definitions.units (units-2.19) | : | definitions.units (units-2.20) | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

# | # | |||

# This file is the units database for use with GNU units, a units conversion | # This file is the units database for use with GNU units, a units conversion | |||

# program by Adrian Mariano adrianm@gnu.org | # program by Adrian Mariano adrianm@gnu.org | |||

# | # | |||

# May 2019 Version 3.04 | # September 2020 Version 3.09 | |||

# | # | |||

# Copyright (C) 1996-2002, 2004-2019 | # Copyright (C) 1996-2002, 2004-2020 | |||

# Free Software Foundation, Inc | # Free Software Foundation, Inc | |||

# | # | |||

# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify | # This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify | |||

# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by | # it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by | |||

# the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or | # the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or | |||

# (at your option) any later version. | # (at your option) any later version. | |||

# | # | |||

# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, | # This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, | |||

# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of | # but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of | |||

# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the | # MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the | |||

skipping to change at line 58 | skipping to change at line 58 | |||

# development in Great Britain up to AD 1855 by FG Skinner | # development in Great Britain up to AD 1855 by FG Skinner | |||

# 12. The World of Measurements by H. Arthur Klein | # 12. The World of Measurements by H. Arthur Klein | |||

# 13. For Good Measure by William Johnstone | # 13. For Good Measure by William Johnstone | |||

# 14. NTC's Encyclopedia of International Weights and Measures | # 14. NTC's Encyclopedia of International Weights and Measures | |||

# by William Johnstone | # by William Johnstone | |||

# 15. Sizes by John Lord | # 15. Sizes by John Lord | |||

# 16. Sizesaurus by Stephen Strauss | # 16. Sizesaurus by Stephen Strauss | |||

# 17. CODATA Recommended Values of Physical Constants available at | # 17. CODATA Recommended Values of Physical Constants available at | |||

# http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html | # http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html | |||

# 18. How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. Available at | # 18. How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. Available at | |||

# http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/index.html | # http://www.ibiblio.org/units/ | |||

# 19. Numericana. http://www.numericana.com | # 19. Numericana. http://www.numericana.com | |||

# 20. UK history of measurement | # 20. UK history of measurement | |||

# http://www.ukmetrication.com/history.htm | # http://www.ukmetrication.com/history.htm | |||

# 21. NIST Handbook 44, Specifications, Tolerances, and | # 21. NIST Handbook 44, Specifications, Tolerances, and | |||

# Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring | # Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring | |||

# Devices. 2011 | # Devices. 2011 | |||

# 22. NIST Special Publication 447, Weights and Measures Standards | # 22. NIST Special Publication 447, Weights and Measures Standards | |||

# of the the United States: a brief history. Lewis V. Judson. | # of the the United States: a brief history. Lewis V. Judson. | |||

# 1963; rev. 1976 | # 1963; rev. 1976 | |||

# 23. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 96th edition | # 23. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 96th edition | |||

skipping to change at line 132 | skipping to change at line 132 | |||

!endlocale | !endlocale | |||

!locale en_GB | !locale en_GB | |||

! set UNITS_ENGLISH GB | ! set UNITS_ENGLISH GB | |||

!endlocale | !endlocale | |||

!set UNITS_ENGLISH US # Default setting for English units | !set UNITS_ENGLISH US # Default setting for English units | |||

!set UNITS_SYSTEM default # Set a default value | !set UNITS_SYSTEM default # Set a default value | |||

!varnot UNITS_SYSTEM si emu esu gaussian gauss default | !varnot UNITS_SYSTEM si emu esu gaussian gauss hlu natural natural-gauss hartree planck planck-red default | |||

!message Unknown unit system given with -u or UNITS_SYSTEM environment variable | !message Unknown unit system given with -u or UNITS_SYSTEM environment variable | |||

!message Valid systems: si, emu, esu, gauss[ian] | !message Valid systems: si, emu, esu, gauss[ian], hlu, natural, natural-gauss | |||

!message planck, planck-red, hartree | ||||

!message Using SI | !message Using SI | |||

!prompt (SI) | !prompt (SI) | |||

!endvar | !endvar | |||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM si | !var UNITS_SYSTEM si | |||

!message SI units selected | !message SI units selected | |||

!prompt (SI) | !prompt (SI) | |||

!endvar | !endvar | |||

########################################################################### | ########################################################################### | |||

skipping to change at line 214 | skipping to change at line 215 | |||

s ! # The second, symbol s, is the SI unit of time. It is defined | s ! # The second, symbol s, is the SI unit of time. It is defined | |||

second s # by taking the fixed numerical value of the unperturbed | second s # by taking the fixed numerical value of the unperturbed | |||

# ground-state hyperfine transition frequency of the | # ground-state hyperfine transition frequency of the | |||

# cesium-133 atom to be 9 192 1631 770 when expressed in the | # cesium-133 atom to be 9 192 1631 770 when expressed in the | |||

# unit Hz, which is equal to 1/s. | # unit Hz, which is equal to 1/s. | |||

# | # | |||

# This definition is a restatement of the previous one, the | # This definition is a restatement of the previous one, the | |||

# duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding | # duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding | |||

# to the cesium-133 transition. | # to the cesium-133 transition. | |||

c_SI 299792458 | ||||

c 299792458 m/s # speed of light in vacuum (exact) | c 299792458 m/s # speed of light in vacuum (exact) | |||

m ! # The metre, symbol m, is the SI unit of length. It is | m ! # The metre, symbol m, is the SI unit of length. It is | |||

meter m # defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the speed | meter m # defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the speed | |||

metre m # of light in vacuum, c, to be 299 792 458 when expressed in | metre m # of light in vacuum, c, to be 299 792 458 when expressed in | |||

# units of m/s. | # units of m/s. | |||

# | # | |||

# This definition is a rewording of the previous one and is | # This definition is a rewording of the previous one and is | |||

# equivalent to defining the meter as the distance light | # equivalent to defining the meter as the distance light | |||

# travels in 1|299792458 seconds. The meter was originally | # travels in 1|299792458 seconds. The meter was originally | |||

# intended to be 1e-7 of the length along a meridian from the | # intended to be 1e-7 of the length along a meridian from the | |||

# equator to a pole. | # equator to a pole. | |||

h_SI 6.62607015e-34 | ||||

h 6.62607015e-34 J s # Planck constant (exact) | h 6.62607015e-34 J s # Planck constant (exact) | |||

kg ! # The kilogram, symbol kg, is the SI unit of mass. It is | kg ! # The kilogram, symbol kg, is the SI unit of mass. It is | |||

kilogram kg # defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the Planck | kilogram kg # defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the Planck | |||

# constant, h, to be 6.626 070 15 * 10^-34 when expressed in | # constant, h, to be 6.626 070 15 * 10^-34 when expressed in | |||

# the unit J s which is equal to kg m^2 / s. | # the unit J s which is equal to kg m^2 / s. | |||

# | # | |||

# One advantage of fixing h to define the kilogram is that this | # One advantage of fixing h to define the kilogram is that this | |||

# affects constants used to define the ampere. If the kg were | # affects constants used to define the ampere. If the kg were | |||

# defined by directly fixing the mass of something, then h | # defined by directly fixing the mass of something, then h | |||

skipping to change at line 275 | skipping to change at line 278 | |||

# place a "kilogram of radiation" on one side of a balance. | # place a "kilogram of radiation" on one side of a balance. | |||

# Metrologists realize the kilogram using a Kibble Balance, a | # Metrologists realize the kilogram using a Kibble Balance, a | |||

# device which relates mechanical energy to electrical energy | # device which relates mechanical energy to electrical energy | |||

# and can measure mass with extreme accuracy if h is known. | # and can measure mass with extreme accuracy if h is known. | |||

# | # | |||

# For more on the Kibble Balance see | # For more on the Kibble Balance see | |||

# | # | |||

# https://www.nist.gov/si-redefinition/kilogram-kibble-balance | # https://www.nist.gov/si-redefinition/kilogram-kibble-balance | |||

# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibble_balance | # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibble_balance | |||

k_SI 1.380649e-23 | ||||

boltzmann 1.380649e-23 J/K # Boltzmann constant (exact) | boltzmann 1.380649e-23 J/K # Boltzmann constant (exact) | |||

k boltzmann | k boltzmann | |||

K ! # The kelvin, symbol K, is the SI unit of thermodynamic | K ! # The kelvin, symbol K, is the SI unit of thermodynamic | |||

kelvin K # temperature. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical | kelvin K # temperature. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical | |||

# value of the Boltzmann constant, k, to be 1.380 649 * 10^-23 | # value of the Boltzmann constant, k, to be 1.380 649 * 10^-23 | |||

# when expressed in the unit J/K, which is equal to | # when expressed in the unit J/K, which is equal to | |||

# kg m^2/s^2 K. | # kg m^2/s^2 K. | |||

# | # | |||

# The boltzmann constant establishes the relationship between | # The boltzmann constant establishes the relationship between | |||

skipping to change at line 317 | skipping to change at line 321 | |||

# The redefinition of the kelvin will not affect the values of | # The redefinition of the kelvin will not affect the values of | |||

# these reference points, which have been determined by | # these reference points, which have been determined by | |||

# primary thermometry, using thermometers that rely only on | # primary thermometry, using thermometers that rely only on | |||

# relationships that allow temperature to be calculated | # relationships that allow temperature to be calculated | |||

# directly without using any unknown quantities. Examples | # directly without using any unknown quantities. Examples | |||

# include acoustic thermometers, which measure the speed of | # include acoustic thermometers, which measure the speed of | |||

# sound in a gas, or electronic thermometers, which measure | # sound in a gas, or electronic thermometers, which measure | |||

# tiny voltage fluctuations in resistors. Both variables | # tiny voltage fluctuations in resistors. Both variables | |||

# depend directly on temperature. | # depend directly on temperature. | |||

e_SI 1.602176634e-19 | ||||

e 1.602176634e-19 C # electron charge (exact) | e 1.602176634e-19 C # electron charge (exact) | |||

A ! # The ampere, symbol A, is the SI unit of electric current. | A ! # The ampere, symbol A, is the SI unit of electric current. | |||

ampere A # It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the | ampere A # It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the | |||

amp ampere # elementary charge, e, to be 1.602 176 634 * 10^-19 when | amp ampere # elementary charge, e, to be 1.602 176 634 * 10^-19 when | |||

# expressed in the unit C, which is equal to A*s. | # expressed in the unit C, which is equal to A*s. | |||

# | # | |||

# The previous definition was the current which produces a | # The previous definition was the current which produces a | |||

# force of 2e-7 N/m between two infinitely long wires a meter | # force of 2e-7 N/m between two infinitely long wires a meter | |||

# apart. This definition was difficult to realize accurately. | # apart. This definition was difficult to realize accurately. | |||

skipping to change at line 739 | skipping to change at line 744 | |||

ACCELERATION VELOCITY / TIME | ACCELERATION VELOCITY / TIME | |||

DENSITY MASS / VOLUME | DENSITY MASS / VOLUME | |||

LINEAR_DENSITY MASS / LENGTH | LINEAR_DENSITY MASS / LENGTH | |||

VISCOSITY FORCE TIME / AREA | VISCOSITY FORCE TIME / AREA | |||

KINEMATIC_VISCOSITY VISCOSITY / DENSITY | KINEMATIC_VISCOSITY VISCOSITY / DENSITY | |||

CURRENT ampere | CURRENT ampere | |||

CHARGE coulomb | CHARGE coulomb | |||

CAPACITANCE farad | CAPACITANCE farad | |||

RESISTANCE ohm | RESISTANCE ohm | |||

CONDUCTANCE siemens | CONDUCTANCE siemens | |||

# It may be easier to understand the relationship by considering | ||||

# an object with specified dimensions and resistivity, whose | ||||

# resistance is given by the resistivity * length / area. | ||||

RESISTIVITY RESISTANCE AREA / LENGTH | ||||

CONDUCTIVITY CONDUCTANCE LENGTH / AREA | ||||

INDUCTANCE henry | INDUCTANCE henry | |||

E_FIELD ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL / LENGTH | E_FIELD ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL / LENGTH | |||

B_FIELD tesla | B_FIELD tesla | |||

# The D and H fields are related to the E and B fields by factors of | # The D and H fields are related to the E and B fields by factors of | |||

# epsilon and mu respectively, so their units can be found by | # epsilon and mu respectively, so their units can be found by | |||

# multiplying/dividing by the epsilon0 and mu0. The more complex | # multiplying/dividing by the epsilon0 and mu0. The more complex | |||

# definitions below make it possible to use D_FIELD and E_FIELD to | # definitions below make it possible to use D_FIELD and E_FIELD to | |||

# convert between SI and CGS units for these dimensions. | # convert between SI and CGS units for these dimensions. | |||

D_FIELD E_FIELD epsilon0 mu0_SI c^2 F / m | D_FIELD E_FIELD epsilon0 / epsilon0_SI # mu0_SI c^2 F / m | |||

H_FIELD B_FIELD / (mu0/mu0_SI) (H/m) | H_FIELD B_FIELD / (mu0/mu0_SI) | |||

ELECTRIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT C m | ELECTRIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT C m | |||

MAGNETIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT J / T | MAGNETIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT J / T | |||

POLARIZATION ELECTRIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT / VOLUME | POLARIZATION ELECTRIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT / VOLUME | |||

MAGNETIZATION MAGNETIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT / VOLUME | MAGNETIZATION MAGNETIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT / VOLUME | |||

ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL volt | ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL ENERGY / CHARGE #volt | |||

VOLTAGE ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL | VOLTAGE ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL | |||

E_FLUX E_FIELD AREA | E_FLUX E_FIELD AREA | |||

D_FLUX D_FIELD AREA | D_FLUX D_FIELD AREA | |||

B_FLUX B_FIELD AREA | B_FLUX B_FIELD AREA | |||

H_FLUX H_FIELD AREA | H_FLUX H_FIELD AREA | |||

# | # | |||

# units derived easily from SI units | # units derived easily from SI units | |||

# | # | |||

skipping to change at line 1006 | skipping to change at line 1016 | |||

pH(x) units=[1;mol/liter] range=(0,) 10^(-x) mol/liter ; (-log(pH liters/mol)) | pH(x) units=[1;mol/liter] range=(0,) 10^(-x) mol/liter ; (-log(pH liters/mol)) | |||

# | # | |||

# Temperature | # Temperature | |||

# | # | |||

# Two types of units are defined: units for converting temperature differences | # Two types of units are defined: units for converting temperature differences | |||

# and functions for converting absolute temperatures. Conversions for | # and functions for converting absolute temperatures. Conversions for | |||

# differences start with "deg" and conversions for absolute temperature start | # differences start with "deg" and conversions for absolute temperature start | |||

# with "temp". | # with "temp". | |||

# | # | |||

# If the temperature inside is 72 degrees Fahrenheit and you want to | ||||

# convert this to degrees Celsius then you need absolute temperature: | ||||

# | ||||

# You have: tempF(72) | ||||

# You want: tempC | ||||

# 22.222222 | ||||

# | ||||

# If the temperature rose 72 degrees Fahrenheit during the chemical reaction | ||||

# then this is a temperature difference: | ||||

# | ||||

# You have: 72 degF | ||||

# You want: degC | ||||

# * 40 | ||||

# / 0.025 | ||||

# | ||||

TEMPERATURE kelvin | TEMPERATURE kelvin | |||

TEMPERATURE_DIFFERENCE kelvin | TEMPERATURE_DIFFERENCE kelvin | |||

# In 1741 Anders Celsius introduced a temperature scale with water boiling at | # In 1741 Anders Celsius introduced a temperature scale with water boiling at | |||

# 0 degrees and freezing at 100 degrees at standard pressure. After his death | # 0 degrees and freezing at 100 degrees at standard pressure. After his death | |||

# the fixed points were reversed and the scale was called the centigrade | # the fixed points were reversed and the scale was called the centigrade | |||

# scale. Due to the difficulty of accurately measuring the temperature of | # scale. Due to the difficulty of accurately measuring the temperature of | |||

# melting ice at standard pressure, the centigrade scale was replaced in 1954 | # melting ice at standard pressure, the centigrade scale was replaced in 1954 | |||

# by the Celsius scale which is defined by subtracting 273.15 from the | # by the Celsius scale which is defined by subtracting 273.15 from the | |||

skipping to change at line 1090 | skipping to change at line 1115 | |||

2 759.67 \ | 2 759.67 \ | |||

3 784.67 \ | 3 784.67 \ | |||

4 809.67 \ | 4 809.67 \ | |||

5 834.67 \ | 5 834.67 \ | |||

6 859.67 \ | 6 859.67 \ | |||

7 884.67 \ | 7 884.67 \ | |||

8 909.67 \ | 8 909.67 \ | |||

9 934.67 \ | 9 934.67 \ | |||

10 959.67 | 10 959.67 | |||

# Units cannot handle wind chill or heat index because they are two variable | # The Beaufort wind force scale was developed from 1805-1807 by Sir Francis | |||

# Beaufort to categorize wind conditions at sea. It is normally defined from | ||||

# Beaufort 0, also called "Force 0," through Beaufort 12. Beaufort numbers | ||||

# 13-17 were later defined for tropical cyclones but are rarely used. The | ||||

# original Beaufort scale was qualitative and did not relate directly to wind | ||||

# speed. In 1906, George Simpson of the British Met Office fit wind-speed | ||||

# measurements to visual Beaufort estimates made from five coastal and inland | ||||

# stations in Britain. Simpson's formula was adopted by the World Meterological | ||||

# Organization in 1946 to produce a table, known as WMO Code 1100, giving mean | ||||

# (and min/max) wind speed equivalents at a height of 10 meters for each | ||||

# Beaufort number. This is the "operational" Beaufort scale that mariners | ||||

# use. Meterological and climatic researchers typically use a "scientific" | ||||

# Beaufort scale based on more recent and comprehensive fits. See Wallbrink and | ||||

# Cook, Historical Wind Speed Equivalents Of The Beaufort Scale, 1850-1950, at | ||||

# https://icoads.noaa.gov/reclaim/pdf/Hisklim13.pdf | ||||

# | ||||

beaufort_WMO1100(B) units=[1;m/s] domain=[0,17] range=[0,) \ | ||||

0.836 B^3|2 m/s; (beaufort_WMO1100 s / 0.836 m)^2|3 | ||||

beaufort(B) units=[1;m/s] domain=[0,17] range=[0,) \ | ||||

beaufort_WMO1100(B); ~beaufort_WMO1100(beaufort) | ||||

# Units cannot handle wind chill or heat index because they are two-variable | ||||

# functions, but they are included here for your edification. Clearly these | # functions, but they are included here for your edification. Clearly these | |||

# equations are the result of a model fitting operation. | # equations are the result of a model fitting operation. | |||

# | # | |||

# wind chill index (WCI) a measurement of the combined cooling effect of low | # wind chill index (WCI) a measurement of the combined cooling effect of low | |||

# air temperature and wind on the human body. The index was first defined | # air temperature and wind on the human body. The index was first defined | |||

# by the American Antarctic explorer Paul Siple in 1939. As currently used | # by the American Antarctic explorer Paul Siple in 1939. As currently used | |||

# by U.S. meteorologists, the wind chill index is computed from the | # by U.S. meteorologists, the wind chill index is computed from the | |||

# temperature T (in °F) and wind speed V (in mi/hr) using the formula: | # temperature T (in °F) and wind speed V (in mi/hr) using the formula: | |||

# WCI = 0.0817(3.71 sqrt(V) + 5.81 - 0.25V)(T - 91.4) + 91.4. | # WCI = 0.0817(3.71 sqrt(V) + 5.81 - 0.25V)(T - 91.4) + 91.4. | |||

# For very low wind speeds, below 4 mi/hr, the WCI is actually higher than | # For very low wind speeds, below 4 mi/hr, the WCI is actually higher than | |||

skipping to change at line 1120 | skipping to change at line 1167 | |||

# - 0.0199 T^2 H^2. | # - 0.0199 T^2 H^2. | |||

# | # | |||

# Physical constants | # Physical constants | |||

# | # | |||

# Basic constants | # Basic constants | |||

pi 3.14159265358979323846 | pi 3.14159265358979323846 | |||

light c | light c | |||

mu0_SI 2 alpha h / e^2 c # Vacuum magnetic permeability | mu0_SI 2 alpha h_SI / e_SI^2 c_SI # Vacuum magnetic permeability | |||

mu0 mu0_SI # Gets overridden in CGS modes | mu0 2 alpha h / e^2 c # Gets overridden in CGS modes | |||

epsilon0 1/mu0 c^2 # Vacuum electric permittivity | epsilon0_SI 1/mu0_SI c_SI^2 # Vacuum electric permittivity | |||

epsilon0 1/mu0 c^2 # Also overridden in CGS modes | ||||

Z0 mu0 c # Free space impedance | Z0 mu0 c # Free space impedance | |||

energy c^2 # Convert mass to energy | energy c^2 # Convert mass to energy | |||

hbar h / 2 pi | hbar h / 2 pi | |||

hbar_SI h_SI / 2 pi | ||||

spin hbar | spin hbar | |||

G_SI 6.67430e-11 | ||||

G 6.67430e-11 N m^2 / kg^2 # Newtonian gravitational constant | G 6.67430e-11 N m^2 / kg^2 # Newtonian gravitational constant | |||

coulombconst 1/4 pi epsilon0 # Listed as k or k_C sometimes | coulombconst 1/4 pi epsilon0 # Listed as k or k_C sometimes | |||

k_C coulombconst | k_C coulombconst | |||

# Physico-chemical constants | # Physico-chemical constants | |||

atomicmassunit_SI 1.66053906660e-27 # Unified atomic mass unit, defined as | ||||

atomicmassunit 1.66053906660e-27 kg # Unified atomic mass unit, defined as | atomicmassunit 1.66053906660e-27 kg # Unified atomic mass unit, defined as | |||

u atomicmassunit # 1|12 of the mass of carbon 12. | u atomicmassunit # 1|12 of the mass of carbon 12. | |||

amu atomicmassunit # The relationship N_A u = 1 g/mol | amu atomicmassunit # The relationship N_A u = 1 g/mol | |||

dalton u # is approximately, but not exactly | dalton u # is approximately, but not exactly | |||

Da dalton # true (with the 2019 SI). | Da dalton # true (with the 2019 SI). | |||

# Previously the mole was defined to | # Previously the mole was defined to | |||

# make this relationship exact. | # make this relationship exact. | |||

amu_chem 1.66026e-27 kg # 1|16 of the weighted average mass of | amu_chem 1.66026e-27 kg # 1|16 of the weighted average mass of | |||

# the 3 naturally occuring neutral | # the 3 naturally occuring neutral | |||

# isotopes of oxygen | # isotopes of oxygen | |||

skipping to change at line 1169 | skipping to change at line 1220 | |||

# given by sigma T^4. (exact) | # given by sigma T^4. (exact) | |||

wiendisplacement (h c/k)/4.9651142317442763 # Wien's Displacement Law gives | wiendisplacement (h c/k)/4.9651142317442763 # Wien's Displacement Law gives | |||

# the frequency at which the the | # the frequency at which the the | |||

# Planck spectrum has maximum | # Planck spectrum has maximum | |||

# intensity. The relation is lambda | # intensity. The relation is lambda | |||

# T = b where lambda is wavelength, | # T = b where lambda is wavelength, | |||

# T is temperature and b is the Wien | # T is temperature and b is the Wien | |||

# displacement. This relation is | # displacement. This relation is | |||

# used to determine the temperature | # used to determine the temperature | |||

# of stars. The constant is the | # of stars. The constant is the | |||

# solution to x=5(1-exp(-x)). (exact) | # solution to x=5(1-exp(-x)). | |||

# This expression has no experimental | ||||

# error, and x is defined exactly | ||||

# by the equation above, so it is | ||||

# an exact definition. | ||||

K_J90 483597.9 GHz/V # Direct measurement of the volt is difficult. Until | K_J90 483597.9 GHz/V # Direct measurement of the volt is difficult. Until | |||

K_J 2e/h # recently, laboratories kept Weston cadmium cells as | K_J 2e/h # recently, laboratories kept Weston cadmium cells as | |||

# a reference, but they could drift. In 1987 the | # a reference, but they could drift. In 1987 the | |||

# CGPM officially recommended the use of the | # CGPM officially recommended the use of the | |||

# Josephson effect as a laboratory representation of | # Josephson effect as a laboratory representation of | |||

# the volt. The Josephson effect occurs when two | # the volt. The Josephson effect occurs when two | |||

# superconductors are separated by a thin insulating | # superconductors are separated by a thin insulating | |||

# layer. A "supercurrent" flows across the insulator | # layer. A "supercurrent" flows across the insulator | |||

# with a frequency that depends on the potential | # with a frequency that depends on the potential | |||

# applied across the superconductors. This frequency | # applied across the superconductors. This frequency | |||

skipping to change at line 1255 | skipping to change at line 1310 | |||

H2O10C 0.99973 force gram / cm^3 | H2O10C 0.99973 force gram / cm^3 | |||

H2O15C 0.99913 force gram / cm^3 | H2O15C 0.99913 force gram / cm^3 | |||

H2O18C 0.99862 force gram / cm^3 | H2O18C 0.99862 force gram / cm^3 | |||

H2O20C 0.99823 force gram / cm^3 | H2O20C 0.99823 force gram / cm^3 | |||

H2O25C 0.99707 force gram / cm^3 | H2O25C 0.99707 force gram / cm^3 | |||

H2O50C 0.98807 force gram / cm^3 | H2O50C 0.98807 force gram / cm^3 | |||

H2O100C 0.95838 force gram / cm^3 | H2O100C 0.95838 force gram / cm^3 | |||

# Atomic constants | # Atomic constants | |||

Rinfinity 10973731.568160 /m # The wavelengths of a spectral series | Rinfinity m_e c alpha^2 / 2 h # The wavelengths of a spectral series | |||

R_H 10967760 /m # can be expressed as | R_H 10967760 /m # can be expressed as | |||

# 1/lambda = R (1/m^2 - 1/n^2). | # 1/lambda = R (1/m^2 - 1/n^2). | |||

# where R is a number that various | # where R is a number that various | |||

# slightly from element to element. | # slightly from element to element. | |||

# For hydrogen, R_H is the value, | # For hydrogen, R_H is the value, | |||

# and for heavy elements, the value | # and for heavy elements, the value | |||

# approaches Rinfinity, which can be | # approaches Rinfinity. | |||

# computed from | ||||

# m_e c alpha^2 / 2 h | ||||

# with a loss of 2 digits | ||||

# of precision. | ||||

alpha 7.2973525693e-3 # The fine structure constant was | alpha 7.2973525693e-3 # The fine structure constant was | |||

# introduced to explain fine | # introduced to explain fine | |||

# structure visible in spectral | # structure visible in spectral | |||

# lines. | # lines. | |||

bohrradius alpha / 4 pi Rinfinity | bohrradius alpha / 4 pi Rinfinity | |||

prout 185.5 keV # nuclear binding energy equal to 1|12 | prout 185.5 keV # nuclear binding energy equal to 1|12 | |||

# binding energy of the deuteron | # binding energy of the deuteron | |||

conductancequantum 2 e^2 / h | conductancequantum 2 e^2 / h | |||

# Planck constants | ||||

planckmass sqrt(hbar c / G) | ||||

m_P planckmass | ||||

plancktime hbar / planckmass c^2 | ||||

t_P plancktime | ||||

plancklength plancktime c | ||||

l_P plancklength | ||||

plancktemperature hbar / k plancktime | ||||

T_P plancktemperature | ||||

# Particle radius | # Particle radius | |||

electronradius coulombconst e^2 / electronmass c^2 # Classical | electronradius coulombconst e^2 / electronmass c^2 # Classical | |||

deuteronchargeradius 2.12799e-15 m | deuteronchargeradius 2.12799e-15 m | |||

protonchargeradius 0.8751e-15 m | protonchargeradius 0.8751e-15 m | |||

# Masses of elementary particles | # Masses of elementary particles | |||

electronmass_SI electronmass_u atomicmassunit_SI | ||||

electronmass_u 5.48579909065e-4 | ||||

electronmass 5.48579909065e-4 u | electronmass 5.48579909065e-4 u | |||

m_e electronmass | m_e electronmass | |||

muonmass 0.1134289259 u | muonmass 0.1134289259 u | |||

m_mu muonmass | m_mu muonmass | |||

taumass 1.90754 u | taumass 1.90754 u | |||

m_tau taumass | m_tau taumass | |||

protonmass 1.007276466621 u | protonmass 1.007276466621 u | |||

m_p protonmass | m_p protonmass | |||

neutronmass 1.00866491595 u | neutronmass 1.00866491595 u | |||

m_n neutronmass | m_n neutronmass | |||

skipping to change at line 1339 | skipping to change at line 1381 | |||

# uncertainty of 1.7e-13. | # uncertainty of 1.7e-13. | |||

g_d 0.8574382338 # Deuteron g-factor | g_d 0.8574382338 # Deuteron g-factor | |||

g_e -2.00231930436256 # Electron g-factor | g_e -2.00231930436256 # Electron g-factor | |||

g_h -4.255250615 # Helion g-factor | g_h -4.255250615 # Helion g-factor | |||

g_mu -2.0023318418 # Muon g-factor | g_mu -2.0023318418 # Muon g-factor | |||

g_n -3.82608545 # Neutron g-factor | g_n -3.82608545 # Neutron g-factor | |||

g_p 5.5856946893 # Proton g-factor | g_p 5.5856946893 # Proton g-factor | |||

g_t 5.957924931 # Triton g-factor | g_t 5.957924931 # Triton g-factor | |||

fermicoupling 1.1663787e-5 / GeV^2 | ||||

# Magnetic moments (derived from the more accurate g-factors) | # Magnetic moments (derived from the more accurate g-factors) | |||

# | # | |||

# The magnetic moment is g * mu_ref * spin where in most cases | # The magnetic moment is g * mu_ref * spin where in most cases | |||

# the reference is the nuclear magneton, and all of the particles | # the reference is the nuclear magneton, and all of the particles | |||

# except the deuteron have spin 1/2. | # except the deuteron have spin 1/2. | |||

bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass # Reference magnetic moment for | bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass # Reference magnetic moment for | |||

mu_B bohrmagneton # the electron | mu_B bohrmagneton # the electron | |||

nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass # Convenient reference magnetic | nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass # Convenient reference magnetic | |||

mu_N nuclearmagneton # moment for heavy particles | mu_N nuclearmagneton # moment for heavy particles | |||

skipping to change at line 1488 | skipping to change at line 1532 | |||

# | # | |||

# But what about the magnetic field? It is derived from Ampere's law but we | # But what about the magnetic field? It is derived from Ampere's law but we | |||

# have the option of adding a proportionality constant, k_B, that may have | # have the option of adding a proportionality constant, k_B, that may have | |||

# dimensions: | # dimensions: | |||

# | # | |||

# B = 2 k_A k_B I / r | # B = 2 k_A k_B I / r | |||

# | # | |||

# We can choose k_B = 1, which is done in the SI, ESU and EMU systems. But if | # We can choose k_B = 1, which is done in the SI, ESU and EMU systems. But if | |||

# instead we give k_B units of length/time then the magnetic field has | # instead we give k_B units of length/time then the magnetic field has | |||

# the same units as the electric field. This choice leads to the Gaussian | # the same units as the electric field. This choice leads to the Gaussian | |||

# system. | # and Heaviside-Lorentz systems. | |||

# | # | |||

# The relations above are used to determine the dimensions, but the units are | # The relations above are used to determine the dimensions, but the units are | |||

# derived from the base units of CGS, not directly from those formulas. We | # derived from the base units of CGS, not directly from those formulas. We | |||

# will use the notation [unit] to refer to the dimension of the unit in | # will use the notation [unit] to refer to the dimension of the unit in | |||

# brackets. This same process gives rise to the SI units such as the tesla, | # brackets. This same process gives rise to the SI units such as the tesla, | |||

# which is defined by | # which is defined by | |||

# | # | |||

# B = 2 | # [tesla] = [2 (1/4 pi c^2 epsilon0) amp / m] = [(mu0 / 2) amp / m] | |||

# | ||||

# which gives kg / A s^2 as expected. | ||||

# | # | |||

# References: | # References: | |||

# | # | |||

# Classical Electrodynamics by John David Jackson, 3rd edition. | # Classical Electrodynamics by John David Jackson, 3rd edition. | |||

# Cardarelli, Francois. 1999. Scientific Unit Conversion. 2nd ed. Trans. | # Cardarelli, Francois. 1999. Scientific Unit Conversion. 2nd ed. Trans. | |||

# M.J. Shields. London: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 1-85233-043-0 | # M.J. Shields. London: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 1-85233-043-0 | |||

# | # | |||

# | # | |||

# All of these systems result in electromagnetic units that involve the square | # All of the CGS systems result in electromagnetic units that involve the square | |||

# roots of the centimeter and gram. This requires a change in the primitive | # roots of the centimeter and gram. This requires a change in the primitive | |||

# units. | # units. | |||

# | # | |||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM esu emu gaussian gauss | !var UNITS_SYSTEM esu emu gaussian gauss hlu | |||

sqrt_cm ! | sqrt_cm ! | |||

sqrt_centimeter sqrt_cm | sqrt_centimeter sqrt_cm | |||

+m 100 sqrt_cm^2 | +m 100 sqrt_cm^2 | |||

sqrt_g ! | sqrt_g ! | |||

sqrt_gram sqrt_g | sqrt_gram sqrt_g | |||

+kg kilo sqrt_g^2 | +kg kilo sqrt_g^2 | |||

!endvar | !endvar | |||

# Electrostatic CGS (ESU) | # Electrostatic CGS (ESU) | |||

# | # | |||

skipping to change at line 1543 | skipping to change at line 1589 | |||

statcoul statcoulomb # exert a force of 1 dyne | statcoul statcoulomb # exert a force of 1 dyne | |||

statC statcoulomb | statC statcoulomb | |||

stC statcoulomb | stC statcoulomb | |||

franklin statcoulomb | franklin statcoulomb | |||

Fr franklin | Fr franklin | |||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM esu | !var UNITS_SYSTEM esu | |||

!message CGS-ESU units selected | !message CGS-ESU units selected | |||

!prompt (ESU) | !prompt (ESU) | |||

+statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm | +statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm | |||

+A 0.1 statamp c/(cm/s) | +A 10 c_SI statamp | |||

+mu0 1/c^2 | +mu0 1/c^2 | |||

+coulombconst 1 | +coulombconst 1 | |||

!endvar | !endvar | |||

statampere statcoulomb / s | statampere statcoulomb / s | |||

statamp statampere | statamp statampere | |||

statA statampere | statA statampere | |||

stA statampere | stA statampere | |||

statvolt dyne cm / statamp sec | statvolt dyne cm / statamp sec | |||

statV statvolt | statV statvolt | |||

skipping to change at line 1675 | skipping to change at line 1721 | |||

# | # | |||

# Note that this definition happens to give the same result as the definition | # Note that this definition happens to give the same result as the definition | |||

# for the EMU system, so the definitions of the gauss are consistent. | # for the EMU system, so the definitions of the gauss are consistent. | |||

# | # | |||

# This definition gives the same dimensions for the E and B fields and was also | # This definition gives the same dimensions for the E and B fields and was also | |||

# known as the "symmetric system". This system was proposed by Hertz in 1888. | # known as the "symmetric system". This system was proposed by Hertz in 1888. | |||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM gaussian gauss | !var UNITS_SYSTEM gaussian gauss | |||

!message CGS-Gaussian units selected | !message CGS-Gaussian units selected | |||

!prompt (Gaussian) | !prompt (Gaussian) | |||

!endvar | ||||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM gaussian gauss natural-gauss | ||||

+statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm | +statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm | |||

+A 0.1 statamp c/(cm/s) | +A 10 c_SI statamp | |||

+mu0 1 | +mu0 1 | |||

+epsilon0 1 | +epsilon0 1 | |||

+coulombconst 1 # The gauss is the B field produced | +coulombconst 1 # The gauss is the B field produced | |||

+gauss statcoulomb / cm^2 # 1 cm from a wire carrying a current | +gauss statcoulomb / cm^2 # 1 cm from a wire carrying a current | |||

+weber 1e8 maxwell # of 0.5*(c/(cm/s)) stA = 1.5e10 stA | +weber 1e8 maxwell # of 0.5*(c/(cm/s)) stA = 1.5e10 stA | |||

+bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass c | +bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass c | |||

+nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass c | +nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass c | |||

!endvar | !endvar | |||

# Electromagnetic CGS (Heaviside-Lorentz) | ||||

# The Heaviside-Lorentz system is similar to the Gaussian system, but it is | ||||

# "rationalized" so that factors of 4 pi do not appear in Maxwell's equations. | ||||

# The SI system is similarly rationalized, but the other CGS systems are not. | ||||

# | ||||

# The factor of 4 pi appears instead in Coulomb's law, so in this system | ||||

# k_C = 1 / 4 pi, which means the charge unit is defined by | ||||

# | ||||

# dyne = (1 / 4 pi) hlu_charge^2 / cm^2. | ||||

# | ||||

# Since we have the leading constant of (1 / 4pi) the numerical value of the | ||||

# charge number is larger by sqrt(4pi), which in turns means that the HLU | ||||

# charge unit is smaller by this multiple. But note that the dimensions of the | ||||

# charge unit are the same as the Gaussian system, so both systems measure | ||||

# charge with cm^(3/2) g^(1/2) / s, but the amount of charge for this dimension | ||||

# differs by a factor of sqrt(4pi) between the two systems. | ||||

# | ||||

# Ampere's law for the Heaviside-Lorentz system has the form | ||||

# | ||||

# B = 1/(2 pi c) * I/r | ||||

# The Heaviside-Lorentz system does not appear to have any named units, so we | ||||

# use "hlu" for "Heaviside-Lorentz unit" so we can define values for the basic | ||||

# units in this system. | ||||

hlu_charge statcoulomb / sqrt(4 pi) | ||||

hlu_current hlu_charge / sec | ||||

hlu_volt erg / hlu_charge | ||||

hlu_efield hlu_volt / cm | ||||

hlu_bfield sqrt(4 pi) gauss | ||||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM hlu | ||||

!message CGS-Heaviside-Lorentz Units selected | ||||

!prompt (HLU) | ||||

!endvar | ||||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM hlu natural planck planck-red | ||||

+statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm sqrt(4 pi) | ||||

+A 10 c_SI statamp | ||||

+mu0 1 | ||||

+epsilon0 1 | ||||

# The gauss is the B field produced 1 cm from a wire carrying | ||||

# a current of 0.5*(c/(cm/s)) stA, derived from Ampere's law | ||||

+gauss (1/2 pi c) (0.5 c/(cm/s)) statamp / cm | ||||

+weber 1e8 maxwell | ||||

+bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass c | ||||

+nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass c | ||||

!endvar | ||||

# "Natural units" (high energy physics and cosmology) | ||||

# | ||||

# In particle physics "natural units" (which don't seem to have a more specific | ||||

# name) are defined by setting hbar = c = boltzmann = 1. In this system the | ||||

# electron volt is the only base unit. The electromagnetic units can be | ||||

# derived from the rationalized Heaviside-Lorentz units or from Gaussian units. | ||||

# The default form is the rationalized HLU derived version. | ||||

# These are the Heaviside-Lorentz natural units | ||||

natural_length hbar c / eV | ||||

natural_mass eV / c^2 | ||||

natural_time hbar / eV | ||||

natural_temp eV / boltzmann | ||||

natural_charge e / sqrt(4 pi alpha) | ||||

natural_current natural_charge / natural_time | ||||

natural_force natural_mass natural_length / natural_time^2 | ||||

natural_energy natural_force natural_length | ||||

natural_power natural_energy / natural_time | ||||

natural_volt natural_energy / natural_charge | ||||

natural_Efield natural_volt / natural_length | ||||

natural_Bfield natural_volt natural_time / natural_length^2 | ||||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM natural | ||||

!message Natural units selected (Heaviside-Lorentz based) | ||||

!prompt (natural) | ||||

+eV ! | ||||

+h 2 pi | ||||

+c 1 | ||||

+boltzmann 1 | ||||

+m e_SI / hbar_SI c_SI eV | ||||

+kg (c_SI^2 / e_SI) eV | ||||

+s e_SI / hbar_SI eV | ||||

+K (k_SI / e_SI) eV | ||||

!endvar | ||||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM natural-gauss | ||||

!message Natural units selected (Gaussian based) | ||||

!prompt (natgauss) | ||||

+eV ! | ||||

+h 2 pi | ||||

+c 1 | ||||

+boltzmann 1 | ||||

+m e_SI / (h_SI / 2 pi) c_SI eV | ||||

+kg (c_SI^2 / e_SI) eV | ||||

+s e_SI / (h_SI / 2 pi) eV | ||||

+K (k_SI / e_SI) eV | ||||

!endvar | ||||

# | ||||

# Planck units | ||||

# | ||||

# Planck units are a set of "natural" units based on physical constants c, G, | ||||

# hbar, boltzmann's constant, and epsilon0, often used when working with | ||||

# gravitational theory. In planck units, all quantities are dimensionless. | ||||

# Some variations are possible for exactly how the units are defined. We | ||||

# provide two variations, the rationalized planck units and the | ||||

# rationalized-reduced planck units. | ||||

# | ||||

# In both forms the units are defined by c = hbar = boltzmann = 1. | ||||

# But the choice of rationalized and reduced affects how epsilon0 and G | ||||

# are treated. | ||||

# | ||||

# In the "rationalized" units, factors of 4 pi do not appear in Maxwell's | ||||

# equation, and Coulomb's law bears a factor of 1/4 pi. See the section on | ||||

# the Heaviside-Lorentz units for more about this. The choice of rationalized | ||||

# units means that epsilon0 = 1. (In the unrationalized case, which is not | ||||

# supported, 1/(4 pi epsilon0) = 1.) | ||||

# | ||||

# The "reduced" units similarly are defined to eliminate factors of 8 pi | ||||

# from the Einstein field equations for gravitation. With reduced units | ||||

# we set 8 pi G = 1 and with the unreduced units, simply G = 1. | ||||

# Rationalized, unreduced planck units | ||||

planckmass sqrt(hbar c / G) | ||||

m_P planckmass | ||||

plancktime hbar / planckmass c^2 | ||||

t_P plancktime | ||||

plancklength plancktime c | ||||

l_P plancklength | ||||

plancktemperature hbar / k plancktime | ||||

T_P plancktemperature | ||||

planckenergy planckmass plancklength^2 / plancktime^2 | ||||

E_P planckenergy | ||||

planckcharge sqrt(epsilon0 hbar c) | ||||

planckcurrent planckcharge / plancktime | ||||

planckvolt planckenergy / planckcharge | ||||

planckEfield planckvolt / plancklength | ||||

planckBfield planckvolt plancktime / plancklength^2 | ||||

# Rationalized, reduced planck units | ||||

planckmass_red sqrt(hbar c / 8 pi G) | ||||

plancktime_red hbar / planckmass_red c^2 | ||||

plancklength_red plancktime_red c | ||||

plancktemperature_red hbar / k plancktime_red | ||||

planckenergy_red planckmass_red plancklength_red^2 / plancktime_red^2 | ||||

planckcharge_red sqrt(epsilon0 hbar c) | ||||

planckcurrent_red planckcharge_red / plancktime_red | ||||

planckvolt_red planckenergy_red / planckcharge_red | ||||

planckEfield_red planckvolt_red / plancklength_red | ||||

planckBfield_red planckvolt_red plancktime_red / plancklength_red^2 | ||||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM planck | ||||

!message Planck units selected | ||||

!prompt (planck) | ||||

+c 1 | ||||

+h 2 pi | ||||

+G 1 | ||||

+boltzmann 1 | ||||

+kg sqrt(G_SI / hbar_SI c_SI) | ||||

+s c_SI^2 / hbar_SI kg | ||||

+m s / c_SI | ||||

+K k_SI / hbar_SI s | ||||

!endvar | ||||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM planck-red | ||||

!message Reduced planck units selected | ||||

!prompt (planck reduced) | ||||

+c 1 | ||||

+h 2 pi | ||||

+G 1/8 pi | ||||

+boltzmann 1 | ||||

+kg sqrt(8 pi G_SI / hbar_SI c_SI) | ||||

+s c_SI^2 / hbar_SI kg | ||||

+m s / c_SI | ||||

+K k_SI / hbar_SI s | ||||

!endvar | ||||

# | # | |||

# Some historical electromagnetic units | # Some historical electromagnetic units | |||

# | # | |||

intampere 0.999835 A # Defined as the current which in one | intampere 0.999835 A # Defined as the current which in one | |||

intamp intampere # second deposits .001118 gram of | intamp intampere # second deposits .001118 gram of | |||

# silver from an aqueous solution of | # silver from an aqueous solution of | |||

# silver nitrate. | # silver nitrate. | |||

intfarad 0.999505 F | intfarad 0.999505 F | |||

intvolt 1.00033 V | intvolt 1.00033 V | |||

skipping to change at line 1722 | skipping to change at line 1949 | |||

kappline 6000 maxwell # Named by and for Gisbert Kapp | kappline 6000 maxwell # Named by and for Gisbert Kapp | |||

siemensunit 0.9534 ohm # Resistance of a meter long column of | siemensunit 0.9534 ohm # Resistance of a meter long column of | |||

# mercury with a 1 mm cross section. | # mercury with a 1 mm cross section. | |||

# | # | |||

# Printed circuit board units. | # Printed circuit board units. | |||

# | # | |||

# http://www.ndt-ed.org/GeneralResources/IACS/IACS.htm. | # http://www.ndt-ed.org/GeneralResources/IACS/IACS.htm. | |||

# | # | |||

# Conductivity is often expressed as a percentage of IACS. A copper wire a | # Conductivity is often expressed as a percentage of IACS. A copper wire a | |||

# meter long with a 1 mm^2 cross section has a resistance of 1|58 ohm at | # meter long with a 1 mm^2 cross section has a resistance of 1|58 ohm at | |||

# 20 deg C. Copper density is also standarized at that temperature. | # 20 deg C. Copper density also has a standard IACS value at that temperature. | |||

# | # | |||

copperconductivity 58 siemens m / mm^2 # A wire a meter long with | copperconductivity 58 siemens m / mm^2 # A wire a meter long with | |||

IACS copperconductivity # a 1 mm^2 cross section | IACS copperconductivity # a 1 mm^2 cross section | |||

copperdensity 8.89 g/cm^3 # The "ounce" measures the | copperdensity 8.89 g/cm^3 # The "ounce" measures the | |||

ouncecopper oz / ft^2 copperdensity # thickness of copper used | ouncecopper oz / ft^2 copperdensity # thickness of copper used | |||

ozcu ouncecopper # in circuitboard fabrication | ozcu ouncecopper # in circuitboard fabrication | |||

# | # | |||

# Photometric units | # Photometric units | |||

skipping to change at line 2517 | skipping to change at line 2744 | |||

# / 0.0002659125 | # / 0.0002659125 | |||

# If desired, photographic exposure can be determined with EV100(), | # If desired, photographic exposure can be determined with EV100(), | |||

# leading to acceptable combinations of aperture and exposure time. | # leading to acceptable combinations of aperture and exposure time. | |||

# For the example above, but with the Moon at 10 degrees, | # For the example above, but with the Moon at 10 degrees, | |||

# You have: SB_second(3.3679199) atm_transmission(10 deg) | # You have: SB_second(3.3679199) atm_transmission(10 deg) | |||

# You want: EV100 | # You want: EV100 | |||

# 13.553962 | # 13.553962 | |||

# The Hartree system of atomic units, derived from fundamental units | # The Hartree system of atomic units, derived from fundamental units | |||

# of mass (of electron), action (Planck's constant), charge, and | # of mass (of electron), action (Planck's constant), charge, and | |||

# the Coulomb constant. | # the Coulomb constant. This system is used in the fields of physical | |||

# chemistry and condensed matter physics. | ||||

# | ||||

# The Hartree energy can be derived from m_e, e, hbar, and coulombconst by | # The Hartree energy can be derived from m_e, e, hbar, and coulombconst by | |||

# hartree = coulombconst^2 m_e e^4 / hbar^2 | # hartree = coulombconst^2 m_e e^4 / hbar^2 | |||

# but due to correlations between the measurements for m_e and coulombconst | # but due to correlations between the measurements for m_e and coulombconst | |||

# this results in a significant loss of precision. So we use an alternate | # this results in a significant loss of precision. So we use an alternate | |||

# equivalent definition for the hartree and derive then use energy instead | # equivalent definition for the hartree and use energy instead of the | |||

# of the Coulomb constant to derive the other units. This method retains the | # Coulomb constant to derive the other units. This method retains the | |||

# precision. | # precision. | |||

hartree 2 rydberg # Approximate electric potential energy of | hartree 2 rydberg # Approximate electric potential energy of | |||

# the hydrogen atom in its ground state, | # the hydrogen atom in its ground state, | |||

# and approximately twice its ionization | # and approximately twice its ionization | |||

# energy. | # energy. | |||

# Fundamental units | # Fundamental units | |||

atomicmass electronmass | atomicmass electronmass | |||

atomiccharge e | atomiccharge e | |||

skipping to change at line 2547 | skipping to change at line 2775 | |||

# Derived units | # Derived units | |||

atomicvelocity sqrt(atomicenergy / atomicmass) | atomicvelocity sqrt(atomicenergy / atomicmass) | |||

atomictime atomicaction / atomicenergy | atomictime atomicaction / atomicenergy | |||

atomiclength atomicvelocity atomictime | atomiclength atomicvelocity atomictime | |||

atomicforce atomicenergy / atomiclength | atomicforce atomicenergy / atomiclength | |||

atomicmomentum atomicenergy / atomicvelocity | atomicmomentum atomicenergy / atomicvelocity | |||

atomiccurrent atomiccharge / atomictime | atomiccurrent atomiccharge / atomictime | |||

atomicpotential atomicenergy / atomiccharge # electrical potential | atomicpotential atomicenergy / atomiccharge # electrical potential | |||

atomicvolt atomicpotential | ||||

atomicEfield atomicpotential / atomiclength | atomicEfield atomicpotential / atomiclength | |||

atomicBfield atomicvolt atomictime / atomiclength^2 | ||||

atomictemperature atomicenergy / boltzmann | ||||

!var UNITS_SYSTEM hartree | ||||

!message Hartree units selected | ||||

!prompt (hartree) | ||||

+kg 1/electronmass_SI | ||||

+K k_SI / hbar_SI s | ||||

+m alpha c_SI electronmass_SI / hbar_SI | ||||

+s alpha c_SI m | ||||

+A 1 / s e_SI | ||||

!endvar | ||||

# | # | |||

# These thermal units treat entropy as charge, from [5] | # These thermal units treat entropy as charge, from [5] | |||

# | # | |||

thermalcoulomb J/K # entropy | thermalcoulomb J/K # entropy | |||

thermalampere W/K # entropy flow | thermalampere W/K # entropy flow | |||

thermalfarad J/K^2 | thermalfarad J/K^2 | |||

thermalohm K^2/W # thermal resistance | thermalohm K^2/W # thermal resistance | |||

fourier thermalohm | fourier thermalohm | |||

skipping to change at line 3200 | skipping to change at line 3441 | |||

smoot 5 ft + 7 in # Created as part of an MIT fraternity prank. | smoot 5 ft + 7 in # Created as part of an MIT fraternity prank. | |||

# In 1958 Oliver Smoot was used to measure | # In 1958 Oliver Smoot was used to measure | |||

# the length of the Harvard Bridge, which was | # the length of the Harvard Bridge, which was | |||

# marked off in Smoot lengths. These | # marked off in Smoot lengths. These | |||

# markings have been maintained on the bridge | # markings have been maintained on the bridge | |||

# since then and repainted by subsequent | # since then and repainted by subsequent | |||

# incoming fraternity members. During a | # incoming fraternity members. During a | |||

# bridge renovation the new sidewalk was | # bridge renovation the new sidewalk was | |||

# scored every Smoot rather than at the | # scored every Smoot rather than at the | |||

# customary 6 ft spacing. | # customary 6 ft spacing. | |||

tomcruise 5 ft + 7.75 in # Height of Tom Cruise | ||||

# | # | |||

# Cooking measures | # Cooking measures | |||

# | # | |||

# Common abbreviations | # Common abbreviations | |||

tbl tablespoon | tbl tablespoon | |||

tbsp tablespoon | tbsp tablespoon | |||

tblsp tablespoon | tblsp tablespoon | |||

Tb tablespoon | Tb tablespoon | |||

skipping to change at line 3712 | skipping to change at line 3955 | |||

wood_mod_rosewood_indian 1.668e6 lbf/in^2 | wood_mod_rosewood_indian 1.668e6 lbf/in^2 | |||

wood_mod_snakewood 3.364e6 lbf/in^2 | wood_mod_snakewood 3.364e6 lbf/in^2 | |||

wood_mod_teak 1.781e6 lbf/in^2 | wood_mod_teak 1.781e6 lbf/in^2 | |||

wood_mod_zebrawood 2.374e6 lbf/in^2 | wood_mod_zebrawood 2.374e6 lbf/in^2 | |||

# | # | |||

# Area of countries and other regions. This is the "total area" which | # Area of countries and other regions. This is the "total area" which | |||

# includes land and water areas within international boundaries and | # includes land and water areas within international boundaries and | |||

# coastlines. Data from January, 2019. | # coastlines. Data from January, 2019. | |||

# | # | |||

# except as noted, sources are | ||||

# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_area | # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_area | |||

# https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook) | # https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook) | |||

area_russia 17098246 km^2 | area_russia 17098246 km^2 | |||

area_antarctica 14000000 km^2 | area_antarctica 14000000 km^2 | |||

area_canada 9984670 km^2 | # area_canada is covered below as sum of province and territory areas | |||

area_china 9596961 km^2 | area_china 9596961 km^2 | |||

area_unitedstates 9525067 km^2 # includes only the 50 states | # area_unitedstates is covered below as sum of state areas | |||

area_us area_unitedstates # and District of Columbia | # includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia | |||

area_us area_unitedstates | ||||

area_brazil 8515767 km^2 | area_brazil 8515767 km^2 | |||

area_australia 7692024 km^2 | area_australia 7692024 km^2 | |||

area_europeanunion 4475757 km^2 | # area_europeanunion is covered below as sum of member areas | |||

area_eu area_europeanunion | ||||

area_india 3287263 km^2 | area_india 3287263 km^2 | |||

area_argentina 2780400 km^2 | area_argentina 2780400 km^2 | |||

area_kazakhstan 2724900 km^2 | area_kazakhstan 2724900 km^2 | |||

area_algeria 2381741 km^2 | area_algeria 2381741 km^2 | |||

area_drcongo 2344858 km^2 | area_drcongo 2344858 km^2 | |||

area_greenland 2166086 km^2 | area_greenland 2166086 km^2 | |||

area_saudiarabia 2149690 km^2 | area_saudiarabia 2149690 km^2 | |||

area_mexico 1964375 km^2 | area_mexico 1964375 km^2 | |||

area_indonesia 1910931 km^2 | area_indonesia 1910931 km^2 | |||

area_sudan 1861484 km^2 | area_sudan 1861484 km^2 | |||

skipping to change at line 3759 | skipping to change at line 4003 | |||

area_tanzania 945087 km^2 | area_tanzania 945087 km^2 | |||

area_nigeria 923768 km^2 | area_nigeria 923768 km^2 | |||

area_venezuela 916445 km^2 | area_venezuela 916445 km^2 | |||

area_pakistan 881912 km^2 | area_pakistan 881912 km^2 | |||

area_namibia 825615 km^2 | area_namibia 825615 km^2 | |||

area_mozambique 801590 km^2 | area_mozambique 801590 km^2 | |||

area_turkey 783562 km^2 | area_turkey 783562 km^2 | |||

area_chile 756102 km^2 | area_chile 756102 km^2 | |||

area_zambia 752612 km^2 | area_zambia 752612 km^2 | |||

area_myanmar 676578 km^2 | area_myanmar 676578 km^2 | |||

area_burma area_myanmar | ||||

area_afghanistan 652230 km^2 | area_afghanistan 652230 km^2 | |||

area_southsudan 644329 km^2 | area_southsudan 644329 km^2 | |||

area_france 640679 km^2 | area_france 640679 km^2 | |||

area_somalia 637657 km^2 | area_somalia 637657 km^2 | |||

area_centralafrica 622984 km^2 | area_centralafrica 622984 km^2 | |||

area_ukraine 603500 km^2 | area_ukraine 603500 km^2 | |||

area_crimea 27000 km^2 # occupied by Russia; included in | area_crimea 27000 km^2 # occupied by Russia; included in | |||

# (Encyclopedia Britannica) | # (Encyclopedia Britannica) | |||

area_madagascar 587041 km^2 | area_madagascar 587041 km^2 | |||

area_botswana 581730 km^2 | area_botswana 581730 km^2 | |||

skipping to change at line 3800 | skipping to change at line 4045 | |||

area_poland 312696 km^2 | area_poland 312696 km^2 | |||

area_oman 309500 km^2 | area_oman 309500 km^2 | |||

area_italy 301339 km^2 | area_italy 301339 km^2 | |||

area_philippines 300000 km^2 | area_philippines 300000 km^2 | |||

area_ecuador 276841 km^2 | area_ecuador 276841 km^2 | |||

area_burkinafaso 274222 km^2 | area_burkinafaso 274222 km^2 | |||

area_newzealand 270467 km^2 | area_newzealand 270467 km^2 | |||

area_gabon 267668 km^2 | area_gabon 267668 km^2 | |||

area_westernsahara 266000 km^2 | area_westernsahara 266000 km^2 | |||

area_guinea 245857 km^2 | area_guinea 245857 km^2 | |||

area_uk 242495 km^2 | # area_unitedkingdom is covered below | |||

area_uganda 241550 km^2 | area_uganda 241550 km^2 | |||

area_ghana 238533 km^2 | area_ghana 238533 km^2 | |||

area_romania 238397 km^2 | area_romania 238397 km^2 | |||

area_laos 236800 km^2 | area_laos 236800 km^2 | |||

area_guyana 214969 km^2 | area_guyana 214969 km^2 | |||

area_belarus 207600 km^2 | area_belarus 207600 km^2 | |||

area_kyrgyzstan 199951 km^2 | area_kyrgyzstan 199951 km^2 | |||

area_senegal 196722 km^2 | area_senegal 196722 km^2 | |||

area_syria 185180 km^2 | area_syria 185180 km^2 | |||

area_golanheights 1150 km^2 # occupied by Israel; included in | area_golanheights 1150 km^2 # occupied by Israel; included in | |||

skipping to change at line 3840 | skipping to change at line 4085 | |||

area_guatemala 108889 km^2 | area_guatemala 108889 km^2 | |||

area_iceland 103000 km^2 | area_iceland 103000 km^2 | |||

area_southkorea 100210 km^2 | area_southkorea 100210 km^2 | |||

area_hungary 93028 km^2 | area_hungary 93028 km^2 | |||

area_portugal 92090 km^2 | area_portugal 92090 km^2 | |||

area_jordan 89342 km^2 | area_jordan 89342 km^2 | |||

area_serbia 88361 km^2 | area_serbia 88361 km^2 | |||

area_azerbaijan 86600 km^2 | area_azerbaijan 86600 km^2 | |||

area_austria 83871 km^2 | area_austria 83871 km^2 | |||

area_uae 83600 km^2 | area_uae 83600 km^2 | |||

area_czechrepublic 78865 km^2 | area_czechia 78865 km^2 | |||

area_czechrepublic area_czechia | ||||

area_panama 75417 km^2 | area_panama 75417 km^2 | |||

area_sierraleone 71740 km^2 | area_sierraleone 71740 km^2 | |||

area_ireland 70273 km^2 | area_ireland 70273 km^2 | |||

area_georgia 69700 km^2 | area_georgia 69700 km^2 | |||

area_srilanka 65610 km^2 | area_srilanka 65610 km^2 | |||

area_lithuania 65300 km^2 | area_lithuania 65300 km^2 | |||

area_latvia 64559 km^2 | area_latvia 64559 km^2 | |||

area_togo 56785 km^2 | area_togo 56785 km^2 | |||

area_croatia 56594 km^2 | area_croatia 56594 km^2 | |||

area_bosnia 51209 km^2 | area_bosnia 51209 km^2 | |||

skipping to change at line 3862 | skipping to change at line 4108 | |||

area_slovakia 49037 km^2 | area_slovakia 49037 km^2 | |||

area_dominicanrepublic 48671 km^2 | area_dominicanrepublic 48671 km^2 | |||

area_estonia 45227 km^2 | area_estonia 45227 km^2 | |||

area_denmark 43094 km^2 | area_denmark 43094 km^2 | |||

area_netherlands 41850 km^2 | area_netherlands 41850 km^2 | |||

area_switzerland 41284 km^2 | area_switzerland 41284 km^2 | |||

area_bhutan 38394 km^2 | area_bhutan 38394 km^2 | |||

area_taiwan 36193 km^2 | area_taiwan 36193 km^2 | |||

area_guineabissau 36125 km^2 | area_guineabissau 36125 km^2 | |||

area_moldova 33846 km^2 | area_moldova 33846 km^2 | |||

area_gelgium 30528 km^2 | area_belgium 30528 km^2 | |||

area_lesotho 30355 km^2 | area_lesotho 30355 km^2 | |||

area_armenia 29743 km^2 | area_armenia 29743 km^2 | |||

area_solomonislands 28896 km^2 | area_solomonislands 28896 km^2 | |||

area_albania 28748 km^2 | area_albania 28748 km^2 | |||

area_equitorialguinea 28051 km^2 | area_equitorialguinea 28051 km^2 | |||

area_burundi 27834 km^2 | area_burundi 27834 km^2 | |||

area_haiti 27750 km^2 | area_haiti 27750 km^2 | |||

area_rwanda 26338 km^2 | area_rwanda 26338 km^2 | |||

area_northmacedonia 25713 km^2 | area_northmacedonia 25713 km^2 | |||

area_djibouti 23200 km^2 | area_djibouti 23200 km^2 | |||

skipping to change at line 3897 | skipping to change at line 4143 | |||

area_kosovo 10887 km^2 | area_kosovo 10887 km^2 | |||

area_lebanon 10452 km^2 | area_lebanon 10452 km^2 | |||

area_cyprus 9251 km^2 | area_cyprus 9251 km^2 | |||

area_puertorico 9104 km^2 # United States territory; not included | area_puertorico 9104 km^2 # United States territory; not included | |||

# in United States area | # in United States area | |||

area_westbank 5860 km^2 # (CIA World Factbook) | area_westbank 5860 km^2 # (CIA World Factbook) | |||

area_hongkong 2755 km^2 | area_hongkong 2755 km^2 | |||

area_luxembourg 2586 km^2 | area_luxembourg 2586 km^2 | |||

area_singapore 716 km^2 | area_singapore 716 km^2 | |||

area_gazastrip 360 km^2 # (CIA World Factbook) | area_gazastrip 360 km^2 # (CIA World Factbook) | |||

area_malta 316 km^2 # smallest EU country | ||||

area_liechtenstein 160 km^2 | area_liechtenstein 160 km^2 | |||

area_monaco 2.02 km^2 | area_monaco 2.02 km^2 | |||

area_vaticancity 0.44 km^2 | area_vaticancity 0.44 km^2 | |||

# Members as of 1 Feb 2020 | ||||

area_europeanunion area_austria + area_belgium + area_bulgaria \ | ||||

+ area_croatia + area_cyprus + area_czechia + area_denmar | ||||

k \ | ||||

+ area_estonia + area_finland + area_france + area_germa | ||||

ny \ | ||||

+ area_greece + area_hungary + area_ireland + area_italy | ||||

\ | ||||

+ area_latvia + area_lithuania + area_luxembourg \ | ||||

+ area_malta + area_netherlands + area_poland \ | ||||

+ area_portugal + area_romania + area_slovakia \ | ||||

+ area_slovenia + area_spain + area_sweden | ||||

area_eu area_europeanunion | ||||

# | # | |||

# Area of the individual United States | # Areas of the individual US states | |||

# | # | |||

# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_and_territories_by_area | # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_and_territories_by_area | |||

# | # | |||

# United States Summary: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, Table 18, p. | ||||

41 | ||||

# Issued September 2012 | ||||

area_alaska 1723337 km^2 | area_alaska 1723336.8 km^2 | |||

area_texas 695662 km^2 | area_texas 695661.6 km^2 | |||

area_california 423972 km^2 | area_california 423967.4 km^2 | |||

area_montana 380831 km^2 | area_montana 380831.1 km^2 | |||

area_newmexico 314917 km^2 | area_newmexico 314917.4 km^2 | |||

area_arizona 295234 km^2 | area_arizona 295233.5 km^2 | |||

area_nevada 286380 km^2 | area_nevada 286379.7 km^2 | |||

area_colorado 269601 km^2 | area_colorado 269601.4 km^2 | |||

area_oregon 254799 km^2 | area_oregon 254799.2 km^2 | |||

area_wyoming 253335 km^2 | area_wyoming 253334.5 km^2 | |||

area_michigan 250487 km^2 | area_michigan 250486.8 km^2 | |||

area_minnesota 225163 km^2 | area_minnesota 225162.8 km^2 | |||

area_utah 219882 km^2 | area_utah 219881.9 km^2 | |||

area_idaho 216443 km^2 | area_idaho 216442.6 km^2 | |||

area_kansas 213100 km^2 | area_kansas 213100.0 km^2 | |||

area_nebraska 200330 km^2 | area_nebraska 200329.9 km^2 | |||

area_southdakota 199729 km^2 | area_southdakota 199728.7 km^2 | |||

area_washington 184661 km^2 | area_washington 184660.8 km^2 | |||

area_northdakota 183108 km^2 | area_northdakota 183107.8 km^2 | |||

area_oklahoma 181037 km^2 | area_oklahoma 181037.2 km^2 | |||

area_missouri 180540 km^2 | area_missouri 180540.3 km^2 | |||

area_florida 170312 km^2 | area_florida 170311.7 km^2 | |||

area_wisconsin 169635 km^2 | area_wisconsin 169634.8 km^2 | |||

area_georgia_us 153910 km^2 | area_georgia_us 153910.4 km^2 | |||

area_illinois 149995 km^2 | area_illinois 149995.4 km^2 | |||

area_iowa 145746 km^2 | area_iowa 145745.9 km^2 | |||

area_newyork 141297 km^2 | area_newyork 141296.7 km^2 | |||

area_northcarolina 139391 km^2 | area_northcarolina 139391.0 km^2 | |||

area_arkansas 137732 km^2 | area_arkansas 137731.8 km^2 | |||

area_alabama 135767 km^2 | area_alabama 135767.4 km^2 | |||

area_louisiana 135659 km^2 | area_louisiana 135658.7 km^2 | |||

area_mississippi 125438 km^2 | area_mississippi 125437.7 km^2 | |||

area_pennsylvania 119280 km^2 | area_pennsylvania 119280.2 km^2 | |||

area_ohio 116098 km^2 | area_ohio 116097.7 km^2 | |||

area_virginia 110787 km^2 | area_virginia 110786.6 km^2 | |||

area_tennessee 109153 km^2 | area_tennessee 109153.1 km^2 | |||

area_kentucky 104656 km^2 | area_kentucky 104655.7 km^2 | |||

area_indiana 94326 km^2 | area_indiana 94326.2 km^2 | |||

area_maine 91633 km^2 | area_maine 91633.1 km^2 | |||

area_southcarolina 82933 km^2 | area_southcarolina 82932.7 km^2 | |||

area_westvirginia 62756 km^2 | area_westvirginia 62755.5 km^2 | |||

area_maryland 32131 km^2 | area_maryland 32131.2 km^2 | |||

area_hawaii 28313 km^2 | area_hawaii 28313.0 km^2 | |||

area_massachusetts 27336 km^2 | area_massachusetts 27335.7 km^2 | |||

area_vermont 24906 km^2 | area_vermont 24906.3 km^2 | |||

area_newhampshire 24214 km^2 | area_newhampshire 24214.2 km^2 | |||

area_newjersey 22591 km^2 | area_newjersey 22591.4 km^2 | |||

area_connecticut 14357 km^2 | area_connecticut 14357.4 km^2 | |||

area_delaware 6446 km^2 | area_delaware 6445.8 km^2 | |||

area_rhodeisland 4001 km^2 | area_rhodeisland 4001.2 km^2 | |||

area_districtofcolumbia 177 km^2 | area_districtofcolumbia 177.0 km^2 | |||

area_unitedstates area_alabama + area_alaska + area_arizona \ | ||||

+ area_arkansas + area_california + area_colorado \ | ||||

+ area_connecticut + area_delaware \ | ||||

+ area_districtofcolumbia + area_florida \ | ||||

+ area_georgia_us + area_hawaii + area_idaho \ | ||||

+ area_illinois + area_indiana + area_iowa \ | ||||

+ area_kansas + area_kentucky + area_louisiana \ | ||||

+ area_maine + area_maryland + area_massachusetts \ | ||||

+ area_michigan + area_minnesota + area_mississippi \ | ||||

+ area_missouri + area_montana + area_nebraska \ | ||||

+ area_nevada + area_newhampshire + area_newjersey \ | ||||

+ area_newmexico + area_newyork + area_northcarolina \ | ||||

+ area_northdakota + area_ohio + area_oklahoma \ | ||||

+ area_oregon + area_pennsylvania + area_rhodeisland \ | ||||

+ area_southcarolina + area_southdakota \ | ||||

+ area_tennessee + area_texas + area_utah \ | ||||

+ area_vermont + area_virginia + area_washington \ | ||||

+ area_westvirginia + area_wisconsin + area_wyoming | ||||

# Total area of Canadian province and territories | ||||

# | ||||

# Statistics Canada, "Land and freshwater area, by province and territory", | ||||

# 2016-10-07: | ||||

# | ||||

# https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-402-x/2012000/chap/geo/tbl/tbl06-eng.ht | ||||

m | ||||

area_ontario 1076395 km^2 # confederated 1867-Jul-01 | ||||

area_quebec 1542056 km^2 # confederated 1867-Jul-01 | ||||

area_novascotia 55284 km^2 # confederated 1867-Jul-01 | ||||

area_newbrunswick 72908 km^2 # confederated 1867-Jul-01 | ||||

area_canada_original area_ontario + area_quebec + area_novascotia \ | ||||

+ area_newbrunswick | ||||

area_manitoba 647797 km^2 # confederated 1870-Jul-15 | ||||

area_britishcolumbia 944735 km^2 # confederated 1871-Jul-20 | ||||

area_princeedwardisland 5660 km^2 # confederated 1873-Jul-01 | ||||

area_canada_additional area_manitoba + area_britishcolumbia \ | ||||

+ area_princeedwardisland | ||||

area_alberta 661848 km^2 # confederated 1905-Sep-01 | ||||

area_saskatchewan 651036 km^2 # confederated 1905-Sep-01 | ||||

area_newfoundlandandlabrador 405212 km^2 # confederated 1949-Mar-31 | ||||

area_canada_recent area_alberta + area_saskatchewan \ | ||||

+ area_newfoundlandandlabrador | ||||

area_canada_provinces area_canada_original + area_canada_additional \ | ||||

+ area_canada_recent | ||||

area_northwestterritories 1346106 km^2 # NT confederated 1870-Jul-15 | ||||

area_yukon 482443 km^2 # YT confederated 1898-Jun-13 | ||||

area_nunavut 2093190 km^2 # NU confederated 1999-Apr-01 | ||||

area_canada_territories area_northwestterritories + area_yukon \ | ||||

+ area_nunavut | ||||

area_canada area_canada_provinces + area_canada_territories | ||||

# area-uk-countries.units - UK country (/province) total areas | ||||

# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countries_of_the_United_Kingdom#Statistics | ||||

# GB is official UK country code for some purposes but internally is a Kingdom | ||||

# | ||||

# areas from A Beginners Guide to UK Geography 2019 v1.0, Office for National St | ||||

atistics | ||||

# England: country; 0927-Jul-12 united; 1603-Mar-24 union of crowns | ||||

area_england 132947.76 km^2 | ||||

# | ||||

# Wales: 1282 conquered; 1535 union; principality until 2011 | ||||

area_wales 21224.48 km^2 | ||||

# | ||||

# England and Wales: nation; 1535 union | ||||

area_englandwales area_england + area_wales | ||||

# | ||||

# Scotland: country; ~900 united; 1603-Mar-24 union of crowns | ||||

area_scotland 80226.36 km^2 | ||||

# | ||||

# Great Britain: kingdom; excludes NI; | ||||

# 1707 Treaty and Acts of Union: union of parliaments | ||||

area_greatbritain area_england + area_wales + area_scotland | ||||

area_gb area_greatbritain | ||||

# | ||||

# Northern Ireland: province; Ireland: 1177 Henry II lordship; | ||||

# 1542 Henry VIII kingdom; 1652 Cromwell commonwealth; | ||||

# 1691 William III kingdom; 1800 Acts of Union: UK of GB & Ireland; | ||||

# 1921 Irish Free State independent of UK | ||||

area_northernireland 14133.38 km^2 | ||||

# | ||||

# United Kingdom of GB & NI: 1800 Acts of Union: UK of GB & Ireland; | ||||

# 1921 Irish Free State independent of UK | ||||

area_unitedkingdom area_greatbritain + area_northernireland | ||||

area_uk area_unitedkingdom | ||||

# | # | |||

# Units derived from imperial system | # Units derived from imperial system | |||

# | # | |||

ouncedal oz ft / s^2 # force which accelerates an ounce | ouncedal oz ft / s^2 # force which accelerates an ounce | |||

# at 1 ft/s^2 | # at 1 ft/s^2 | |||

poundal lb ft / s^2 # same thing for a pound | poundal lb ft / s^2 # same thing for a pound | |||

tondal longton ft / s^2 # and for a ton | tondal longton ft / s^2 # and for a ton | |||

pdl poundal | pdl poundal | |||

skipping to change at line 4044 | skipping to change at line 4388 | |||

RU U # than its U measurement indicates to | RU U # than its U measurement indicates to | |||

# allow for clearance, so 4U=(6+31|32)in | # allow for clearance, so 4U=(6+31|32)in | |||

# RETMA stands for the former name of | # RETMA stands for the former name of | |||

# the standardizing organization, Radio | # the standardizing organization, Radio | |||

# Electronics Television Manufacturers | # Electronics Television Manufacturers | |||

# Association. This organization is now | # Association. This organization is now | |||

# called the Electronic Industries | # called the Electronic Industries | |||

# Alliance (EIA) and the rack standard | # Alliance (EIA) and the rack standard | |||

# is specified in EIA RS-310-D. | # is specified in EIA RS-310-D. | |||

count per pound # For measuring the size of shrimp | count per pound # For measuring the size of shrimp | |||

flightlevel 100 ft # Flight levels are used to ensure safe | ||||

FL flightlevel # vertical separation between aircraft | ||||

# despite variations in local air | ||||

# pressure. Flight levels define | ||||

# altitudes based on a standard air | ||||

# pressure so that altimeter calibration | ||||

# is not needed. This means that | ||||

# aircraft at separated flight levels | ||||

# are guaranteed to be separated. | ||||

# Hence the definition of 100 feet is | ||||

# a nominal, not true, measure. | ||||

# Customarily written with no space in | ||||

# the form FL290, which will not work in | ||||

# units. But note "FL 290" will work. | ||||

# | # | |||

# Other units of work, energy, power, etc | # Other units of work, energy, power, etc | |||

# | # | |||

ENERGY joule | ENERGY joule | |||

WORK joule | WORK joule | |||

# Calorie: approximate energy to raise a gram of water one degree celsius | # Calorie: approximate energy to raise a gram of water one degree celsius | |||

skipping to change at line 4282 | skipping to change at line 4640 | |||

# The horsepower is supposedly the power of one horse pulling. Obviously | # The horsepower is supposedly the power of one horse pulling. Obviously | |||

# different people had different horses. | # different people had different horses. | |||

horsepower 550 foot pound force / sec # Invented by James Watt | horsepower 550 foot pound force / sec # Invented by James Watt | |||

mechanicalhorsepower horsepower | mechanicalhorsepower horsepower | |||

hp horsepower | hp horsepower | |||

metrichorsepower 75 kilogram force meter / sec # PS=Pferdestaerke in | metrichorsepower 75 kilogram force meter / sec # PS=Pferdestaerke in | |||

electrichorsepower 746 W # Germany | electrichorsepower 746 W # Germany | |||

boilerhorsepower 9809.50 W | boilerhorsepower 9809.50 W | |||

waterhorsepower 746.043 W | waterhorsepower 746.043 W | |||

brhorsepower 745.70 W | brhorsepower horsepower # Value corrected Dec, 2019. Was 745.7 W. | |||

donkeypower 250 W | donkeypower 250 W | |||

chevalvapeur metrichorsepower | chevalvapeur metrichorsepower | |||

# | # | |||

# Heat Transfer | # Heat Transfer | |||

# | # | |||

# Thermal conductivity, K, measures the rate of heat transfer across | # Thermal conductivity, K, measures the rate of heat transfer across | |||

# a material. The heat transfered is | # a material. The heat transfered is | |||

# Q = K dT A t / L | # Q = K dT A t / L | |||

# where dT is the temperature difference across the material, A is the | # where dT is the temperature difference across the material, A is the | |||

skipping to change at line 4327 | skipping to change at line 4685 | |||

europeanUvalue watt / m^2 K | europeanUvalue watt / m^2 K | |||

RSI degC m^2 / W | RSI degC m^2 / W | |||

clo 0.155 degC m^2 / W # Supposed to be the insulance | clo 0.155 degC m^2 / W # Supposed to be the insulance | |||

# required to keep a resting person | # required to keep a resting person | |||

# comfortable indoors. The value | # comfortable indoors. The value | |||

# given is from NIST and the CRC, | # given is from NIST and the CRC, | |||

# but [5] gives a slightly different | # but [5] gives a slightly different | |||

# value of 0.875 ft^2 degF hr / btu. | # value of 0.875 ft^2 degF hr / btu. | |||

tog 0.1 degC m^2 / W # Also used for clothing. | tog 0.1 degC m^2 / W # Also used for clothing. | |||

# Thermal Conductivity of a few materials | ||||

diamond_natural_thermal_conductivity 2200 W / m K | ||||

diamond_synthetic_thermal_conductivity 3320 W / m K # 99% pure C12 | ||||

silver_thermal_conductivity 406 W / m K | ||||

aluminum_thermal_conductivity 205 W / m K | ||||

copper_thermal_conductivity 385 W / m K | ||||

gold_thermal_conductivity 314 W / m K | ||||

iron_thermal_conductivity 79.5 W / m K | ||||

stainless_304_thermal_conductivity 15.5 W / m K # average value | ||||

# The bel was defined by engineers of Bell Laboratories to describe the | # The bel was defined by engineers of Bell Laboratories to describe the | |||

# reduction in audio level over a length of one mile. It was originally | # reduction in audio level over a length of one mile. It was originally | |||

# called the transmission unit (TU) but was renamed around 1923 to honor | # called the transmission unit (TU) but was renamed around 1923 to honor | |||

# Alexander Graham Bell. The bel proved inconveniently large so the decibel | # Alexander Graham Bell. The bel proved inconveniently large so the decibel | |||

# has become more common. The decibel is dimensionless since it reports a | # has become more common. The decibel is dimensionless since it reports a | |||

# ratio, but it is used in various contexts to report a signal's power | # ratio, but it is used in various contexts to report a signal's power | |||

# relative to some reference level. | # relative to some reference level. | |||

bel(x) units=[1;1] range=(0,) 10^(x); log(bel) # Basic bel definition | bel(x) units=[1;1] range=(0,) 10^(x); log(bel) # Basic bel definition | |||

decibel(x) units=[1;1] range=(0,) 10^(x/10); 10 log(decibel) # Basic decibel | decibel(x) units=[1;1] range=(0,) 10^(x/10); 10 log(decibel) # Basic decibel | |||

skipping to change at line 4356 | skipping to change at line 4725 | |||

# When used to measure amplitude, voltage, or current the signal is squared | # When used to measure amplitude, voltage, or current the signal is squared | |||

# because power is proportional to the square of these measures. The root | # because power is proportional to the square of these measures. The root | |||

# mean square (RMS) voltage is typically used with these units. | # mean square (RMS) voltage is typically used with these units. | |||

dBV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) V;~dB(dBV^2 / V^2) # Reference = 1 V | dBV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) V;~dB(dBV^2 / V^2) # Reference = 1 V | |||

dBmV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) mV;~dB(dBmV^2/mV^2)# Reference = 1 mV | dBmV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) mV;~dB(dBmV^2/mV^2)# Reference = 1 mV | |||

dBuV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) microV ; ~dB(dBuV^2 / microV^2) | dBuV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) microV ; ~dB(dBuV^2 / microV^2) | |||

# Reference = 1 microvolt | # Reference = 1 microvolt | |||

# Here are dB measurements for current. Be aware that dbA is also | ||||

# a unit for frequency weighted sound pressure. | ||||

dBA(x) units=[1;A] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) A;~dB(dBA^2 / A^2) # Reference = 1 A | ||||

dBmA(x) units=[1;A] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) mA;~dB(dBmA^2/mA^2)# Reference = 1 mA | ||||

dBuA(x) units=[1;A] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) microA ; ~dB(dBuA^2 / microA^2) | ||||

# Reference = 1 microamp | ||||

# Referenced to the voltage that causes 1 mW dissipation in a 600 ohm load. | # Referenced to the voltage that causes 1 mW dissipation in a 600 ohm load. | |||

# Originally defined as dBv but changed to prevent confusion with dBV. | # Originally defined as dBv but changed to prevent confusion with dBV. | |||

# The "u" is for unloaded. | # The "u" is for unloaded. | |||

dBu(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) sqrt(mW 600 ohm) ; \ | dBu(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) sqrt(mW 600 ohm) ; \ | |||

~dB(dBu^2 / mW 600 ohm) | ~dB(dBu^2 / mW 600 ohm) | |||

dBv(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dBu(x) ; ~dBu(dBv) # Synonym for dBu | dBv(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dBu(x) ; ~dBu(dBv) # Synonym for dBu | |||

# Measurements for sound in air, referenced to the threshold of human hearing | # Measurements for sound in air, referenced to the threshold of human hearing | |||

# Note that sound in other media typically uses 1 micropascal as a reference | # Note that sound in other media typically uses 1 micropascal as a reference | |||

# for sound pressure. Units dBA, dBB, dBC, refer to different frequency | # for sound pressure. Units dBA, dBB, dBC, refer to different frequency | |||

skipping to change at line 4832 | skipping to change at line 5208 | |||

# increased error correction overhead. | # increased error correction overhead. | |||

# There is a rarely used mode (mode2) with | # There is a rarely used mode (mode2) with | |||

# 2336 bytes per sector that has fewer | # 2336 bytes per sector that has fewer | |||

# error correction bits than mode1. | # error correction bits than mode1. | |||

dvdspeed 1385 kB/s # This is the "1x" speed of a DVD using | dvdspeed 1385 kB/s # This is the "1x" speed of a DVD using | |||

# constant linear velocity (CLV) mode. | # constant linear velocity (CLV) mode. | |||

# Modern DVDs may vary the linear velocity | # Modern DVDs may vary the linear velocity | |||

# as they go from the inside to the | # as they go from the inside to the | |||

# outside of the disc. | # outside of the disc. | |||

# See http://www.osta.org/technology/dvdqa/dvdqa4.htm | # See http://www.osta.org/technology/dvdqa/dvdqa4.htm | |||

FIT / 1e9 hour # Failures In Time, number of failures per billion hours | ||||

# | # | |||

# The IP address space is divided into subnets. The number of hosts | # The IP address space is divided into subnets. The number of hosts | |||

# in a subnet depends on the length of the subnet prefix. This is | # in a subnet depends on the length of the subnet prefix. This is | |||

# often written as /N where N is the number of bits in the prefix. | # often written as /N where N is the number of bits in the prefix. | |||

# | # | |||

# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subnetwork | # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subnetwork | |||

# | # | |||

# These definitions gives the number of hosts for a subnet whose | # These definitions gives the number of hosts for a subnet whose | |||

# prefix has the specified length in bits. | # prefix has the specified length in bits. | |||

# | # | |||

skipping to change at line 6414 | skipping to change at line 6793 | |||

air 78.08% nitrogen 2 \ | air 78.08% nitrogen 2 \ | |||

+ 20.95% oxygen 2 \ | + 20.95% oxygen 2 \ | |||

+ 9340 ppm argon \ | + 9340 ppm argon \ | |||

+ 400 ppm (carbon + oxygen 2) \ | + 400 ppm (carbon + oxygen 2) \ | |||

+ 18.18 ppm neon \ | + 18.18 ppm neon \ | |||

+ 5.24 ppm helium \ | + 5.24 ppm helium \ | |||

+ 1.7 ppm (carbon + 4 hydrogen) \ | + 1.7 ppm (carbon + 4 hydrogen) \ | |||

+ 1.14 ppm krypton \ | + 1.14 ppm krypton \ | |||

+ 0.55 ppm hydrogen 2 | + 0.55 ppm hydrogen 2 | |||

# Density of the elements | ||||

# | ||||

# Note some elements occur in multiple forms (allotropes) with different | ||||

# densities, and they are accordingly listed multiple times. | ||||

# Density of gas phase elements at STP | ||||

hydrogendensity 0.08988 g/l | ||||

heliumdensity 0.1786 g/l | ||||

neondensity 0.9002 g/l | ||||

nitrogendensity 1.2506 g/l | ||||

oxygendensity 1.429 g/l | ||||

fluorinedensity 1.696 g/l | ||||

argondensity 1.784 g/l | ||||

chlorinedensity 3.2 g/l | ||||

kryptondensity 3.749 g/l | ||||

xenondensity 5.894 g/l | ||||

radondensity 9.73 g/l | ||||

# Density of liquid phase elements near room temperature | ||||

brominedensity 3.1028 g/cm^3 | ||||

mercurydensity 13.534 g/cm^3 | ||||

# Density of solid elements near room temperature | ||||

lithiumdensity 0.534 g/cm^3 | ||||

potassiumdensity 0.862 g/cm^3 | ||||

sodiumdensity 0.968 g/cm^3 | ||||

rubidiumdensity 1.532 g/cm^3 | ||||

calciumdensity 1.55 g/cm^3 | ||||

magnesiumdensity 1.738 g/cm^3 | ||||

phosphorus_white_density 1.823 g/cm^3 | ||||

berylliumdensity 1.85 g/cm^3 | ||||

sulfur_gamma_density 1.92 g/cm^3 | ||||

cesiumdensity 1.93 g/cm^3 | ||||

carbon_amorphous_density 1.95 g/cm^3 # average value | ||||

sulfur_betadensity 1.96 g/cm^3 | ||||

sulfur_alpha_density 2.07 g/cm^3 | ||||

carbon_graphite_density 2.267 g/cm^3 | ||||

phosphorus_red_density 2.27 g/cm^3 # average value | ||||

silicondensity 2.3290 g/cm^3 | ||||

phosphorus_violet_density 2.36 g/cm^3 | ||||

borondensity 2.37 g/cm^3 | ||||

strontiumdensity 2.64 g/cm^3 | ||||

phosphorus_black_density 2.69 g/cm^3 | ||||

aluminumdensity 2.7 g/cm^3 | ||||

bariumdensity 3.51 g/cm^3 | ||||

carbon_diamond_density 3.515 g/cm^3 | ||||

scandiumdensity 3.985 g/cm^3 | ||||

selenium_vitreous_density 4.28 g/cm^3 | ||||

selenium_alpha_density 4.39 g/cm^3 | ||||

titaniumdensity 4.406 g/cm^3 | ||||

yttriumdensity 4.472 g/cm^3 | ||||

selenium_gray_density 4.81 g/cm^3 | ||||

iodinedensity 4.933 g/cm^3 | ||||

europiumdensity 5.264 g/cm^3 | ||||

germaniumdensity 5.323 g/cm^3 | ||||

radiumdensity 5.5 g/cm^3 | ||||

arsenicdensity 5.727 g/cm^3 | ||||

tin_alpha_density 5.769 g/cm^3 | ||||

galliumdensity 5.91 g/cm^3 | ||||

vanadiumdensity 6.11 g/cm^3 | ||||

lanthanumdensity 6.162 g/cm^3 | ||||

telluriumdensity 6.24 g/cm^3 | ||||

zirconiumdensity 6.52 g/cm^3 | ||||

antimonydensity 6.697 g/cm^3 | ||||

ceriumdensity 6.77 g/cm^3 | ||||

praseodymiumdensity 6.77 g/cm^3 | ||||

ytterbiumdensity 6.9 g/cm^3 | ||||

neodymiumdensity 7.01 g/cm^3 | ||||

zincdensity 7.14 g/cm^3 | ||||

chromiumdensity 7.19 g/cm^3 | ||||

manganesedensity 7.21 g/cm^3 | ||||

promethiumdensity 7.26 g/cm^3 | ||||

tin_beta_density 7.265 g/cm^3 | ||||

indiumdensity 7.31 g/cm^3 | ||||

samariumdensity 7.52 g/cm^3 | ||||

irondensity 7.874 g/cm^3 | ||||

gadoliniumdensity 7.9 g/cm^3 | ||||

terbiumdensity 8.23 g/cm^3 | ||||

dysprosiumdensity 8.54 g/cm^3 | ||||

niobiumdensity 8.57 g/cm^3 | ||||

cadmiumdensity 8.65 g/cm^3 | ||||

holmiumdensity 8.79 g/cm^3 | ||||

cobaltdensity 8.9 g/cm^3 | ||||

nickeldensity 8.908 g/cm^3 | ||||

erbiumdensity 9.066 g/cm^3 | ||||

polonium_alpha_density 9.196 g/cm^3 | ||||

thuliumdensity 9.32 g/cm^3 | ||||

polonium_beta_density 9.398 g/cm^3 | ||||

bismuthdensity 9.78 g/cm^3 | ||||

lutetiumdensity 9.841 g/cm^3 | ||||

actiniumdensity 10 g/cm^3 | ||||

molybdenumdensity 10.28 g/cm^3 | ||||

silverdensity 10.49 g/cm^3 | ||||

technetiumdensity 11 g/cm^3 | ||||

leaddensity 11.34 g/cm^3 | ||||

thoriumdensity 11.7 g/cm^3 | ||||

thalliumdensity 11.85 g/cm^3 | ||||

americiumdensity 12 g/cm^3 | ||||

palladiumdensity 12.023 g/cm^3 | ||||

rhodiumdensity 12.41 g/cm^3 | ||||

rutheniumdensity 12.45 g/cm^3 | ||||

berkelium_beta_density 13.25 g/cm^3 | ||||

hafniumdensity 13.31 g/cm^3 | ||||

curiumdensity 13.51 g/cm^3 | ||||

berkelium_alphadensity 14.78 g/cm^3 | ||||

californiumdensity 15.1 g/cm^3 | ||||

protactiniumdensity 15.37 g/cm^3 | ||||

tantalumdensity 16.69 g/cm^3 | ||||

uraniumdensity 19.1 g/cm^3 | ||||

tungstendensity 19.3 g/cm^3 | ||||

golddensity 19.30 g/cm^3 | ||||

plutoniumdensity 19.816 g/cm^3 | ||||

neptuniumdensity 20.45 g/cm^3 # alpha form, only one at room temp | ||||

rheniumdensity 21.02 g/cm^3 | ||||

platinumdensity 21.45 g/cm^3 | ||||

iridiumdensity 22.56 g/cm^3 | ||||

osmiumdensity 22.59 g/cm^3 | ||||

# A few alternate names | ||||

tin_gray tin_alpha_density | ||||

tin_white tin_beta_density | ||||

graphitedensity carbon_graphite_density | ||||

diamonddensity carbon_diamond_density | ||||

# Predicted density of elements that have not been made in sufficient | ||||

# quantities for measurement. | ||||

franciumdensity 2.48 g/cm^3 # liquid, predicted melting point 8 degC | ||||

astatinedensity 6.35 g/cm^3 | ||||

einsteiniumdensity 8.84 g/cm^3 | ||||

fermiumdensity 9.7 g/cm^3 | ||||

nobeliumdensity 9.9 g/cm^3 | ||||

mendeleviumdensity 10.3 g/cm^3 | ||||

lawrenciumdensity 16 g/cm^3 | ||||

rutherfordiumdensity 23.2 g/cm^3 | ||||

roentgeniumdensity 28.7 g/cm^3 | ||||

dubniumdensity 29.3 g/cm^3 | ||||

darmstadtiumdensity 34.8 g/cm^3 | ||||

seaborgiumdensity 35 g/cm^3 | ||||

bohriumdensity 37.1 g/cm^3 | ||||

meitneriumdensity 37.4 g/cm^3 | ||||

hassiumdensity 41 g/cm^3 | ||||

# | # | |||

# population units | # population units | |||

# | # | |||

people 1 | people 1 | |||

person people | person people | |||

death people | death people | |||

capita people | capita people | |||

percapita per capita | percapita per capita | |||

End of changes. 57 change blocks. | ||||

102 lines changed or deleted | | 635 lines changed or added |