Digest  1.20
About: Digest are perl modules that calculate message digests.
  Fossies Dox: Digest-1.20.tar.gz  ("unofficial" and yet experimental doxygen-generated source code documentation)  

Digest Documentation

Some Fossies usage hints in advance:

  1. To see the Doxygen generated documentation please click on one of the items in the steelblue colored "quick index" bar above or use the side panel at the left which displays a hierarchical tree-like index structure and is adjustable in width.
  2. If you want to search for something by keyword rather than browse for it you can use the client side search facility (using Javascript and DHTML) that provides live searching, i.e. the search results are presented and adapted as you type in the Search input field at the top right.
  3. Doxygen doesn't incorporate all member files but just a definable subset (basically the main project source code files that are written in a supported language). So to search and browse all member files you may visit the Fossies Digest-1.20.tar.gz contents page and use the Fossies standard member browsing features (also with source code highlighting and additionally with optional code folding).
    Digest - Modules that calculate message digests

      $md5  = Digest->new("MD5");
      $sha1 = Digest->new("SHA-1");
      $sha256 = Digest->new("SHA-256");
      $sha384 = Digest->new("SHA-384");
      $sha512 = Digest->new("SHA-512");

      $hmac = Digest->HMAC_MD5($key);

    The "Digest::" modules calculate digests, also called "fingerprints" or
    "hashes", of some data, called a message. The digest is (usually) some
    small/fixed size string. The actual size of the digest depend of the
    algorithm used. The message is simply a sequence of arbitrary bytes or

    An important property of the digest algorithms is that the digest is
    *likely* to change if the message change in some way. Another property
    is that digest functions are one-way functions, that is it should be
    *hard* to find a message that correspond to some given digest.
    Algorithms differ in how "likely" and how "hard", as well as how
    efficient they are to compute.

    Note that the properties of the algorithms change over time, as the
    algorithms are analyzed and machines grow faster. If your application
    for instance depends on it being "impossible" to generate the same
    digest for a different message it is wise to make it easy to plug in
    stronger algorithms as the one used grow weaker. Using the interface
    documented here should make it easy to change algorithms later.

    All "Digest::" modules provide the same programming interface. A
    functional interface for simple use, as well as an object oriented
    interface that can handle messages of arbitrary length and which can
    read files directly.

    The digest can be delivered in three formats:

            This is the most compact form, but it is not well suited for
            printing or embedding in places that can't handle arbitrary

    *hex*   A twice as long string of lowercase hexadecimal digits.

            A string of portable printable characters. This is the base64
            encoded representation of the digest with any trailing padding
            removed. The string will be about 30% longer than the binary
            version. MIME::Base64 tells you more about this encoding.

    The functional interface is simply importable functions with the same
    name as the algorithm. The functions take the message as argument and
    return the digest. Example:

      use Digest::MD5 qw(md5);
      $digest = md5($message);

    There are also versions of the functions with "_hex" or "_base64"
    appended to the name, which returns the digest in the indicated form.

    The following methods are available for all "Digest::" modules:

    $ctx = Digest->XXX($arg,...)
    $ctx = Digest->new(XXX => $arg,...)
    $ctx = Digest::XXX->new($arg,...)
        The constructor returns some object that encapsulate the state of
        the message-digest algorithm. You can add data to the object and
        finally ask for the digest. The "XXX" should of course be replaced
        by the proper name of the digest algorithm you want to use.

        The two first forms are simply syntactic sugar which automatically
        load the right module on first use. The second form allow you to use
        algorithm names which contains letters which are not legal perl
        identifiers, e.g. "SHA-1". If no implementation for the given
        algorithm can be found, then an exception is raised.

        To know what arguments (if any) the constructor takes (the
        "$args,..." above) consult the docs for the specific digest

        If new() is called as an instance method (i.e. $ctx->new) it will
        just reset the state the object to the state of a newly created
        object. No new object is created in this case, and the return value
        is the reference to the object (i.e. $ctx).

    $other_ctx = $ctx->clone
        The clone method creates a copy of the digest state object and
        returns a reference to the copy.

        This is just an alias for $ctx->new.

    $ctx->add( $data )
    $ctx->add( $chunk1, $chunk2, ... )
        The string value of the $data provided as argument is appended to
        the message we calculate the digest for. The return value is the
        $ctx object itself.

        If more arguments are provided then they are all appended to the
        message, thus all these lines will have the same effect on the state
        of the $ctx object:

          $ctx->add("a"); $ctx->add("b"); $ctx->add("c");
          $ctx->add("a", "b", "c");

        Most algorithms are only defined for strings of bytes and this
        method might therefore croak if the provided arguments contain chars
        with ordinal number above 255.

    $ctx->addfile( $io_handle )
        The $io_handle is read until EOF and the content is appended to the
        message we calculate the digest for. The return value is the $ctx
        object itself.

        The addfile() method will croak() if it fails reading data for some
        reason. If it croaks it is unpredictable what the state of the $ctx
        object will be in. The addfile() method might have been able to read
        the file partially before it failed. It is probably wise to discard
        or reset the $ctx object if this occurs.

        In most cases you want to make sure that the $io_handle is in
        "binmode" before you pass it as argument to the addfile() method.

    $ctx->add_bits( $data, $nbits )
    $ctx->add_bits( $bitstring )
        The add_bits() method is an alternative to add() that allow partial
        bytes to be appended to the message. Most users can just ignore this
        method since typical applications involve only whole-byte data.

        The two argument form of add_bits() will add the first $nbits bits
        from $data. For the last potentially partial byte only the high
        order "$nbits % 8" bits are used. If $nbits is greater than
        "length($data) * 8", then this method would do the same as

        The one argument form of add_bits() takes a $bitstring of "1" and
        "0" chars as argument. It's a shorthand for
        "$ctx->add_bits(pack("B*", $bitstring), length($bitstring))".

        The return value is the $ctx object itself.

        This example shows two calls that should have the same effect:

           $ctx->add_bits("\xF0\xA0", 12);

        Most digest algorithms are byte based and for these it is not
        possible to add bits that are not a multiple of 8, and the
        add_bits() method will croak if you try.

        Return the binary digest for the message.

        Note that the "digest" operation is effectively a destructive,
        read-once operation. Once it has been performed, the $ctx object is
        automatically "reset" and can be used to calculate another digest
        value. Call $ctx->clone->digest if you want to calculate the digest
        without resetting the digest state.

        Same as $ctx->digest, but will return the digest in hexadecimal

        Same as $ctx->digest, but will return the digest as a base64 encoded
        string without padding.

        Same as $ctx->digest, but will return the digest as a base64 encoded

Digest speed
    This table should give some indication on the relative speed of
    different algorithms. It is sorted by throughput based on a benchmark
    done with of some implementations of this API:

     Algorithm      Size    Implementation                  MB/s

     MD4            128     Digest::MD4 v1.3               165.0
     MD5            128     Digest::MD5 v2.33               98.8
     SHA-256        256     Digest::SHA2 v1.1.0             66.7
     SHA-1          160     Digest::SHA v4.3.1              58.9
     SHA-1          160     Digest::SHA1 v2.10              48.8
     SHA-256        256     Digest::SHA v4.3.1              41.3
     Haval-256      256     Digest::Haval256 v1.0.4         39.8
     SHA-384        384     Digest::SHA2 v1.1.0             19.6
     SHA-512        512     Digest::SHA2 v1.1.0             19.3
     SHA-384        384     Digest::SHA v4.3.1              19.2
     SHA-512        512     Digest::SHA v4.3.1              19.2
     Whirlpool      512     Digest::Whirlpool v1.0.2        13.0
     MD2            128     Digest::MD2 v2.03                9.5

     Adler-32        32     Digest::Adler32 v0.03            1.3
     CRC-16          16     Digest::CRC v0.05                1.1
     CRC-32          32     Digest::CRC v0.05                1.1
     MD5            128     Digest::Perl::MD5 v1.5           1.0
     CRC-CCITT       16     Digest::CRC v0.05                0.8

    These numbers was achieved Apr 2004 with ActivePerl-5.8.3 running under
    Linux on a P4 2.8 GHz CPU. The last 5 entries differ by being pure perl
    implementations of the algorithms, which explains why they are so slow.

    Digest::Adler32, Digest::CRC, Digest::Haval256, Digest::HMAC,
    Digest::MD2, Digest::MD4, Digest::MD5, Digest::SHA, Digest::SHA1,
    Digest::SHA2, Digest::Whirlpool

    New digest implementations should consider subclassing from



    Gisle Aas <gisle@aas.no>

    The "Digest::" interface is based on the interface originally developed
    by Neil Winton for his "MD5" module.

    This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the same terms as Perl itself.

        Copyright 1998-2006 Gisle Aas.
        Copyright 1995,1996 Neil Winton.