"Fossies" - the Fresh Open Source Software Archive  

Source code changes of the file "xorriso/xorrisofs.1" between
xorriso-1.5.2.tar.gz and xorriso-1.5.4.tar.gz

About: GNU xorriso creates, loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem images with Rock Ridge extensions. It is suitable for incremental data backup and for production of bootable ISO 9660 images. GNU xorriso is a statical compilation of the libraries libburn, libisofs, libisoburn, and libjte.

xorrisofs.1  (xorriso-1.5.2):xorrisofs.1  (xorriso-1.5.4)
skipping to change at line 85 skipping to change at line 85
them as general device files. So for writing of sequential optical media (CD, DVD-R, DVD+R, BD-R) one them as general device files. So for writing of sequential optical media (CD, DVD-R, DVD+R, BD-R) one
will have to use a burn program. E.g the cdrecord emulation of xorriso. See EXAMPLES. will have to use a burn program. E.g the cdrecord emulation of xorriso. See EXAMPLES.
OPTIONS OPTIONS
Image loading: Image loading:
The following options control loading of an existing ISO image for th e purpose of preparing a suitable The following options control loading of an existing ISO image for th e purpose of preparing a suitable
add-on session. If they are missing then a new image is composed from sc ratch. add-on session. If they are missing then a new image is composed from sc ratch.
-M disk_path -M disk_path
Set the path from which to load the existing ISO image director Set the path from which to load the existing ISO image directory t
y tree on which to base the ree on which to base the upcoming
upcomming directory tree as add-on session. The path must lead directory tree as add-on session. The path must lead to a random
to a random-access readable file -access readable file object. On
object. On GNU/Linux: regular data files or block device files. GNU/Linux: regular data files or block device files.
A special kind of pseudo disk_path has the form "/dev/fd/"numbe r. It depicts the open file A special kind of pseudo disk_path has the form "/dev/fd/"numbe r. It depicts the open file
descriptor with the given number, regardless whether the operatin g system supports this feature by descriptor with the given number, regardless whether the operatin g system supports this feature by
file nodes in /dev/fd or not. E.g. /dev/fd/3 is file descriptor 3 which was opened by the program file nodes in /dev/fd or not. E.g. /dev/fd/3 is file descriptor 3 which was opened by the program
that later started xorriso. that later started xorriso.
-prev-session disk_path -prev-session disk_path
Alias of -M. Alias of -M.
-dev disk_path -dev disk_path
Alias of -M. Alias of -M.
skipping to change at line 166 skipping to change at line 166
Perform -m using each line out of file disk_path as argument disk_ pattern. Perform -m using each line out of file disk_path as argument disk_ pattern.
-z -z
Enable recognition and proper processing of zisofs compress ed files as produced by program Enable recognition and proper processing of zisofs compress ed files as produced by program
mkzftree. These files will get equipped with the necessary meta da ta so that a Linux kernel will mkzftree. These files will get equipped with the necessary meta da ta so that a Linux kernel will
recognize them and deliver their content in uncompressed form. recognize them and deliver their content in uncompressed form.
-transparent-compression -transparent-compression
Alias of -z. Alias of -z.
--zisofs-version-2
Enable the recognition and proper processing of experimental z
isofs version 2 compressed files.
The Linux kernel (as of 5.9) does not yet know this format and wil
l complain like
isofs: Unknown ZF compression algorithm: PZ
This complaint can be prevented by option --zisofs2-susp-z2 .
The files will be shown by unaware kernels as they were submitted
to xorriso, i.e. with zisofs2
header, block pointer list, and compressed data.
--zisofs-version-2 also enables -z.
--zisofs2-susp-z2
Enable the production of SUSP entries "Z2" instead of "ZF" with
zisofs2 compressed files. Unaware
Linux kernels silently ignore "Z2" entries.
--zisofs2-susp-zf
Enable the production of SUSP entries "ZF" instead of "Z2" with zi
sofs2 compressed files. Unaware
Linux kernels complain about zisofs2 "ZF" by "Unknown ZF compre
ssion algorithm" and thus leave a
mark in the system log.
-root iso_rr_path -root iso_rr_path
Insert all files under the given iso_rr_path. If option -graft-poi nts is given, then iso_rr_path is Insert all files under the given iso_rr_path. If option -graft-poi nts is given, then iso_rr_path is
prepended to each target part of a pathspec. prepended to each target part of a pathspec.
The default for -root is "/". The default for -root is "/".
-old-root iso_rr_path -old-root iso_rr_path
Enable incremental insertion of files into the loaded image. Th e effective target and source Enable incremental insertion of files into the loaded image. The effective target and source
addresses of given pathspecs get compared whether the target alrea dy exists in the ISO image and is addresses of given pathspecs get compared whether the target alrea dy exists in the ISO image and is
still identical to the source on disk. Metadata in the ISO image w still identical to the source on disk. Metadata in the ISO image
ill get adjusted, if they differ will get adjusted, if they differ
from those on disk. New files and files with changed content wi from those on disk. New files and files with changed content will
ll get newly added. Target files get newly added. Target files
which do not exist in any of the according pathspec sources will g et removed from the ISO directory which do not exist in any of the according pathspec sources will g et removed from the ISO directory
tree. tree.
If the effective setting of -root differs from the iso_rr_path giv en with -old-root, then the files If the effective setting of -root differs from the iso_rr_path giv en with -old-root, then the files
underneath the -old-root directory get cloned underneath the -r oot directory. Cloning happens underneath the -old-root directory get cloned underneath the -root directory. Cloning happens
before file comparison. before file comparison.
--old-root-no-ino --old-root-no-ino
Disable recording and use of disk inode numbers. If no disk Disable recording and use of disk inode numbers. If no disk ino
inode numbers are recorded, then de numbers are recorded, then
option -old-root will have to read disk file content and compare i option -old-root will have to read disk file content and compare
t with the MD5 checksum that is it with the MD5 checksum that is
recorded in the ISO image. recorded in the ISO image.
With recorded disk inode numbers and with credible ctime an With recorded disk inode numbers and with credible ctime and mti
d mtime, it is possible to detect me, it is possible to detect
potential changes in the content without actually reading it. A potential changes in the content without actually reading it
loophole remains if multiple . A loophole remains if multiple
different filesystems may get mounted at the same directory, lik different filesystems may get mounted at the same directory, like
e it is habit with /mnt. In this it is habit with /mnt. In this
case one has to use option --old-root-devno or disable th case one has to use option --old-root-devno or disable
e inode number shortcut by the inode number shortcut by
--old-root-no-ino. --old-root-no-ino.
--old-root-devno --old-root-devno
Enable comparison of recorded device numbers together with record Enable comparison of recorded device numbers together with recorde
ed inode numbers. This works only d inode numbers. This works only
with good old stable device numbers which get out of fashion, regr with good old stable device numbers which get out of fashion, re
ettably. If the hard disk has a grettably. If the hard disk has a
different device number after each reboot, then this comparison different device number after each reboot, then this comparison wi
will see all files as changed and ll see all files as changed and
thus prevent any incremental size saving. thus prevent any incremental size saving.
--old-root-no-md5 --old-root-no-md5
Disable recording and use of MD5 checksums for data file content. Disable recording and use of MD5 checksums for data file conte
If neither checksums and nor nt. If neither checksums and nor
disk inode numbers are recorded, then option -old-root will ha disk inode numbers are recorded, then option -old-root will have t
ve to read ISO image file content o read ISO image file content
when comparing it with disk file content. when comparing it with disk file content.
Settings for image production: Settings for image production:
-o disk_path -o disk_path
Set the output file address for the emerging ISO image. If the ad Set the output file address for the emerging ISO image. If the a
dress exists as regular file, it ddress exists as regular file, it
will be truncated to length 0 when image production begins. It ma will be truncated to length 0 when image production begins. It may
y not already exist as directory. not already exist as directory.
If it does not exist yet then its parent directory must exist and a regular file will get created. If it does not exist yet then its parent directory must exist and a regular file will get created.
A special kind of pseudo disk_path has the form "/dev/fd/"numbe A special kind of pseudo disk_path has the form "/dev/fd/"
r. It depicts the open file number. It depicts the open file
descriptor with the given number, regardless whether the operatin descriptor with the given number, regardless whether the operating
g system supports this feature by system supports this feature by
file nodes in /dev/fd or not. E.g. /dev/fd/4 is file descriptor 4 file nodes in /dev/fd or not. E.g. /dev/fd/4 is file descriptor
which was opened by the program 4 which was opened by the program
that later started xorriso. that later started xorriso.
Default is standard output (/dev/fd/1) which may also be set by di sk_path "-". Default is standard output (/dev/fd/1) which may also be set by di sk_path "-".
-output disk_path -output disk_path
Alias of -o. Alias of -o.
--stdio_sync "on"|"off"|"end"|number --stdio_sync "on"|"off"|"end"|number
Set the number of bytes after which to force output to disk in or Set the number of bytes after which to force output to disk in ord
der to keep the memory from being er to keep the memory from being
clogged with lots of pending data for slow devices. "on" is the sa clogged with lots of pending data for slow devices. "on" is the
me as "16m". Forced output can same as "16m". Forced output can
be disabled by "off", or be delayed by "end" until all data are be disabled by "off", or be delayed by "end" until all data are pr
produced. If a number is chosen, oduced. If a number is chosen,
then it must be at least 64k. then it must be at least 64k.
The default with xorriso mkisofs emulation is --stdio_sync "off". The default with xorriso mkisofs emulation is --stdio_sync "off".
xorriso uses an inner fifo buffer with default size 4 MiB. So for cing the operating system i/o xorriso uses an inner fifo buffer with default size 4 MiB. So forcing the operating system i/o
cache to disk does not necessarily block the simultaneous producti on of more image content. cache to disk does not necessarily block the simultaneous producti on of more image content.
--emul-toc --emul-toc
Write a second superblock with the first session into random-acce ss files. If further sessions get Write a second superblock with the first session into random-acces s files. If further sessions get
appended and the first superblock gets updated, then the second su perblock will not be overwritten. appended and the first superblock gets updated, then the second su perblock will not be overwritten.
So it is still possible to mount the first session and to fin d the start blocks of the further So it is still possible to mount the first session and to find the start blocks of the further
sessions. sessions.
The price is 64 KiB extra space consumption. If -partition_offset is non-zero, then it is 128 KiB The price is 64 KiB extra space consumption. If -partition_offse t is non-zero, then it is 128 KiB
plus twice the partition setup. plus twice the partition setup.
--no-emul-toc --no-emul-toc
Do not write a second superblock with the first session into rando m-access files. Do not write a second superblock with the first session into rando m-access files.
This is the default. This is the default.
--sort-weight weight_number iso_rr_path --sort-weight weight_number iso_rr_path
Attribute a LBA weight number to regular files. If iso_rr_p ath leads to a directory then all Attribute a LBA weight number to regular files. If iso_rr_path l eads to a directory then all
regular files underneath will get the weight_number. regular files underneath will get the weight_number.
The weight_number may range from -2147483648 to 2147483647. The h igher it is, the lower will be The weight_number may range from -2147483648 to 2147483647. Th e higher it is, the lower will be
the block address of the file data in the emerging ISO image. Cur rently the El Torito boot catalog the block address of the file data in the emerging ISO image. Cur rently the El Torito boot catalog
has a hardcoded weight of 1 billion. Normally it should occupy th has a hardcoded weight of 1 billion. Normally it should occupy t
e block with the lowest possible he block with the lowest possible
address. Data files get added or loaded with initial weight 0 address. Data files get added or loaded with initial weight 0. Bo
. Boot image files have a default ot image files have a default
weight of 2. weight of 2.
--sort-weight-list disk_path --sort-weight-list disk_path
Read pairs of weight number and iso_rr_path from a file of the loc al filesystem. Apply each pair Read pairs of weight number and iso_rr_path from a file of the local filesystem. Apply each pair
like with --sort-weight. like with --sort-weight.
Only the last --sort-weight-list or --sort-weight-patterns of a xo rrisofs run gets into effect. Only the last --sort-weight-list or --sort-weight-patterns of a xo rrisofs run gets into effect.
The weight number is read from the start of the line. The iso_rr_ path part of an input line begins The weight number is read from the start of the line. The iso_rr_ path part of an input line begins
immediately after the first blank or tab character of the line. immediately after the first blank or tab character of the line.
Notes for the case that this feature is used within a sequence of generic xorriso commands (not an Notes for the case that this feature is used within a sequence of generic xorriso commands (not an
issue with a pure mkisofs emulation run): issue with a pure mkisofs emulation run):
The addressed files must already be in the ISO image model when yo u execute The addressed files must already be in the ISO image model when yo u execute
-as mkisofs --sort-weight-list disk_path -- -as mkisofs --sort-weight-list disk_path --
Several such commands may be used to apply more than one weight fi le. Several such commands may be used to apply more than one weight fi le.
Data files which are loaded by -indev or -dev get a weight betw Data files which are loaded by -indev or -dev get a weight between
een 1 and 2 exp 28 = 268,435,456, 1 and 2 exp 28 = 268,435,456,
depending on their block address. This shall keep them roughly in depending on their block address. This shall keep them rough
the same order if the write ly in the same order if the write
method of modifying is applied. method of modifying is applied.
--sort-weight-patterns disk_path --sort-weight-patterns disk_path
Like --sort-weight-list , but expanding the iso_rr_paths as s hell parser patterns and applying Like --sort-weight-list , but expanding the iso_rr_paths as shell parser patterns and applying
--sort-weight to each matching file. --sort-weight to each matching file.
-uid number|name -uid number|name
Use the given number or locally existing user name as owner id of all files and directories in the Use the given number or locally existing user name as owner id of all files and directories in the
emerging filesystem. Empty name or name "-" revoke this feature. emerging filesystem. Empty name or name "-" revoke this feature.
-gid number|name -gid number|name
Use the given number or locally existing group name as group id of all files and directories in the Use the given number or locally existing group name as group id of all files and directories in the
emerging filesystem. Empty name or name "-" revoke this feature. emerging filesystem. Empty name or name "-" revoke this feature.
-dir-mode mode -dir-mode mode
Set the access permissions for all directories in the image to the Set the access permissions for all directories in the image to
given mode which is either an the given mode which is either an
octal number beginning with "0" or a comma separated li octal number beginning with "0" or a comma separated list
st of statements of the form of statements of the form
[ugoa]*[+-=][rwxst]* . E.g. ug=rx,a-rwx [ugoa]*[+-=][rwxst]* . E.g. ug=rx,a-rwx
-file-mode mode -file-mode mode
Like -dir-mode but for all regular data files in the image. Like -dir-mode but for all regular data files in the image.
-pad -pad
Add 300 KiB to the end of the produced ISO image. This circumvents Add 300 KiB to the end of the produced ISO image. This circumve
possible read errors from ISO nts possible read errors from ISO
images which have been written to CD media in TAO mode. The add images which have been written to CD media in TAO mode. The addit
itional bytes are claimed as part ional bytes are claimed as part
of the ISO image if not --emul-toc is given. of the ISO image if not --emul-toc is given.
Option -pad is the default. Option -pad is the default.
-no-pad -no-pad
Disable padding of 300 KiB to the end of the produced ISO image. This is safe if the image is not Disable padding of 300 KiB to the end of the produced ISO image. This is safe if the image is not
meant to be written on CD or if it gets written to CD as only trac k in write mode SAO. meant to be written on CD or if it gets written to CD as only trac k in write mode SAO.
--old-empty --old-empty
Use the old way of of giving block addresses in the range of [0,31] to files with no own data Use the old way of of giving block addresses in the range of [0,31 ] to files with no own data
content. The new way is to have a dedicated block to which all suc h files will point. content. The new way is to have a dedicated block to which all suc h files will point.
Settings for standards compliance: Settings for standards compliance:
-iso-level number -iso-level number
Specify the ISO 9660 version which defines the limitations of file Specify the ISO 9660 version which defines the limitations of fi
naming and data file size. The le naming and data file size. The
naming restrictions do not apply to the Rock Ridge names but only naming restrictions do not apply to the Rock Ridge names but only
to the low-level ISO 9660 names. to the low-level ISO 9660 names.
There are three conformance levels: There are three conformance levels:
Level 1 allows ISO names of the form 8.3 and file size up to 4 GiB - 1. Level 1 allows ISO names of the form 8.3 and file size up to 4 GiB - 1.
Level 2 allows ISO names with up to 32 characters and file size up to 4 GiB - 1. Level 2 allows ISO names with up to 32 characters and file size up to 4 GiB - 1.
Level 3 allows ISO names with up to 32 characters and file size o f up to 400 GiB - 200 KiB. (This Level 3 allows ISO names with up to 32 characters and file size of up to 400 GiB - 200 KiB. (This
size limitation is set by the xorriso implementation and not by IS O 9660 which would allow nearly 8 size limitation is set by the xorriso implementation and not by IS O 9660 which would allow nearly 8
TiB.) TiB.)
Pseudo-level 4 enables production of an additional ISO 9660:1999 d irectory tree. Pseudo-level 4 enables production of an additional ISO 9660:1999 d irectory tree.
-disallow_dir_id_ext -disallow_dir_id_ext
Do not follow a bad habit of mkisofs which allows dots in the ISO names of directories. On the Do not follow a bad habit of mkisofs which allows dots in the ISO names of directories. On the
other hand, some bootable GNU/Linux images depend on this bad habi t. other hand, some bootable GNU/Linux images depend on this bad habi t.
-U -U
This option allows ISO file names without dot and up to 37 chara This option allows ISO file names without dot and up to 37 charact
cters, ISO file paths longer than ers, ISO file paths longer than
255 characters, and all ASCII characters in file names. Further it 255 characters, and all ASCII characters in file names. Furth
omits the semicolon and the er it omits the semicolon and the
version numbers at the end of ISO names. version numbers at the end of ISO names.
This all violates ISO 9660 specs. This all violates ISO 9660 specs.
-untranslated-filenames -untranslated-filenames
Alias of -U. Alias of -U.
-untranslated_name_len number -untranslated_name_len number
Allow ISO file names up to the given number of characters with Allow ISO file names up to the given number of characters without
out any character conversion. The any character conversion. The
maximum number is 96. If a file name has more characters, th maximum number is 96. If a file name has more characters
en image production will fail , then image production will fail
deliberately. deliberately.
This violates ISO 9660 specs. This violates ISO 9660 specs.
-allow-lowercase -allow-lowercase
Allow lowercase character in ISO file names. Allow lowercase character in ISO file names.
This violates ISO 9660 specs. This violates ISO 9660 specs.
-relaxed-filenames -relaxed-filenames
Allow nearly all 7-bit characters in ISO file names. Not allow ed are 0x0 and '/'. If not option Allow nearly all 7-bit characters in ISO file names. Not allowed are 0x0 and '/'. If not option
-allow-lowercase is given, then lowercase letters get converted to uppercase. -allow-lowercase is given, then lowercase letters get converted to uppercase.
This violates ISO 9660 specs. This violates ISO 9660 specs.
-d -d
Do not add trailing dot to ISO file names without dot. Do not add trailing dot to ISO file names without dot.
This violates ISO 9660 specs. This violates ISO 9660 specs.
-omit-period -omit-period
Alias of -d. Alias of -d.
skipping to change at line 365 skipping to change at line 383
-N -N
Omit the semicolon and the version numbers at the end of ISO names . Omit the semicolon and the version numbers at the end of ISO names .
This violates ISO 9660 specs. This violates ISO 9660 specs.
-omit-version-number -omit-version-number
Alias of -N. Alias of -N.
Settings for standards extensions: Settings for standards extensions:
-R -R
With mkisofs this option enables Rock Ridge extensions. xorrisofs produces them by default. It is With mkisofs this option enables Rock Ridge extensions. xorrisof s produces them by default. It is
strongly discouraged to disable them by option --norock. strongly discouraged to disable them by option --norock.
-rock -rock
Alias of -R. Alias of -R.
-r -r
Enable Rock Ridge and set user and group id of all file Enable Rock Ridge and set user and group id of all files in
s in the ISO image to 0. Grant the ISO image to 0. Grant
r-permissions to all. Deny all w-permissions. If any x-permission r-permissions to all. Deny all w-permissions. If any x-permiss
is set, grant x-permission to ion is set, grant x-permission to
all. Remove s-bit and t-bit. all. Remove s-bit and t-bit.
These attribute changes stay delayed until mkisofs emulation These attribute changes stay delayed until mkisofs emulation ends.
ends. Within the same -as mkisofs Within the same -as mkisofs
emulation command they can be revoked by a subsequent option --nor emulation command they can be revoked by a subsequent option --n
ock. For compatibility reasons, orock. For compatibility reasons,
option -R does not revoke the changes ordered by -r. option -R does not revoke the changes ordered by -r.
-rational-rock -rational-rock
Alias of -r. Alias of -r.
--norock --norock
This option disables the production of Rock Ridge extensions f This option disables the production of Rock Ridge extensions for t
or the ISO 9660 file objects. The he ISO 9660 file objects. The
multi-session capabilities of xorrisofs depend much on the naming multi-session capabilities of xorrisofs depend much on the naming
fidelity of Rock Ridge. So it is fidelity of Rock Ridge. So it is
strongly discouraged to disable it by this option, except for t strongly discouraged to disable it by this option, except for the
he special use case to revoke the special use case to revoke the
effect of -r by: effect of -r by:
--norock -R --norock -R
--set_all_file_dates timestring --set_all_file_dates timestring
Set mtime, atime, and ctime of all files and directories to the gi ven time. Set mtime, atime, and ctime of all files and directories to the gi ven time.
Valid timestring formats are: 'Nov 8 14:51:13 CET 2007', 1108145 12007.13, 2007110814511300. See Valid timestring formats are: 'Nov 8 14:51:13 CET 2007', 11081 4512007.13, 2007110814511300. See
also --modification-date= and man xorriso, Examples of input times trings. also --modification-date= and man xorriso, Examples of input times trings.
If the timestring is "set_to_mtime", then the atime and ctime of e ach file and directory get set to If the timestring is "set_to_mtime", then the atime and ctime of e ach file and directory get set to
the value found in their mtime. the value found in their mtime.
These actions stay delayed until actual ISO production begins. Up to then they can be revoked by These actions stay delayed until actual ISO production begins. Up to then they can be revoked by
--set_all_file_dates with empty timestring or timestring "default" . --set_all_file_dates with empty timestring or timestring "default" .
The timestamps of the El Torito boot catalog file get refreshed w hen the ISO is produced. They can The timestamps of the El Torito boot catalog file get refreshed wh en the ISO is produced. They can
be influenced by --modification-date=. be influenced by --modification-date=.
-file_name_limit number -file_name_limit number
Set the maximum permissible length for file names in the range of 64 to 255. Path components which Set the maximum permissible length for file names in the range of 64 to 255. Path components which
are longer than the given number will get truncated and have the are longer than the given number will get truncated and have their
ir last 33 bytes overwritten by a last 33 bytes overwritten by a
colon ':' and the hex representation of the MD5 of the first 4095 colon ':' and the hex representation of the MD5 of the first
bytes of the whole oversized 4095 bytes of the whole oversized
name. Potential incomplete UTF-8 characters will get their leading bytes replaced by '_'. name. Potential incomplete UTF-8 characters will get their leading bytes replaced by '_'.
Linux kernels up to at least 4.1 misrepresent names of length Linux kernels up to at least 4.1 misrepresent names of length 254
254 and 255. If you expect such and 255. If you expect such
names in or under disk_paths and plan to mount the ISO by such L names in or under disk_paths and plan to mount the ISO by su
inux kernels, consider to set ch Linux kernels, consider to set
-file_name_limit 253. -file_name_limit 253.
-D The standard ECMA-119 demands that no path in the image shall ha -D The standard ECMA-119 demands that no path in the image shall have
ve more than 8 name components or more than 8 name components or
255 characters. Therefore it would be necessary to move deeper 255 characters. Therefore it would be necessary to move d
directory trees to a higher eeper directory trees to a higher
directory. Rock Ridge offers an opportunity to let these relo directory. Rock Ridge offers an opportunity to let these relocate
cated directories appear at their d directories appear at their
original deep position, but this feature might not be implemented original deep position, but this feature might not be implemen
properly by operating systems ted properly by operating systems
which mount the image. which mount the image.
Option -D disables this deep directory relocation, and thus violat es ISO 9660 specs. Option -D disables this deep directory relocation, and thus violat es ISO 9660 specs.
xorrisofs has -D set by default. If given explicitly then it ov errides the options -rr_reloc_dir xorrisofs has -D set by default. If given explicitly then it overr ides the options -rr_reloc_dir
and -hide-rr-moved. and -hide-rr-moved.
-disable-deep-relocation -disable-deep-relocation
Alias of -D. Alias of -D.
-rr_reloc_dir name -rr_reloc_dir name
Enable the relocation of deep directories and thus avoid ECMA-119 Enable the relocation of deep directories and thus avoid ECMA-1
file paths of more than 8 name 19 file paths of more than 8 name
components or 255 characters. Directories which lead to su components or 255 characters. Directories which lead to such fil
ch file paths will get moved to a e paths will get moved to a
directory in the root directory of the image. Its name gets set by directory in the root directory of the image. Its name gets set b
this option. It is permissible y this option. It is permissible
to use the root directory itself. to use the root directory itself.
The overall directory tree will appear originally deep when interp reted as Rock Ridge tree. It will The overall directory tree will appear originally deep when interp reted as Rock Ridge tree. It will
appear as re-arranged if only ECMA-119 information is considered. appear as re-arranged if only ECMA-119 information is considered.
If the given relocation target directory does not already exist wh en image production begins, then If the given relocation target directory does not already exist w hen image production begins, then
it will get created and marked for Rock Ridge as relocation artefa ct. At least on GNU/Linux it will it will get created and marked for Rock Ridge as relocation artefa ct. At least on GNU/Linux it will
not be displayed in mounted Rock Ridge images. not be displayed in mounted Rock Ridge images.
The name must not contain a '/' character after its first characte r and it must not be longer than The name must not contain a '/' character after its first charact er and it must not be longer than
255 bytes. 255 bytes.
This option has no effect if option -D is present. This option has no effect if option -D is present.
-hide-rr-moved -hide-rr-moved
Alias of -rr_reloc_dir "/.rr_moved" Alias of -rr_reloc_dir "/.rr_moved"
--for_backup --for_backup
Enable all options which improve backup fidelity: Enable all options which improve backup fidelity:
--acl, --xattr-any, --md5, --hardlinks. --acl, --xattr-any, --md5, --hardlinks.
If you later restore a backup with xattr from non-user namespace s, then make sure that the target If you later restore a backup with xattr from non-user namespaces, then make sure that the target
operating system and filesystem know what these attributes mean. Possibly you will need operating system and filesystem know what these attributes mean. Possibly you will need
administrator privileges to record or restore such attributes. At recording time, xorriso will try administrator privileges to record or restore such attributes. At recording time, xorriso will try
to tolerate missing privileges and just record what is readable. to tolerate missing privileges and just record what is readable.
Option -xattr after option -for_backup excludes non-user attribute s from being recorded. Option -xattr after option -for_backup excludes non-user attribute s from being recorded.
--acl --acl
Enable recording and loading of ACLs from GNU/Linux or FreeBSD (se Enable recording and loading of ACLs from GNU/Linux or FreeBSD
e man getfacl, man acl). They (see man getfacl, man acl). They
will not be in effect with mounted ISO images. But xorriso can will not be in effect with mounted ISO images. But xorriso can res
restore them on the same systems tore them on the same systems
when extracting files from the ISO image. when extracting files from the ISO image.
--xattr --xattr
Enable recording and loading of GNU/Linux or FreeBSD extended attr ibutes in user namespace (see man Enable recording and loading of GNU/Linux or FreeBSD extended attr ibutes in user namespace (see man
getfattr and man attr, man getextattr and man 9 extattr, respectiv ely). They will not be in effect getfattr and man attr, man getextattr and man 9 extattr, respectiv ely). They will not be in effect
with mounted ISO images. But xorriso can restore them on the same systems when extracting files with mounted ISO images. But xorriso can restore them on the s ame systems when extracting files
from the ISO image. from the ISO image.
--xattr-any --xattr-any
Enable recording and loading of GNU/Linux or FreeBSD extended a Enable recording and loading of GNU/Linux or FreeBSD extended attr
ttributes in all namespaces. This ibutes in all namespaces. This
might need administrator privileges, even if the owner of the might need administrator privileges, even if the owner of
disk file tries to read the the disk file tries to read the
attributes. attributes.
--md5 --md5
Enable recording of MD5 checksums for the overall ISO image and Enable recording of MD5 checksums for the overall ISO image and fo
for each single data file in the r each single data file in the
image. xorriso can check the content of an ISO image with these su image. xorriso can check the content of an ISO image with these
ms and raise alert on mismatch. sums and raise alert on mismatch.
See man xorriso, options -check_media, check_md5_r. xorriso can p rint recorded MD5 checksums. E.g. See man xorriso, options -check_media, check_md5_r. xorriso can p rint recorded MD5 checksums. E.g.
by: by:
-find / -exec get_md5 -find / -exec get_md5
--hardlinks --hardlinks
Enable loading and recording of hardlink relations. Search for fa milies of iso_rr files which stem Enable loading and recording of hardlink relations. Search for fa milies of iso_rr files which stem
from the same disk file, have identical content filtering an d have identical properties. The from the same disk file, have identical content filtering and h ave identical properties. The
members of each family get the same inode number in the ISO image. members of each family get the same inode number in the ISO image.
Whether these numbers are respected at mount time depends on the operating system. xorriso can Whether these numbers are respected at mount time depends on the operating system. xorriso can
create hardlink families when extracting files from the ISO image. create hardlink families when extracting files from the ISO image.
--scdbackup_tag disk_path record_name --scdbackup_tag disk_path record_name
Append a scdbackup checksum record to the image. This Append a scdbackup checksum record to the image. This wo
works only if the parameter rks only if the parameter
next_writeable_address of option -C is 0 and --md5 is enabled. next_writeable_address of option -C is 0 and --md5 is enabl
If disk_path is not an empty ed. If disk_path is not an empty
string, then append a scdbackup checksum record to the end of this file. record_name is a word that string, then append a scdbackup checksum record to the end of this file. record_name is a word that
gets part of tag and record. gets part of tag and record.
Program scdbackup_verify will recognize and verify tag and file re cord. Program scdbackup_verify will recognize and verify tag and file re cord.
An empty record_name disables this feature. An empty record_name disables this feature.
-J -J
Enable the production of an additional Joliet directory tree along with the ISO 9660 Rock Ridge Enable the production of an additional Joliet directory tree a long with the ISO 9660 Rock Ridge
tree. tree.
-joliet -joliet
Alias of -J. Alias of -J.
-joliet-long -joliet-long
Allow 103 characters in Joliet file names rather than 64 as is prescribed by the specification. Allow 103 characters in Joliet file names rather than 64 as is pr escribed by the specification.
Allow Joliet paths longer than the prescribed limit of 240 charact ers. Allow Joliet paths longer than the prescribed limit of 240 charact ers.
Oversized names get truncated. Without this option, oversized path s get excluded from the Joliet Oversized names get truncated. Without this option, oversized p aths get excluded from the Joliet
tree. tree.
-joliet-utf16 -joliet-utf16
Encode Joliet file names in UTF-16BE rather than UCS-2. The di fference is with characters which Encode Joliet file names in UTF-16BE rather than UCS-2. The diffe rence is with characters which
are not present in UCS-2 and get encoded in UTF-16 by 2 words of 1 6 bit each. Both words then stem are not present in UCS-2 and get encoded in UTF-16 by 2 words of 1 6 bit each. Both words then stem
from a reserved subset of UCS-2. from a reserved subset of UCS-2.
-hfsplus -hfsplus
Enable the production of an additional HFS+ filesystem inside the ISO 9660 image and mark it by Enable the production of an additional HFS+ filesystem inside the ISO 9660 image and mark it by
Apple Partition Map (APM) entries in the System Area, the first 32 KiB of the image. Apple Partition Map (APM) entries in the System Area, the first 32 KiB of the image.
This may collide with options like -G or -isohybrid-mbr which subm it user data for inclusion in the This may collide with options like -G or -isohybrid-mbr which subm it user data for inclusion in the
same address range. The first 8 bytes of the System Area get same address range. The first 8 bytes of the System Area get over
overwritten by { 0x45, 0x52, 0x08 written by { 0x45, 0x52, 0x08
0x00, 0xeb, 0x02, 0xff, 0xff } which can be executed as x86 machin 0x00, 0xeb, 0x02, 0xff, 0xff } which can be executed as x86 machi
e code without negative effects. ne code without negative effects.
So if an MBR gets combined with this feature, then its first 8 So if an MBR gets combined with this feature, then its first 8 byt
bytes should contain no essential es should contain no essential
commands. commands.
The next blocks of 2 KiB in the System Area will be occupied by AP The next blocks of 2 KiB in the System Area will be occupied by A
M entries. The first one covers PM entries. The first one covers
the part of the ISO image before the HFS+ filesystem metadata. Th the part of the ISO image before the HFS+ filesystem metadata. The
e second one marks the range from second one marks the range from
HFS+ metadata to the end of file content data. If more ISO ima HFS+ metadata to the end of file content data. If more IS
ge data follow, then a third O image data follow, then a third
partition entry gets produced. Other features of xorriso might cau se the need for more APM entries. partition entry gets produced. Other features of xorriso might cau se the need for more APM entries.
Be aware that HFS+ is case-insensitive although it can reco Be aware that HFS+ is case-insensitive although it can record f
rd file names with upper-case and ile names with upper-case and
lower-case letters. Therefore, file names from the iso_rr name tre lower-case letters. Therefore, file names from the iso_rr name
e may collide in the HFS+ name tree may collide in the HFS+ name
tree. In this case they get changed by adding underscore charact tree. In this case they get changed by adding underscore character
ers and counting numbers. In case s and counting numbers. In case
of very long names, it might be necessary to map them to "MANGLED_ ...". of very long names, it might be necessary to map them to "MANGLED_ ...".
WARNING:
The HFS+ implementation in libisofs has a limit of 125,829,120
bytes for the size of the overall
directory tree. This suffices for about 300,000 files of normal na
me length. If the limit gets
exceeded, a FAILURE event will be issued and the ISO production wi
ll not happen.
-hfsplus-serial-no -hfsplus-serial-no
Set a string of 16 digits "0" to "9" and letters "a" to "f", which will be used as unique serial Set a string of 16 digits "0" to "9" and letters "a" to "f", wh ich will be used as unique serial
number of an emerging HFS+ filesystem. number of an emerging HFS+ filesystem.
-hfsplus-block-size number -hfsplus-block-size number
Set the allocation block size to be used when producing HFS+ filesystems. Permissible are 512, Set the allocation block size to be used when producing HFS+ fil esystems. Permissible are 512,
2048, or 0. The latter lets the program decide. 2048, or 0. The latter lets the program decide.
-apm-block-size number -apm-block-size number
Set the block size to be used when describing partitions by an App le Partition Map. Permissible are Set the block size to be used when describing partitions by an App le Partition Map. Permissible are
512, 2048, or 0. The latter lets the program decide. 512, 2048, or 0. The latter lets the program decide.
Note that size 512 is not compatible with production of GP T, and that size 2048 will not be Note that size 512 is not compatible with production of GPT, and that size 2048 will not be
mountable -t hfsplus at least by older Linux kernels. mountable -t hfsplus at least by older Linux kernels.
-hfsplus-file-creator-type creator type iso_rr_path -hfsplus-file-creator-type creator type iso_rr_path
Set the HFS+ creator and type attributes of a file in the emerging image. These are two codes of 4 Set the HFS+ creator and type attributes of a file in the emerging image. These are two codes of 4
characters each. characters each.
-hfs-bless-by blessing iso_rr_path -hfs-bless-by blessing iso_rr_path
Issue a HFS+ blessing. They are roles which can be attributed to up to four directories and a data Issue a HFS+ blessing. They are roles which can be attributed to u p to four directories and a data
file: file:
"ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx _folder". "ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx _folder".
They may be abbreviated as "p", "i", "s", "9", and "x". They may be abbreviated as "p", "i", "s", "9", and "x".
Each such role can be attributed to at most one file object. "inte l_bootfile" is the one that would Each such role can be attributed to at most one file object. "inte l_bootfile" is the one that would
apply to a data file. All others apply to directories. No f ile object can bear more than one apply to a data file. All others apply to directories. No file o bject can bear more than one
blessing. blessing.
-hfs-bless disk_path -hfs-bless disk_path
Issue HFS+ blessing "ppc_bootdir" to the directory which stems fro m the directory disk_path in the Issue HFS+ blessing "ppc_bootdir" to the directory which stems fr om the directory disk_path in the
local filesystem tree. local filesystem tree.
This works only if there is at least one data file underneath the This works only if there is at least one data file underneath the
directory. disk_path can become directory. disk_path can become
ambiguous if files from different local filesystem sub-trees are p ambiguous if files from different local filesystem sub-trees are
ut into the same sub-tree of the put into the same sub-tree of the
ISO image. Consider to use -hfs-bless-by "p" for unambiguous addr essing via iso_rr_path. ISO image. Consider to use -hfs-bless-by "p" for unambiguous addr essing via iso_rr_path.
Settings for file hiding: Settings for file hiding:
-hide disk_path_pattern -hide disk_path_pattern
Make files invisible in the directory tree of ISO 9660 and Rock Make files invisible in the directory tree of ISO 9660 and Rock Ri
Ridge, if their disk_path matches dge, if their disk_path matches
the given shell parser pattern. The data content of such hidden f the given shell parser pattern. The data content of such hid
iles will be included in the den files will be included in the
resulting image, even if they do not show up in any directory. Bu t you will need own means to find resulting image, even if they do not show up in any directory. Bu t you will need own means to find
nameless data in the image. nameless data in the image.
This command does not apply to the boot catalog. This command does not apply to the boot catalog.
-hide-list disk_path -hide-list disk_path
Perform -hide using each line out of file disk_path as argument di sk_path_pattern. Perform -hide using each line out of file disk_path as argument di sk_path_pattern.
-hide-joliet disk_path_pattern -hide-joliet disk_path_pattern
Like option -hide but making files invisible in the directory tree of Joliet, if their disk_path Like option -hide but making files invisible in the directory t ree of Joliet, if their disk_path
matches the given shell parser pattern. matches the given shell parser pattern.
-hide-joliet-list disk_path -hide-joliet-list disk_path
Perform -hide-joliet using each line out of file disk_path as argu ment disk_path_pattern. Perform -hide-joliet using each line out of file disk_path as argu ment disk_path_pattern.
-hide-hfsplus disk_path_pattern -hide-hfsplus disk_path_pattern
Like option -hide but making files invisible in the directory tree of HFS+, if their disk_path Like option -hide but making files invisible in the directory tree of HFS+, if their disk_path
matches the given shell parser pattern. matches the given shell parser pattern.
-hide-hfsplus-list disk_path -hide-hfsplus-list disk_path
Perform -hide-hfsplus using each line out of file disk_path as arg ument disk_path_pattern. Perform -hide-hfsplus using each line out of file disk_path as arg ument disk_path_pattern.
ISO image ID strings: ISO image ID strings:
The following strings and file addresses get stored in the Primary Volume Descriptor of the ISO9660 image. The following strings and file addresses get stored in the Primary Volume Descriptor of the ISO9660 image.
The file addresses are ISO 9660 paths. These files should have iso_r r_paths which consist only of the The file addresses are ISO 9660 paths. These files should have iso_rr_pat hs which consist only of the
characters [A-Z0-9_] and exactly one dot which separates at most 8 charac ters from at most 3 characters. characters [A-Z0-9_] and exactly one dot which separates at most 8 charac ters from at most 3 characters.
-V text -V text
Set the Volume Id of the ISO image. xorriso accepts any text up t o 32 characters, but according to Set the Volume Id of the ISO image. xorriso accepts any text up t o 32 characters, but according to
rarely obeyed specs stricter rules apply: rarely obeyed specs stricter rules apply:
Conformant are ASCII characters out of [A-Z0-9_]. Like: "IMAGE_23" Conformant are ASCII characters out of [A-Z0-9_]. Like: "IMAGE_23"
Joliet allows 16 UCS-2 characters. Like: "Windows name" Joliet allows 16 UCS-2 characters. Like: "Windows name"
Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as name o f the mount point when the medium Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as name o f the mount point when the medium
is inserted into a playful computer system. is inserted into a playful computer system.
-volid text -volid text
Alias of -V. Alias of -V.
-volset text -volset text
Set the Volume Set Id of the ISO image. Permissible are up to 128 characters. Set the Volume Set Id of the ISO image. Permissible are up to 128 characters.
-P text -P text
Set the Publisher Id of the ISO image. This may identify the perso n or organisation who specified Set the Publisher Id of the ISO image. This may identify the per son or organisation who specified
what shall be recorded. Permissible are up to 128 characters. what shall be recorded. Permissible are up to 128 characters.
-publisher text -publisher text
Alias of -P. Alias of -P.
-A text -A text
Set the Application Id of the ISO image. This may identify the specification of how the data are Set the Application Id of the ISO image. This may identify the sp ecification of how the data are
recorded. Permissible are up to 128 characters. recorded. Permissible are up to 128 characters.
The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the id string of xo rriso which is normally written The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the id string of xorriso which is normally written
as Preparer Id. It is a wrong tradition to write the program id as Application Id. as Preparer Id. It is a wrong tradition to write the program id as Application Id.
-appid text -appid text
Alias of -A. Alias of -A.
-sysid text -sysid text
Set the System Id of the ISO image. This may identify the system which can recognize and act upon Set the System Id of the ISO image. This may identify the system w hich can recognize and act upon
the content of the System Area in image blocks 0 to 15. Permissib le are up to 32 characters. the content of the System Area in image blocks 0 to 15. Permissib le are up to 32 characters.
-p text -p text
Set the Preparer Id of the ISO image. This may identify the person Set the Preparer Id of the ISO image. This may identify the pers
or other entity which controls on or other entity which controls
the preparation of the data which shall be recorded. Normally thi the preparation of the data which shall be recorded. Normally this
s should be the id of xorriso and should be the id of xorriso and
not of the person or program which operates xorriso. Please avoid to change it. Permissible are up not of the person or program which operates xorriso. Please avoid to change it. Permissible are up
to 128 characters. to 128 characters.
The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the id string of xo rriso which is default at program The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the id string of xo rriso which is default at program
startup. startup.
-preparer text -preparer text
Alias of -p. Alias of -p.
-abstract iso_path -abstract iso_path
Set the address of the Abstract File of the ISO image. This should Set the address of the Abstract File of the ISO image. This shou
be the ISO 9660 path of a file ld be the ISO 9660 path of a file
in the image which contains an abstract statement about the imag in the image which contains an abstract statement about the image
e content. Permissible are up to content. Permissible are up to
37 characters. 37 characters.
-biblio iso_path -biblio iso_path
Set the address of the Biblio File of the ISO image. This should b e the ISO 9660 path of a file in Set the address of the Biblio File of the ISO image. This should be the ISO 9660 path of a file in
the image which contains bibliographic records. Permissible are u p to 37 characters. the image which contains bibliographic records. Permissible are u p to 37 characters.
-copyright iso_path -copyright iso_path
Set the address of the Copyright File of the ISO image. This shou ld be the ISO 9660 path of a file Set the address of the Copyright File of the ISO image. This shoul d be the ISO 9660 path of a file
in the image which contains a copyright statement. Permissible ar e up to 37 characters. in the image which contains a copyright statement. Permissible ar e up to 37 characters.
--modification-date=YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc --modification-date=YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc
Set a timestring that overrides ISO image creation and modificatio Set a timestring that overrides ISO image creation and modificati
n timestamps literally. It must on timestamps literally. It must
consist of 16 decimal digits which form YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc, with consist of 16 decimal digits which form YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc, with YYY
YYYY between 1970 and 2999. Time Y between 1970 and 2999. Time
zone is GMT. It is supposed to match this GRUB line: zone is GMT. It is supposed to match this GRUB line:
search --fs-uuid --set YYYY-MM-DD-hh-mm-ss-cc search --fs-uuid --set YYYY-MM-DD-hh-mm-ss-cc
E.g. 2010040711405800 is 7 Apr 2010 11:40:58 (+0 centiseconds). E.g. 2010040711405800 is 7 Apr 2010 11:40:58 (+0 centiseconds).
Among the influenced timestamps are: isohybrid MBR id, El T orito boot catalog file, HFS+ Among the influenced timestamps are: isohybrid MBR id, El Torito boot catalog file, HFS+
superblock. superblock.
--application_use character|0xXY|disk_path --application_use character|0xXY|disk_path
Specify the content of the Application Use field which can take at most 512 bytes. Specify the content of the Application Use field which can take at most 512 bytes.
If the parameter of this command is empty, then the field is fi lled with 512 0-bytes. If it is a If the parameter of this command is empty, then the field is fille d with 512 0-bytes. If it is a
single character, then it gets repeated 512 times. If it begins b y "0x" followed by two hex digits single character, then it gets repeated 512 times. If it begins b y "0x" followed by two hex digits
[0-9a-fA-F], then the digits are read as byte value which gets rep eated 512 times. [0-9a-fA-F], then the digits are read as byte value which gets rep eated 512 times.
Any other parameter text is used as disk_path to open a data file Any other parameter text is used as disk_path to open a data file
and to read up to 512 bytes from and to read up to 512 bytes from
it. If the file is smaller than 512 bytes, then the remaining byte it. If the file is smaller than 512 bytes, then the remaining byt
s in the field get set to binary es in the field get set to binary
0. 0.
El Torito Bootable ISO images: El Torito Bootable ISO images:
The precondition for a bootable ISO image is to have in the ISO image the files of a boot loader. The boot The precondition for a bootable ISO image is to have in the ISO image the files of a boot loader. The boot
facilities of computers get directed to such files, which usually execute further program files from the facilities of computers get directed to such files, which usually execu te further program files from the
ISO image. xorrisofs can produce several kinds of boot block or boot rec ord, which become part of the ISO ISO image. xorrisofs can produce several kinds of boot block or boot rec ord, which become part of the ISO
image, and get interpreted by the according boot facility. image, and get interpreted by the according boot facility.
An El Torito boot record points the bootstrapping facility to a boot cata log with one or more boot images, An El Torito boot record points the bootstrapping facility to a boot cata log with one or more boot images,
which are binary program files stored in the ISO image. The content of t he boot image files is not in the which are binary program files stored in the ISO image. The content of t he boot image files is not in the
scope of El Torito. scope of El Torito.
xorriso composes the boot catalog according to the boot image files given and structured by options -b, xorriso composes the boot catalog according to the boot image files gi ven and structured by options -b,
-e, -eltorito-alt-boot, and --efi-boot. Often it contains only one entry. -e, -eltorito-alt-boot, and --efi-boot. Often it contains only one entry.
Normally the boot images are data files inside the ISO filesystem. By special path Normally the boot images are data files inside the ISO filesystem. By special path
"--interval:appended_partition_NNN:all::" it is possible to refer to an a ppended partition. The number NNN "--interval:appended_partition_NNN:all::" it is possible to refer to an a ppended partition. The number NNN
gives the partition number as used with the corresponding option -append_ partition. E.g.: gives the partition number as used with the corresponding option -append_ partition. E.g.:
-append_partition 2 0xef /tmp/efi.img -append_partition 2 0xef /tmp/efi.img
-e --interval:appended_partition_2:all:: -e --interval:appended_partition_2:all::
El Torito gets interpreted by boot facilities PC-BIOS and EFI. Most bo otable GNU/Linux CDs are equipped El Torito gets interpreted by boot facilities PC-BIOS and EFI. Most boot able GNU/Linux CDs are equipped
with ISOLINUX or GRUB boot images for PC-BIOS. with ISOLINUX or GRUB boot images for PC-BIOS.
xorrisofs supports the example options out of the ISOLINUX wiki, the options used in GRUB script xorrisofs supports the example options out of the ISOLINUX wiki, the options used in GRUB script
grub-mkrescue, and the example in the FreeBSD AvgLiveCD wiki. grub-mkrescue, and the example in the FreeBSD AvgLiveCD wiki.
For CD booting via boot facilities other than PC-BIOS and EFI, and fo r booting from USB sticks or hard For CD booting via boot facilities other than PC-BIOS and EFI, and for bo oting from USB sticks or hard
disks, see the next section about the System Area. disks, see the next section about the System Area.
-b iso_rr_path -b iso_rr_path
Specify the boot image file which shall be mentioned in the curren t entry of the El Torito boot Specify the boot image file which shall be mentioned in the cu rrent entry of the El Torito boot
catalog. It will be marked as suitable for PC-BIOS. catalog. It will be marked as suitable for PC-BIOS.
With boot images from ISOLINUX and GRUB this option shoul d be accompanied by options -c , With boot images from ISOLINUX and GRUB this option should be accompanied by options -c ,
-no-emul-boot , -boot-load-size 4 , -boot-info-table. -no-emul-boot , -boot-load-size 4 , -boot-info-table.
-eltorito-boot iso_rr_path -eltorito-boot iso_rr_path
Alias of -b. Alias of -b.
-eltorito-alt-boot -eltorito-alt-boot
Finalize the current El Torito boot catalog entry and begin a new Finalize the current El Torito boot catalog entry and begin a ne
one. A boot image file and all w one. A boot image file and all
its necessary options shall be specified before option -eltorito its necessary options shall be specified before option -eltorito-a
-alt-boot. All further El Torito lt-boot. All further El Torito
boot options apply to the new catalog entry. Up to 32 catalog entr ies are possible. boot options apply to the new catalog entry. Up to 32 catalog entr ies are possible.
-e iso_rr_path -e iso_rr_path
Specify the boot image file which shall be mentioned in the curren t entry of the El Torito boot Specify the boot image file which shall be mentioned in the cu rrent entry of the El Torito boot
catalog. It will be marked as suitable for EFI. catalog. It will be marked as suitable for EFI.
Option -e should be followed by option -no-emul-boot and no other El Torito options before an Option -e should be followed by option -no-emul-boot and no other El Torito options before an
eventual -eltorito-alt-boot. eventual -eltorito-alt-boot.
--efi-boot iso_rr_path --efi-boot iso_rr_path
Perform -eltorito-alt-boot, option -e with the given iso_rr_ path, -no-emul-boot, and again Perform -eltorito-alt-boot, option -e with the given iso_rr _path, -no-emul-boot, and again
-eltorito-alt-boot. This gesture is used for achieving EFI-bootabi lity of the GRUB2 rescue CD. -eltorito-alt-boot. This gesture is used for achieving EFI-bootabi lity of the GRUB2 rescue CD.
-eltorito-platform "x86"|"PPC"|"Mac"|"efi"|0xnn|nnn -eltorito-platform "x86"|"PPC"|"Mac"|"efi"|0xnn|nnn
Set the Platform Id number for the next option -b or -eltorito-boo t. The number may be chosen by a Set the Platform Id number for the next option -b or -eltorito-boo t. The number may be chosen by a
platform name or by a number between 0 and 255 (0x00 and 0xFF). "x 86" = 0 is for PC-BIOS, "PPC" = 1 platform name or by a number between 0 and 255 (0x00 and 0xFF). "x 86" = 0 is for PC-BIOS, "PPC" = 1
for some PowerPC systems, "Mac" = 2 for some MacIntosh systems, " efi" = 0xEF for EFI on modern PCs for some PowerPC systems, "Mac" = 2 for some MacIntosh systems, "e fi" = 0xEF for EFI on modern PCs
with x86 compatible CPUs or others. with x86 compatible CPUs or others.
If the new platform id differs from the previous one, -eltorito-al t-boot gets performed. If the new platform id differs from the previous one, -eltorito-al t-boot gets performed.
-boot-load-size number|"full" -boot-load-size number|"full"
Set the number of 512-byte blocks to be loaded at boot time from t he boot image in the current Set the number of 512-byte blocks to be loaded at boot time f rom the boot image in the current
catalog entry. catalog entry.
Non-emulating BIOS bootimages usually need a load size of 4. Ne Non-emulating BIOS bootimages usually need a load size of 4. Neve
vertheless the default setting of rtheless the default setting of
mkisofs is to use the full size of the boot image rounded up to a mkisofs is to use the full size of the boot image rounded up to
multiple of 4 512-byte blocks. a multiple of 4 512-byte blocks.
This default may be explicitly enforced by the word "full" instead of a number. This default may be explicitly enforced by the word "full" instead of a number.
EFI boot images usually get set the number of blocks occupied by t he boot image file. EFI boot images usually get set the number of blocks occupied by t he boot image file.
El Torito cannot represent load sizes higher than 65535. El Torito cannot represent load sizes higher than 65535.
-hard-disk-boot -hard-disk-boot
Mark the boot image in the current catalog entry as emulated hard disk. (Not suitable for any Mark the boot image in the current catalog entry as emulated hard disk. (Not suitable for any
known boot loader.) known boot loader.)
-no-emul-boot -no-emul-boot
Mark the boot image in the current catalog entry as not emulating floppy or hard disk. (This is to Mark the boot image in the current catalog entry as not emulating floppy or hard disk. (This is to
be used with all known boot loaders.) be used with all known boot loaders.)
If neither -hard-disk-boot nor -no-emul-boot is given, then the boot image will be marked as If neither -hard-disk-boot nor -no-emul-boot is given, then the boot image will be marked as
emulating a floppy. (Not suitable for any known boot loader.) emulating a floppy. (Not suitable for any known boot loader.)
-eltorito-id text|56_hexdigits -eltorito-id text|56_hexdigits
Define the ID string of the boot catalog section where the boot im Define the ID string of the boot catalog section where the boot i
age will be listed. If the value mage will be listed. If the value
consists of 56 characters [0-9A-Fa-f] then it is converted consists of 56 characters [0-9A-Fa-f] then it is converted into
into 28 bytes, else the first 28 28 bytes, else the first 28
characters become the ID string. The ID string of the first boot image becomes the overall catalog characters become the ID string. The ID string of the first boot image becomes the overall catalog
ID. It is limited to 24 characters. Other id_strings become secti on IDs. ID. It is limited to 24 characters. Other id_strings become secti on IDs.
-eltorito-selcrit hexdigits -eltorito-selcrit hexdigits
Define the Selection Criteria of the boot image. Up to 20 bytes g et read from the given characters Define the Selection Criteria of the boot image. Up to 20 bytes g et read from the given characters
[0-9A-Fa-f]. They get attributed to the boot image entry in the c atalog. [0-9A-Fa-f]. They get attributed to the boot image entry in the c atalog.
-boot-info-table -boot-info-table
Overwrite bytes 8 to 63 in the current boot image. The information Overwrite bytes 8 to 63 in the current boot image. The informati
will be supplied by xorriso in on will be supplied by xorriso in
the course of image production: Block address of the Primary Vo the course of image production: Block address of the Primary Volum
lume Descriptor, block address of e Descriptor, block address of
the boot image file, size of the boot image file. the boot image file, size of the boot image file.
--grub2-boot-info --grub2-boot-info
Overwrite bytes 2548 to 2555 in the current boot image by the addr Overwrite bytes 2548 to 2555 in the current boot image by the
ess of that boot image. The address of that boot image. The
address is written as 64 bit little-endian number. It is the 2K address is written as 64 bit little-endian number. It is the 2KB b
B block address of the boot image lock address of the boot image
content, multiplied by 4, and then incremented by 5. content, multiplied by 4, and then incremented by 5.
-c iso_rr_path -c iso_rr_path
Set the address of the El Torito boot catalog file within the imag Set the address of the El Torito boot catalog file within the
e. This file address is not image. This file address is not
significant for the booting PC-BIOS or EFI, but it may later be r significant for the booting PC-BIOS or EFI, but it may later be re
ead by other programs in order to ad by other programs in order to
learn about the available boot images. learn about the available boot images.
-eltorito-catalog iso_rr_path -eltorito-catalog iso_rr_path
Alias of -c. Alias of -c.
--boot-catalog-hide --boot-catalog-hide
Prevent the El Torito boot catalog from appearing as file in the d irectory trees of the image. Prevent the El Torito boot catalog from appearing as file in the d irectory trees of the image.
System Area, MBR, GPT, APM, other boot blocks: System Area, MBR, GPT, APM, other boot blocks:
The first 16 blocks of an ISO image are the System Area. It is reser ved for system dependent boot The first 16 blocks of an ISO image are the System Area. It is r eserved for system dependent boot
software. This may be the boot facilities and partition tables of various hardware architectures. software. This may be the boot facilities and partition tables of various hardware architectures.
A MBR (Master Boot Record) contains boot code and a partition table. I A MBR (Master Boot Record) contains boot code and a partition table. It
t is read by PC-BIOS when booting is read by PC-BIOS when booting
from USB stick or hard disk, and by PowerPC CHRP or PReP when booting. A from USB stick or hard disk, and by PowerPC CHRP or PReP when booting.
n MBR partition with type 0xee An MBR partition with type 0xee
indicates the presence of GPT. indicates the presence of GPT.
A GPT (GUID Partition Table) marks partitions in a more modern way. It is read by EFI when booting from A GPT (GUID Partition Table) marks partitions in a more modern way. It i s read by EFI when booting from
USB stick or hard disk, and may be used for finding and mounting a HFS+ p artition inside the ISO image. USB stick or hard disk, and may be used for finding and mounting a HFS+ p artition inside the ISO image.
An APM (Apple Partition Map) marks the HFS+ partition. It is read by Mac s for booting and for mounting. An APM (Apple Partition Map) marks the HFS+ partition. It is read by Mac s for booting and for mounting.
MBR, GPT and APM are combinable. APM occupies the first 8 bytes of MBR bo ot code. All three do not hamper MBR, GPT and APM are combinable. APM occupies the first 8 bytes of MBR b oot code. All three do not hamper
El Torito booting from CDROM. El Torito booting from CDROM.
xorrisofs supports further boot facilities: MIPS Big Endian (SGI), MIP S Little Endian (DEC), SUN SPARC, xorrisofs supports further boot facilities: MIPS Big Endian (SGI), MIPS L ittle Endian (DEC), SUN SPARC,
HP-PA, DEC Alpha. Those are mutually not combinable and also not combina ble with MBR, GPT, or APM. HP-PA, DEC Alpha. Those are mutually not combinable and also not combina ble with MBR, GPT, or APM.
Several of the following options expect disk paths as input but also acce Several of the following options expect disk paths as input but also a
pt description strings for the ccept description strings for the
libisofs interval reader, which is able to cut out data from disk files libisofs interval reader, which is able to cut out data from disk files o
or -indev and to zeroize parts of r -indev and to zeroize parts of
the content: -G, -generic-boot, --embedded-boot, --grub2-mbr, the content: -G, -generic-boot, --embedded-boot, --grub2-mbr,
-isohybrid-mbr, -efi-boot-part, -isohybrid-mbr, -efi-boot-part,
-prep-boot-part, -B, -sparc-boot, -append_partition. -prep-boot-part, -B, -sparc-boot, -append_partition.
The description string consists of the following components, separated by colon ':' The description string consists of the following components, separated by colon ':'
"--interval:"Flags":"Interval":"Zeroizers":"Source "--interval:"Flags":"Interval":"Zeroizers":"Source
The component "--interval" states that this is not a plain disk path but rather a interval reader The component "--interval" states that this is not a plain disk path but rather a interval reader
description string. description string.
The component Flags modifies the further interpretation: The component Flags modifies the further interpretation:
"local_fs" demands to read from a file depicted by the path in Source. "local_fs" demands to read from a file depicted by the path in Source.
"imported_iso" demands to read from the -indev. This works only if -outde v is not the same as -indev. The "imported_iso" demands to read from the -indev. This works only if -outd ev is not the same as -indev. The
Source component is ignored. Source component is ignored.
"appended_partition_NNN" with a decimal number NNN works only for opti "appended_partition_NNN" with a decimal number NNN works only for options
ons which announce El Torito boot which announce El Torito boot
image paths: -b, -e, --efi-boot. The number gives the partition number a image paths: -b, -e, --efi-boot. The number gives the partition numb
s used with the corresponding er as used with the corresponding
option -append_partition. option -append_partition.
The component Interval consists of two byte address numbers separated by a "-" character. E.g. "0-429" The component Interval consists of two byte address numbers separated by a "-" character. E.g. "0-429"
means to read bytes 0 to 429. means to read bytes 0 to 429.
The component Zeroizers consists of zero or more comma separated strings. The component Zeroizers consists of zero or more comma separated string
They define which part of the s. They define which part of the
read data to zeroize. Byte number 0 means the byte read from the Interva read data to zeroize. Byte number 0 means the byte read from the Interval
l start address. Each string may start address. Each string may
be one of: be one of:
"zero_mbrpt" demands to zeroize the MBR partition table if bytes 510 and 511 bear the MBR signature 0x55 "zero_mbrpt" demands to zeroize the MBR partition table if bytes 510 an d 511 bear the MBR signature 0x55
0xaa. 0xaa.
"zero_gpt" demands to check for a GPT header in bytes 512 to 1023, to z eroize it and its partition table "zero_gpt" demands to check for a GPT header in bytes 512 to 1023, to zer oize it and its partition table
blocks. blocks.
"zero_apm" demands to check for an APM block 0 and to zeroize its partiti on table blocks. "zero_apm" demands to check for an APM block 0 and to zeroize its partiti on table blocks.
Start_byte"-"End_byte demands to zeroize the read-in bytes beginning with number Start_byte and ending Start_byte"-"End_byte demands to zeroize the read-in bytes beginning with number Start_byte and ending
after End_byte. after End_byte.
The component Source is the file path with flag "local_fs", and ignored w ith flag "imported_iso". The component Source is the file path with flag "local_fs", and ignored w ith flag "imported_iso".
Byte numbers may be scaled by a suffix out of {k,m,g,t,s,d} meaning multi plication by {1024, 1024k, 1024m, Byte numbers may be scaled by a suffix out of {k,m,g,t,s,d} meaning multi plication by {1024, 1024k, 1024m,
1024g, 2048, 512}. A scaled value end number depicts the last byte of the scaled range. 1024g, 2048, 512}. A scaled value end number depicts the last byte of the scaled range.
E.g. "0d-0d" is "0-511". E.g. "0d-0d" is "0-511".
Examples: Examples:
"local_fs:0-32767:zero_mbrpt,zero_gpt,440-443:/tmp/template.iso" "local_fs:0-32767:zero_mbrpt,zero_gpt,440-443:/tmp/template.iso"
"imported_iso:45056d-47103d::" "imported_iso:45056d-47103d::"
-G disk_path -G disk_path
Copy at most 32768 bytes from the given disk file to the very star t of the ISO image. Copy at most 32768 bytes from the given disk file to the very star t of the ISO image.
Other than a El Torito boot image, the file disk_path needs not to be added to the ISO image. It Other than a El Torito boot image, the file disk_path needs not to be added to the ISO image. It
will not show up as file in the directory trees. will not show up as file in the directory trees.
In multi-session situations, the special disk_path "." prev ents reading of a disk file but In multi-session situations, the special disk_path "." prevents reading of a disk file but
nevertheless causes the adjustments in the existing MBR, which wer e ordered by other options. nevertheless causes the adjustments in the existing MBR, which wer e ordered by other options.
-generic-boot disk_path -generic-boot disk_path
Alias of -G. Alias of -G.
--embedded-boot disk_path --embedded-boot disk_path
Alias of -G. Alias of -G.
--grub2-mbr disk_path --grub2-mbr disk_path
Install disk_path in the System Area and treat it as modern GRUB2 Install disk_path in the System Area and treat it as modern GRUB
MBR. The content start address 2 MBR. The content start address
of the first boot image is converted to a count of 512 byte blo of the first boot image is converted to a count of 512 byte blocks
cks, and an offset of 4 is added. , and an offset of 4 is added.
The result is written as 64 bit little-endian number to byte addre ss 0x1b0. The result is written as 64 bit little-endian number to byte addre ss 0x1b0.
-isohybrid-mbr disk_path -isohybrid-mbr disk_path
Install disk_path as ISOLINUX isohybrid MBR which makes the boot i Install disk_path as ISOLINUX isohybrid MBR which makes the boot
mage given by option -b bootable image given by option -b bootable
from USB sticks and hard disks via PC-BIOS. This preparation is from USB sticks and hard disks via PC-BIOS. This preparation is n
normally done by ISOLINUX program ormally done by ISOLINUX program
isohybrid on the already produced ISO image. isohybrid on the already produced ISO image.
The disk path should lead to one of the Syslinux files isohdp[fp]x The disk path should lead to one of the Syslinux files isohdp[
*.bin . The MBR gets patched fp]x*.bin . The MBR gets patched
according to isohybrid needs. The first partition describes the according to isohybrid needs. The first partition describes the ra
range of the ISO image. Its start nge of the ISO image. Its start
is at block 0 by default, but may be set to 64 disk blocks by opti on -partition_offset 16. is at block 0 by default, but may be set to 64 disk blocks by opti on -partition_offset 16.
For the meaning of special disk_path "." see option -G. For the meaning of special disk_path "." see option -G.
-isohybrid-gpt-basdat -isohybrid-gpt-basdat
Mark the current El Torito boot image (see options -b and -e) in G Mark the current El Torito boot image (see options -b and
PT as partition of type Basic -e) in an actually invalid GPT as
Data. This works only with -isohybrid-mbr and has the sam partition of type Basic Data. This works only with -isohybrid-mbr
e impact on the system area as and has the same impact on the
-efi-boot-part. It cannot be combined with -efi-boot-part or -hfsp system area as -efi-boot-part. It cannot be combined with -efi-bo
lus. ot-part or -hfsplus.
The first three boot images which are marked by GPT will also show The first three boot images which are marked by GPT will also sho
up as partition entries of type w up as partition entries in MBR.
0xef in MBR. The MBR partition for PC-BIOS gets type 0x00 rath The MBR partition of type 0xEF is what actually is used by EFI fir
er than 0x17 in this case. Often mware for booting from USB stick.
the further MBR entries are the ones which actually get used by EF The MBR partition for PC-BIOS gets type 0x00 rather than 0x17 in
I. this case. Often the further MBR
entries are the ones which actually get used by EFI.
-isohybrid-gpt-hfsplus -isohybrid-gpt-hfsplus
Mark the current El Torito boot image (see options -b and -e) in G PT as partition of type HFS+. Mark the current El Torito boot image (see options -b and -e) in G PT as partition of type HFS+.
Impact and restrictions are like with -isohybrid-gpt-basdat. Impact and restrictions are like with -isohybrid-gpt-basdat.
-isohybrid-apm-hfsplus -isohybrid-apm-hfsplus
Mark the current El Torito boot image (see options -b and -e) in Apple Partition Map as partition Mark the current El Torito boot image (see options -b and -e) in Apple Partition Map as partition
of type HFS+. This works only with -isohybrid-mbr and has a simila r impact on the system area as of type HFS+. This works only with -isohybrid-mbr and has a simila r impact on the system area as
-hfsplus. It cannot be combined with -efi-boot-part or -hfsplus. -hfsplus. It cannot be combined with -efi-boot-part or -hfsplus.
The ISOLINUX isohybrid MBR file must begin by a known pattern of 3 2 bytes of x86 machine code which The ISOLINUX isohybrid MBR file must begin by a known pattern of 3 2 bytes of x86 machine code which
skipping to change at line 885 skipping to change at line 908
other settings or if the partition type is prescribed mandatorily like 0xee for GPT protective MBR other settings or if the partition type is prescribed mandatorily like 0xee for GPT protective MBR
or 0x96 for CHRP. or 0x96 for CHRP.
If instead a type_guid is given by a 32-digit hex string like a2 a0d0ebe5b9334487c068b6b72699c7 or If instead a type_guid is given by a 32-digit hex string like a2 a0d0ebe5b9334487c068b6b72699c7 or
by a structured text like EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7, th en it will be used as partition by a structured text like EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7, th en it will be used as partition
type if the ISO filesystem appears as parti tion in GPT. In MBR, type if the ISO filesystem appears as parti tion in GPT. In MBR,
C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B will be mapped to 0xef. Any other GUID will be mapped to C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B will be mapped to 0xef. Any other GUID will be mapped to
0x83. 0x83.
--protective-msdos-label --protective-msdos-label
Patch the System Area by a simple PC-DOS partition table where pa rtition 1 claims the range of the Patch the System Area by a simple PC-DOS partition table where pa rtition 1 claims the range of the
ISO image but leaves the first block unclaimed. ISO image but leaves the first block unclaimed. This is
mutally exclusive to option
-isohybrid-mbr.
--mbr-force-bootable --mbr-force-bootable
Enforce an MBR partition with "bootable/active" flag if options l Enforce an MBR partition with "bootable/active" flag if options
ike --protective-msdos-label or like --protective-msdos-label or
--grub2-mbr are given. These options normally cause the f --grub2-mbr are given. These options normally cause the flag to
lag to be set if there is an MBR be set if there is an MBR
partition of type other than 0xee or 0xef. If no such partition e partition of type other than 0xee or 0xef. If no such partition
xists, then no bootflag is set, exists, then no bootflag is set,
unless --mbr-force-bootable forces creation of a dummy partition o f type 0x00 which covers only the unless --mbr-force-bootable forces creation of a dummy partition o f type 0x00 which covers only the
first block of the ISO image. first block of the ISO image.
If no bootable MBR is indicated by other options and a partition g ets created by -append_partition, If no bootable MBR is indicated by other options and a partition g ets created by -append_partition,
then --mbr-force-bootable causes a bootflag like it would do with e.g. --protective-msdos-label. then --mbr-force-bootable causes a bootflag like it would do with e.g. --protective-msdos-label.
-partition_offset 2kb_block_adr -partition_offset 2kb_block_adr
Cause a partition table with a single partition that begins at Cause a partition table with a single partition that begins at the
the given block address. This is given block address. This is
counted in 2048 byte blocks, not in 512 byte blocks. If the block counted in 2048 byte blocks, not in 512 byte blocks. If the block
address is non-zero then it must address is non-zero then it must
be at least 16. Values larger than 16 are hardly of use. A non be at least 16. Values larger than 16 are hardly of use. A non-ze
-zero partition offset causes two ro partition offset causes two
superblocks to be generated and two sets of directory trees. The i superblocks to be generated and two sets of directory trees. The
mage is then mountable from its image is then mountable from its
absolute start as well as from the partition start. absolute start as well as from the partition start.
The offset value of an ISO image gets preserved when a new sessio n is added to a loaded image. So The offset value of an ISO image gets preserved when a new session is added to a loaded image. So
the value defined here is only in effect if a new ISO image gets w ritten. the value defined here is only in effect if a new ISO image gets w ritten.
-partition_hd_cyl number -partition_hd_cyl number
Set the number of heads per cylinder for the MBR partition table. 0 chooses a default value. Set the number of heads per cylinder for the MBR partition t able. 0 chooses a default value.
Maximum is 255. Maximum is 255.
-partition_sec_hd number -partition_sec_hd number
Set the number of sectors per head for the MBR partition table. 0 chooses a default value. Maximum Set the number of sectors per head for the MBR partition table. 0 chooses a default value. Maximum
is 63. is 63.
The product partition_sec_hd * partition_hd_cyl * 512 is the cylin der size. It should be divisible The product partition_sec_hd * partition_hd_cyl * 512 is the cylin der size. It should be divisible
by 2048 in order to make exact alignment possible. With appended partitions and by 2048 in order to make exact alignment possible. W ith appended partitions and
-appended_part_as_gpt there is no limit for the number of cylinder s. Else there may be at most 1024 -appended_part_as_gpt there is no limit for the number of cylinder s. Else there may be at most 1024
of them. If the cylinder size is too small to stay below the of them. If the cylinder size is too small to stay below the limi
limit, then appropriate values of t, then appropriate values of
partition_hd_cyl are chosen with partition_sec_hd 32 or 63. partition_hd_cyl are chosen with partition_sec_hd 32 or 63.
If the image is larger than If the image is larger than
8,422,686,720 bytes, then the cylinder size constraints cannot be fulfilled for MBR. They seem not 8,422,686,720 bytes, then the cylinder size constraints cannot be fulfilled for MBR. They seem not
overly important anyway. Flat block addresses in partition tables are good for 1 TiB. overly important anyway. Flat block addresses in partition tables are good for 1 TiB.
-partition_cyl_align mode -partition_cyl_align mode
Control image size alignment to an integer number of cylinders. Control image size alignment to an integer number of cylinder
It is prescribed by isohybrid s. It is prescribed by isohybrid
specs and it seems to please program fdisk. Cylinder size m specs and it seems to please program fdisk. Cylinder size must
ust be divisible by 2048. Images be divisible by 2048. Images
larger than 8,323,596,288 bytes cannot be aligned in MBR partition table. larger than 8,323,596,288 bytes cannot be aligned in MBR partition table.
Mode "auto" is default. Alignment by padding happens only if optio n -isohybrid-mbr is given. Mode "auto" is default. Alignment by padding happens only if optio n -isohybrid-mbr is given.
Mode "on" causes alignment by padding with option --protective-msd os-label too. Mode "all" is like Mode "on" causes alignment by padding with option --protective-msd os-label too. Mode "all" is like
"on" but also pads up partitions from -append_partition to an alig ned size. "on" but also pads up partitions from -append_partition to an alig ned size.
Mode "off" disables alignment unconditionally. Mode "off" disables alignment unconditionally.
-append_partition partition_number type_code disk_path -append_partition partition_number type_code disk_path
Cause a prepared filesystem image to be appended to the I Cause a prepared filesystem image to be appended to the ISO ima
SO image and to be described by a ge and to be described by a
partition table entry in a boot block at the start of the emerging partition table entry in a boot block at the start of the emergi
ISO image. The partition entry ng ISO image. The partition entry
will bear the size of the submitted file rounded up to the next will bear the size of the submitted file rounded up to the next mu
multiple of 2048 bytes or to the ltiple of 2048 bytes or to the
next multiple of the cylinder size. next multiple of the cylinder size.
Beware of subsequent multi-session runs. The appended partition wi ll get overwritten. Beware of subsequent multi-session runs. The appended partition wi ll get overwritten.
partition_number may be 1 to 4. Number 1 will put the whole ISO i partition_number may be 1 to 4. Number 1 will put the whole I
mage into the unclaimed space SO image into the unclaimed space
before partition 1. So together with most xorriso MBR or GPT fea before partition 1. So together with most xorriso MBR or GPT featu
tures, number 2 would be the most res, number 2 would be the most
natural choice. natural choice.
The type_code may be "FAT12", "FAT16", "Linux", or a hexadecimal n umber between 0x00 and 0xff. Not The type_code may be "FAT12", "FAT16", "Linux", or a hexadecimal number between 0x00 and 0xff. Not
all those numbers will yield usable results. For a list of codes s earch the Internet for "Partition all those numbers will yield usable results. For a list of codes s earch the Internet for "Partition
Types" or run fdisk command "L". If the partition appears in GPT then type_code 0xef is mapped to Types" or run fdisk command "L". If the partition appears in GPT then type_code 0xef is mapped to
the EFI System Partition Type GUID. All others get mapped to Basic Data Type GUID. the EFI System Partition Type GUID. All others get mapped to Basic Data Type GUID.
type_code may also be a type GUID as plain hex string like a2a0d type_code may also be a type GUID as plain hex string like a2a0d0e
0ebe5b9334487c068b6b72699c7 or as be5b9334487c068b6b72699c7 or as
structured text like EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7. It will structured text like EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7. It
be used if the partition is will be used if the partition is
mentioned in GPT. In MBR, C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B mentioned in GPT. In MBR, C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B wil
will be mapped to 0xef. Any other l be mapped to 0xef. Any other
GUID will be mapped to 0x83. GUID will be mapped to 0x83. In APM, 48465300-0000-11AA-AA
11-00306543ECAC will be mapped to
partition type "Apple_HFS", any other to "Data".
If some other command causes the production of GPT, then the appen ded partitions will be mentioned If some other command causes the production of GPT, then the appen ded partitions will be mentioned
there too, even if not -appended_part_as_gpt is given. there too, even if not -appended_part_as_gpt is given.
-appended_part_as_gpt -appended_part_as_gpt
Marks partitions from -append_partition in GPT rather than in M BR. In this case the MBR shows a Marks partitions from -append_partition in GPT rather than in M BR. In this case the MBR shows a
single partition of type 0xee which covers the whole output data. single partition of type 0xee which covers the whole output data.
By default, appended partitions get marked in GPT only if GPT is p roduced because of other options. By default, appended partitions get marked in GPT only if GPT is p roduced because of other options.
-appended_part_as_apm -appended_part_as_apm
Marks partitions from -append_partition in Apple Partition Map, to o. Marks partitions from -append_partition in Apple Partition Map, to o.
skipping to change at line 1081 skipping to change at line 1106
see http://atterer.net/jigdo/ for more details. Debian CDs and DVD ISO im ages are published on the web in see http://atterer.net/jigdo/ for more details. Debian CDs and DVD ISO im ages are published on the web in
jigdo format to allow end users to download them more efficiently." jigdo format to allow end users to download them more efficiently."
If the use of libjte was enabled at compile time of xorriso, then xor risofs can produce a .jigdo and a If the use of libjte was enabled at compile time of xorriso, then xor risofs can produce a .jigdo and a
.template file together with a single-session ISO image. If not, then Jig do options will cause a FAILURE .template file together with a single-session ISO image. If not, then Jig do options will cause a FAILURE
event, which normally leads to program abort. event, which normally leads to program abort.
One may determine the ability for Jigdo by: One may determine the ability for Jigdo by:
$ xorrisofs -version 2>&1 | grep '^libjte' && echo YES $ xorrisofs -version 2>&1 | grep '^libjte' && echo YES
The .jigdo file contains checksums and symbolic file addresses. The .template file contains the The .jigdo file contains checksums and symbolic file addresses. The .template file contains the
compressed ISO image with reference tags instead of the content bytes of the listed files. compressed ISO image with reference tags instead of the content bytes of the listed files.
Input for this process are the normal arguments for a xorrisofs session w Input for this process are the normal arguments for a xorrisofs session
ith no image loaded, and a .md5 with no image loaded, and a
file which lists those data files which may be listed in the .jigdo file checksum file which lists those data files which may be listed
and externally referenced in the in the .jigdo file and externally
.template file. Each designated file is represented in the .md5 file by referenced in the .template file. Each designated file is represented in
a single text line: the checksum file by a single
MD5 as 32 hex digits, 2 blanks, size as 12 decimal digits or blanks, 2 bl text line:
anks, symbolic file address Checksum as hex digits, 2 blanks, size as 12 decimal digits or blanks, 2
The file address in an .md5 line has to bear the same basename as the dis blanks, symbolic file address
k_path of the file which it shall The kind of checksum is chosen by -jigdo "checksum_algorithm" wit
match. The directory path of the file address is decisive for To=From m h values "md5" (32 hex digits) or
apping, not for file recognition. "sha256" (64 hex digits). It will also be used for the file address line
After To=From mapping, the file address gets written into the .jigdo f s in the .jigdo file.
ile. Jigdo restore tools will The default is "md5".
convert these addresses into really reachable data source addresses from The file address in a checksum file line has to bear the same basename as
which they can read. the disk_path of the file which
it shall match. The directory path of the file address is decisive
for To=From mapping, not for file
recognition. After To=From mapping, the file address gets written into t
he .jigdo file. Jigdo restore
tools will convert these addresses into really reachable data source addr
esses from which they can read.
If the list of jigdo parameters is not empty, then padding will be counte d as part of the ISO image. If the list of jigdo parameters is not empty, then padding will be counte d as part of the ISO image.
-jigdo-checksum-algorithm "md5"|"sha256"
Set the checksum algorithm which shall be used for the data file
entries in the .jigdo file and is
expected in the checksum file. Default is "md5".
-jigdo-jigdo disk_path -jigdo-jigdo disk_path
Set the disk_path for the .jigdo file with the checksums and d ownload addresses for filling the Set the disk_path for the .jigdo file with the checksums and downl oad addresses for filling the
holes in .template. holes in .template.
-jigdo-template disk_path -jigdo-template disk_path
Set the disk_path for the .template file with the holed and compre ssed ISO image copy. Set the disk_path for the .template file with the holed and compre ssed ISO image copy.
-jigdo-min-file-size size -jigdo-min-file-size size
Set the minimum size for a data file to be listed in the .jigdo f Set the minimum size for a data file to be listed in the .j
ile and being a hole in the igdo file and being a hole in the
.template file. size may be a plain number counting bytes, or a .template file. size may be a plain number counting bytes, or a n
number with appended letter "k", umber with appended letter "k",
"m", "g" to count KiB (1024 bytes), MiB (1024 KiB), or GiB (1024 M iB). "m", "g" to count KiB (1024 bytes), MiB (1024 KiB), or GiB (1024 M iB).
-jigdo-force-checksum disk_path_pattern
adds a regular expression pattern which will get compared with t
he absolute disk_path of any data
file that was not found in the checksum file. A match causes a MI
SHAP event, which normally does
not abort the program run but finally causes a non-zero exit value
of the program.
-jigdo-force-md5 disk_path_pattern -jigdo-force-md5 disk_path_pattern
adds a regular expression pattern which will get compared with the Outdated alias of -jigdo-force-checksum.
absolute disk_path of any data
file that was not found in the .md5 list. A match causes a MISH
AP event, which normally does not
abort the program run but finally causes a non-zero exit value of
the program.
-jigdo-exclude disk_path_pattern -jigdo-exclude disk_path_pattern
Add a regular expression pattern which will get compared with the absolute disk_path of any data Add a regular expression pattern which will get compared with t he absolute disk_path of any data
file. A match causes the file to stay in .template in any case. file. A match causes the file to stay in .template in any case.
-jigdo-map To=From -jigdo-map To=From
Add a string pair of the form To=From to the parameter list. Add a string pair of the form To=From to the parameter list. If a
If a data file gets listed in the data file gets listed in the
.jigdo file, then it is referred by the file address from its line .jigdo file, then it is referred by the file address from its lin
in the .md5 file. This file e in the checksum file. This file
address gets checked whether it begins with the From string address gets checked whether it begins with the From string. If
. If so, then this string will be so, then this string will be
replaced by the To string and a ':' character, before it goes into the .jigdo file. The From string replaced by the To string and a ':' character, before it goes into the .jigdo file. The From string
should end by a '/' character. should end by a '/' character.
-checksum-list disk_path
Set the disk_path where to find the checksum file file with symbol
ic file addresses and checksums
according to -jigdo-checksum-algorithm.
-md5-list disk_path -md5-list disk_path
Set the disk_path where to find the .md5 input file. Outdated alias of -checksum-list.
-jigdo-template-compress "gzip"|"bzip2" -jigdo-template-compress "gzip"|"bzip2"
Choose one of "bzip2" or "gzip" for the compression of the templat e file. The jigdo file is put out Choose one of "bzip2" or "gzip" for the compression of the templat e file. The jigdo file is put out
uncompressed. uncompressed.
-checksum_algorithm_iso list_of_names -checksum_algorithm_iso list_of_names
Choose one or more of "md5", "sha1", "sha256", "sha512" for the au xiliary "# Image Hex" checksums Choose one or more of "md5", "sha1", "sha256", "sha512" for the au xiliary "# Image Hex" checksums
in the .jigdo file. The list_of_names may e.g. look like "md5,sha1 ,sha512". Value "all" chooses all in the .jigdo file. The list_of_names may e.g. look like "md5,sha1 ,sha512". Value "all" chooses all
available algorithms. Note that MD5 stays always enabled. available algorithms. Note that MD5 stays always enabled.
skipping to change at line 1222 skipping to change at line 1262
Normally one should avoid = and \ characters in the ISO part of a path spec. But if it must be, one may Normally one should avoid = and \ characters in the ISO part of a path spec. But if it must be, one may
escape them: escape them:
/with_\=_and_\\/file=/tmp/directory/file /with_\=_and_\\/file=/tmp/directory/file
yields in the ISO image: yields in the ISO image:
/with_=_and_\/file /with_=_and_\/file
Perform multi-session runs Perform multi-session runs
This example works for multi-session media only: CD-R[W], DVD-R[W], DVD +R, BD-R. Add cdrskin option This example works for multi-session media only: CD-R[W], DVD-R[W], DVD +R, BD-R. Add cdrskin option
--grow_overwriteable_iso to all -as cdrecord runs in order to en able multi-session emulation on --grow_overwriteable_iso to all -as cdrecord runs in order to en able multi-session emulation on
overwriteable media. overwritable media.
The first session is written like this: The first session is written like this:
$ xorrisofs -graft-points \ $ xorrisofs -graft-points \
/tree1=prepared_for_iso/tree1 \ /tree1=prepared_for_iso/tree1 \
| xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=fast -multi -eject - | xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=fast -multi -eject -
Follow-up sessions are written like this (the run of dd is only to give d emons a chance to spoil it): Follow-up sessions are written like this (the run of dd is only to give d emons a chance to spoil it):
$ m=$(xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo) $ m=$(xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo)
$ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1 $ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
$ xorrisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m -graft-points \ $ xorrisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m -graft-points \
/tree2=prepared_for_iso/tree2 \ /tree2=prepared_for_iso/tree2 \
| xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 -waiti -multi -eject - | xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 -waiti -multi -eject -
skipping to change at line 1303 skipping to change at line 1343
stored safely on a different medium. stored safely on a different medium.
Always have a blank medium ready to perform a full backup in case the update attempt fails due to Always have a blank medium ready to perform a full backup in case the update attempt fails due to
insufficient remaining capacity. This failure will not spoil the old medi um, of course. insufficient remaining capacity. This failure will not spoil the old medi um, of course.
If inode numbers on disk are not persistent, then use option --old-root -no-ino . In this case an update If inode numbers on disk are not persistent, then use option --old-root -no-ino . In this case an update
run will compare recorded MD5 sums against the current file content on ha rd disk. run will compare recorded MD5 sums against the current file content on ha rd disk.
With mount option -o "sbsector=" on GNU/Linux or -s on FreeBSD or NetBSD it is possible to access the With mount option -o "sbsector=" on GNU/Linux or -s on FreeBSD or NetBSD it is possible to access the
session trees which represent the older backup versions. With CD media , GNU/Linux mount accepts session session trees which represent the older backup versions. With CD media , GNU/Linux mount accepts session
numbers directly by its option "session=". numbers directly by its option "session=".
Multi-session media and most overwriteable media written by xorriso can tell the sbsectors of their Multi-session media and most overwritable media written by xorriso can tell the sbsectors of their
sessions by xorriso option -toc: sessions by xorriso option -toc:
$ xorriso -dev /dev/sr0 -toc $ xorriso -dev /dev/sr0 -toc
xorriso can print the matching mount command for a session number: xorriso can print the matching mount command for a session number:
$ xorriso -mount_cmd /dev/sr0 session 12 /mnt $ xorriso -mount_cmd /dev/sr0 session 12 /mnt
or for a volume id that matches a search expression: or for a volume id that matches a search expression:
$ xorriso -mount_cmd /dev/sr0 volid '*2008_12_05*' /mnt $ xorriso -mount_cmd /dev/sr0 volid '*2008_12_05*' /mnt
Both yield on standard output something like: Both yield on standard output something like:
mount -t iso9660 -o nodev,noexec,nosuid,ro,sbsector=1460256 '/dev/sr0' '/mnt' mount -t iso9660 -o nodev,noexec,nosuid,ro,sbsector=1460256 '/dev/sr0' '/mnt'
The superuser may let xorriso execute the mount command directly: The superuser may let xorriso execute the mount command directly:
# osirrox -mount /dev/sr0 "volid" '*2008_12_05*' /mnt # osirrox -mount /dev/sr0 "volid" '*2008_12_05*' /mnt
skipping to change at line 1484 skipping to change at line 1524
public list <bug-xorriso@gnu.org>. If more privacy is desired, mail to < scdbackup@gmx.net>. public list <bug-xorriso@gnu.org>. If more privacy is desired, mail to < scdbackup@gmx.net>.
Please describe what you expect xorriso to do, the program arguments or d ialog commands by which you tried Please describe what you expect xorriso to do, the program arguments or d ialog commands by which you tried
to achieve it, the messages of xorriso, and the undesirable outcome of yo ur program run. to achieve it, the messages of xorriso, and the undesirable outcome of yo ur program run.
Expect to get asked more questions before solutions can be proposed. Expect to get asked more questions before solutions can be proposed.
AUTHOR AUTHOR
Thomas Schmitt <scdbackup@gmx.net> Thomas Schmitt <scdbackup@gmx.net>
for libburnia-project.org for libburnia-project.org
COPYRIGHT COPYRIGHT
Copyright (c) 2011 - 2019 Thomas Schmitt Copyright (c) 2011 - 2021 Thomas Schmitt
Permission is granted to distribute this text freely. It shall only be mo dified in sync with the technical Permission is granted to distribute this text freely. It shall only be mo dified in sync with the technical
properties of xorriso. If you make use of the license to derive modified versions of xorriso then you are properties of xorriso. If you make use of the license to derive modified versions of xorriso then you are
entitled to modify this text under that same license. entitled to modify this text under that same license.
CREDITS CREDITS
xorrisofs is in part based on work by Vreixo Formoso who provides libisof s together with Mario Danic who xorrisofs is in part based on work by Vreixo Formoso who provides libisof s together with Mario Danic who
also leads the libburnia team. Vladimir Serbinenko contributed the HFS+ filesystem code and related also leads the libburnia team. Vladimir Serbinenko contributed the HFS+ filesystem code and related
knowledge. knowledge.
Compliments towards Joerg Schilling whose cdrtools served me for ten year s. Compliments towards Joerg Schilling whose cdrtools served me for ten year s.
Version 1.5.2, Oct 26, 2019 XORRISOFS(1) Version 1.5.4, Jan 30, 2021 XORRISOFS(1)
 End of changes. 158 change blocks. 
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