database (
  That bug report contains at least 2 possible work arounds and should always
  contain the most recent information on this issue.

  We have seen that the translator build on AIX frequently crashes when passed
  '-opt' to enable UPC-level optimizations.  This issue has been assigned bug
  #2385 in our bug database.  Please consult the bug report for the most 
  recent information on this issue.
  The recommendation at the time this README is being written is not to use a
  translator build on AIX if you wish to utilize '-opt'.