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Source code changes of the file "definitions.units" between
units-2.19.tar.gz and units-2.20.tar.gz

About: GNU Units converts quantities expressed in various scales to their equivalents in other scales.

definitions.units  (units-2.19):definitions.units  (units-2.20)
# #
# This file is the units database for use with GNU units, a units conversion # This file is the units database for use with GNU units, a units conversion
# program by Adrian Mariano adrianm@gnu.org # program by Adrian Mariano adrianm@gnu.org
# #
# May 2019 Version 3.04 # September 2020 Version 3.09
# #
# Copyright (C) 1996-2002, 2004-2019 # Copyright (C) 1996-2002, 2004-2020
# Free Software Foundation, Inc # Free Software Foundation, Inc
# #
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify # This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by # it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or # the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version. # (at your option) any later version.
# #
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, # This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of # but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the # MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
skipping to change at line 58 skipping to change at line 58
# development in Great Britain up to AD 1855 by FG Skinner # development in Great Britain up to AD 1855 by FG Skinner
# 12. The World of Measurements by H. Arthur Klein # 12. The World of Measurements by H. Arthur Klein
# 13. For Good Measure by William Johnstone # 13. For Good Measure by William Johnstone
# 14. NTC's Encyclopedia of International Weights and Measures # 14. NTC's Encyclopedia of International Weights and Measures
# by William Johnstone # by William Johnstone
# 15. Sizes by John Lord # 15. Sizes by John Lord
# 16. Sizesaurus by Stephen Strauss # 16. Sizesaurus by Stephen Strauss
# 17. CODATA Recommended Values of Physical Constants available at # 17. CODATA Recommended Values of Physical Constants available at
# http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html # http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html
# 18. How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. Available at # 18. How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. Available at
# http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/index.html # http://www.ibiblio.org/units/
# 19. Numericana. http://www.numericana.com # 19. Numericana. http://www.numericana.com
# 20. UK history of measurement # 20. UK history of measurement
# http://www.ukmetrication.com/history.htm # http://www.ukmetrication.com/history.htm
# 21. NIST Handbook 44, Specifications, Tolerances, and # 21. NIST Handbook 44, Specifications, Tolerances, and
# Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring # Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring
# Devices. 2011 # Devices. 2011
# 22. NIST Special Publication 447, Weights and Measures Standards # 22. NIST Special Publication 447, Weights and Measures Standards
# of the the United States: a brief history. Lewis V. Judson. # of the the United States: a brief history. Lewis V. Judson.
# 1963; rev. 1976 # 1963; rev. 1976
# 23. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 96th edition # 23. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 96th edition
skipping to change at line 132 skipping to change at line 132
!endlocale !endlocale
!locale en_GB !locale en_GB
! set UNITS_ENGLISH GB ! set UNITS_ENGLISH GB
!endlocale !endlocale
!set UNITS_ENGLISH US # Default setting for English units !set UNITS_ENGLISH US # Default setting for English units
!set UNITS_SYSTEM default # Set a default value !set UNITS_SYSTEM default # Set a default value
!varnot UNITS_SYSTEM si emu esu gaussian gauss default !varnot UNITS_SYSTEM si emu esu gaussian gauss hlu natural natural-gauss hartree planck planck-red default
!message Unknown unit system given with -u or UNITS_SYSTEM environment variable !message Unknown unit system given with -u or UNITS_SYSTEM environment variable
!message Valid systems: si, emu, esu, gauss[ian] !message Valid systems: si, emu, esu, gauss[ian], hlu, natural, natural-gauss
!message planck, planck-red, hartree
!message Using SI !message Using SI
!prompt (SI) !prompt (SI)
!endvar !endvar
!var UNITS_SYSTEM si !var UNITS_SYSTEM si
!message SI units selected !message SI units selected
!prompt (SI) !prompt (SI)
!endvar !endvar
########################################################################### ###########################################################################
skipping to change at line 214 skipping to change at line 215
s ! # The second, symbol s, is the SI unit of time. It is defined s ! # The second, symbol s, is the SI unit of time. It is defined
second s # by taking the fixed numerical value of the unperturbed second s # by taking the fixed numerical value of the unperturbed
# ground-state hyperfine transition frequency of the # ground-state hyperfine transition frequency of the
# cesium-133 atom to be 9 192 1631 770 when expressed in the # cesium-133 atom to be 9 192 1631 770 when expressed in the
# unit Hz, which is equal to 1/s. # unit Hz, which is equal to 1/s.
# #
# This definition is a restatement of the previous one, the # This definition is a restatement of the previous one, the
# duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding # duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding
# to the cesium-133 transition. # to the cesium-133 transition.
c_SI 299792458
c 299792458 m/s # speed of light in vacuum (exact) c 299792458 m/s # speed of light in vacuum (exact)
m ! # The metre, symbol m, is the SI unit of length. It is m ! # The metre, symbol m, is the SI unit of length. It is
meter m # defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the speed meter m # defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the speed
metre m # of light in vacuum, c, to be 299 792 458 when expressed in metre m # of light in vacuum, c, to be 299 792 458 when expressed in
# units of m/s. # units of m/s.
# #
# This definition is a rewording of the previous one and is # This definition is a rewording of the previous one and is
# equivalent to defining the meter as the distance light # equivalent to defining the meter as the distance light
# travels in 1|299792458 seconds. The meter was originally # travels in 1|299792458 seconds. The meter was originally
# intended to be 1e-7 of the length along a meridian from the # intended to be 1e-7 of the length along a meridian from the
# equator to a pole. # equator to a pole.
h_SI 6.62607015e-34
h 6.62607015e-34 J s # Planck constant (exact) h 6.62607015e-34 J s # Planck constant (exact)
kg ! # The kilogram, symbol kg, is the SI unit of mass. It is kg ! # The kilogram, symbol kg, is the SI unit of mass. It is
kilogram kg # defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the Planck kilogram kg # defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the Planck
# constant, h, to be 6.626 070 15 * 10^-34 when expressed in # constant, h, to be 6.626 070 15 * 10^-34 when expressed in
# the unit J s which is equal to kg m^2 / s. # the unit J s which is equal to kg m^2 / s.
# #
# One advantage of fixing h to define the kilogram is that this # One advantage of fixing h to define the kilogram is that this
# affects constants used to define the ampere. If the kg were # affects constants used to define the ampere. If the kg were
# defined by directly fixing the mass of something, then h # defined by directly fixing the mass of something, then h
skipping to change at line 275 skipping to change at line 278
# place a "kilogram of radiation" on one side of a balance. # place a "kilogram of radiation" on one side of a balance.
# Metrologists realize the kilogram using a Kibble Balance, a # Metrologists realize the kilogram using a Kibble Balance, a
# device which relates mechanical energy to electrical energy # device which relates mechanical energy to electrical energy
# and can measure mass with extreme accuracy if h is known. # and can measure mass with extreme accuracy if h is known.
# #
# For more on the Kibble Balance see # For more on the Kibble Balance see
# #
# https://www.nist.gov/si-redefinition/kilogram-kibble-balance # https://www.nist.gov/si-redefinition/kilogram-kibble-balance
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibble_balance # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibble_balance
k_SI 1.380649e-23
boltzmann 1.380649e-23 J/K # Boltzmann constant (exact) boltzmann 1.380649e-23 J/K # Boltzmann constant (exact)
k boltzmann k boltzmann
K ! # The kelvin, symbol K, is the SI unit of thermodynamic K ! # The kelvin, symbol K, is the SI unit of thermodynamic
kelvin K # temperature. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical kelvin K # temperature. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical
# value of the Boltzmann constant, k, to be 1.380 649 * 10^-23 # value of the Boltzmann constant, k, to be 1.380 649 * 10^-23
# when expressed in the unit J/K, which is equal to # when expressed in the unit J/K, which is equal to
# kg m^2/s^2 K. # kg m^2/s^2 K.
# #
# The boltzmann constant establishes the relationship between # The boltzmann constant establishes the relationship between
skipping to change at line 317 skipping to change at line 321
# The redefinition of the kelvin will not affect the values of # The redefinition of the kelvin will not affect the values of
# these reference points, which have been determined by # these reference points, which have been determined by
# primary thermometry, using thermometers that rely only on # primary thermometry, using thermometers that rely only on
# relationships that allow temperature to be calculated # relationships that allow temperature to be calculated
# directly without using any unknown quantities. Examples # directly without using any unknown quantities. Examples
# include acoustic thermometers, which measure the speed of # include acoustic thermometers, which measure the speed of
# sound in a gas, or electronic thermometers, which measure # sound in a gas, or electronic thermometers, which measure
# tiny voltage fluctuations in resistors. Both variables # tiny voltage fluctuations in resistors. Both variables
# depend directly on temperature. # depend directly on temperature.
e_SI 1.602176634e-19
e 1.602176634e-19 C # electron charge (exact) e 1.602176634e-19 C # electron charge (exact)
A ! # The ampere, symbol A, is the SI unit of electric current. A ! # The ampere, symbol A, is the SI unit of electric current.
ampere A # It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the ampere A # It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the
amp ampere # elementary charge, e, to be 1.602 176 634 * 10^-19 when amp ampere # elementary charge, e, to be 1.602 176 634 * 10^-19 when
# expressed in the unit C, which is equal to A*s. # expressed in the unit C, which is equal to A*s.
# #
# The previous definition was the current which produces a # The previous definition was the current which produces a
# force of 2e-7 N/m between two infinitely long wires a meter # force of 2e-7 N/m between two infinitely long wires a meter
# apart. This definition was difficult to realize accurately. # apart. This definition was difficult to realize accurately.
skipping to change at line 739 skipping to change at line 744
ACCELERATION VELOCITY / TIME ACCELERATION VELOCITY / TIME
DENSITY MASS / VOLUME DENSITY MASS / VOLUME
LINEAR_DENSITY MASS / LENGTH LINEAR_DENSITY MASS / LENGTH
VISCOSITY FORCE TIME / AREA VISCOSITY FORCE TIME / AREA
KINEMATIC_VISCOSITY VISCOSITY / DENSITY KINEMATIC_VISCOSITY VISCOSITY / DENSITY
CURRENT ampere CURRENT ampere
CHARGE coulomb CHARGE coulomb
CAPACITANCE farad CAPACITANCE farad
RESISTANCE ohm RESISTANCE ohm
CONDUCTANCE siemens CONDUCTANCE siemens
# It may be easier to understand the relationship by considering
# an object with specified dimensions and resistivity, whose
# resistance is given by the resistivity * length / area.
RESISTIVITY RESISTANCE AREA / LENGTH
CONDUCTIVITY CONDUCTANCE LENGTH / AREA
INDUCTANCE henry INDUCTANCE henry
E_FIELD ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL / LENGTH E_FIELD ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL / LENGTH
B_FIELD tesla B_FIELD tesla
# The D and H fields are related to the E and B fields by factors of # The D and H fields are related to the E and B fields by factors of
# epsilon and mu respectively, so their units can be found by # epsilon and mu respectively, so their units can be found by
# multiplying/dividing by the epsilon0 and mu0. The more complex # multiplying/dividing by the epsilon0 and mu0. The more complex
# definitions below make it possible to use D_FIELD and E_FIELD to # definitions below make it possible to use D_FIELD and E_FIELD to
# convert between SI and CGS units for these dimensions. # convert between SI and CGS units for these dimensions.
D_FIELD E_FIELD epsilon0 mu0_SI c^2 F / m D_FIELD E_FIELD epsilon0 / epsilon0_SI # mu0_SI c^2 F / m
H_FIELD B_FIELD / (mu0/mu0_SI) (H/m) H_FIELD B_FIELD / (mu0/mu0_SI)
ELECTRIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT C m ELECTRIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT C m
MAGNETIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT J / T MAGNETIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT J / T
POLARIZATION ELECTRIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT / VOLUME POLARIZATION ELECTRIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT / VOLUME
MAGNETIZATION MAGNETIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT / VOLUME MAGNETIZATION MAGNETIC_DIPOLE_MOMENT / VOLUME
ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL volt ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL ENERGY / CHARGE #volt
VOLTAGE ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL VOLTAGE ELECTRIC_POTENTIAL
E_FLUX E_FIELD AREA E_FLUX E_FIELD AREA
D_FLUX D_FIELD AREA D_FLUX D_FIELD AREA
B_FLUX B_FIELD AREA B_FLUX B_FIELD AREA
H_FLUX H_FIELD AREA H_FLUX H_FIELD AREA
# #
# units derived easily from SI units # units derived easily from SI units
# #
skipping to change at line 1006 skipping to change at line 1016
pH(x) units=[1;mol/liter] range=(0,) 10^(-x) mol/liter ; (-log(pH liters/mol)) pH(x) units=[1;mol/liter] range=(0,) 10^(-x) mol/liter ; (-log(pH liters/mol))
# #
# Temperature # Temperature
# #
# Two types of units are defined: units for converting temperature differences # Two types of units are defined: units for converting temperature differences
# and functions for converting absolute temperatures. Conversions for # and functions for converting absolute temperatures. Conversions for
# differences start with "deg" and conversions for absolute temperature start # differences start with "deg" and conversions for absolute temperature start
# with "temp". # with "temp".
# #
# If the temperature inside is 72 degrees Fahrenheit and you want to
# convert this to degrees Celsius then you need absolute temperature:
#
# You have: tempF(72)
# You want: tempC
# 22.222222
#
# If the temperature rose 72 degrees Fahrenheit during the chemical reaction
# then this is a temperature difference:
#
# You have: 72 degF
# You want: degC
# * 40
# / 0.025
#
TEMPERATURE kelvin TEMPERATURE kelvin
TEMPERATURE_DIFFERENCE kelvin TEMPERATURE_DIFFERENCE kelvin
# In 1741 Anders Celsius introduced a temperature scale with water boiling at # In 1741 Anders Celsius introduced a temperature scale with water boiling at
# 0 degrees and freezing at 100 degrees at standard pressure. After his death # 0 degrees and freezing at 100 degrees at standard pressure. After his death
# the fixed points were reversed and the scale was called the centigrade # the fixed points were reversed and the scale was called the centigrade
# scale. Due to the difficulty of accurately measuring the temperature of # scale. Due to the difficulty of accurately measuring the temperature of
# melting ice at standard pressure, the centigrade scale was replaced in 1954 # melting ice at standard pressure, the centigrade scale was replaced in 1954
# by the Celsius scale which is defined by subtracting 273.15 from the # by the Celsius scale which is defined by subtracting 273.15 from the
skipping to change at line 1090 skipping to change at line 1115
2 759.67 \ 2 759.67 \
3 784.67 \ 3 784.67 \
4 809.67 \ 4 809.67 \
5 834.67 \ 5 834.67 \
6 859.67 \ 6 859.67 \
7 884.67 \ 7 884.67 \
8 909.67 \ 8 909.67 \
9 934.67 \ 9 934.67 \
10 959.67 10 959.67
# Units cannot handle wind chill or heat index because they are two variable # The Beaufort wind force scale was developed from 1805-1807 by Sir Francis
# Beaufort to categorize wind conditions at sea. It is normally defined from
# Beaufort 0, also called "Force 0," through Beaufort 12. Beaufort numbers
# 13-17 were later defined for tropical cyclones but are rarely used. The
# original Beaufort scale was qualitative and did not relate directly to wind
# speed. In 1906, George Simpson of the British Met Office fit wind-speed
# measurements to visual Beaufort estimates made from five coastal and inland
# stations in Britain. Simpson's formula was adopted by the World Meterological
# Organization in 1946 to produce a table, known as WMO Code 1100, giving mean
# (and min/max) wind speed equivalents at a height of 10 meters for each
# Beaufort number. This is the "operational" Beaufort scale that mariners
# use. Meterological and climatic researchers typically use a "scientific"
# Beaufort scale based on more recent and comprehensive fits. See Wallbrink and
# Cook, Historical Wind Speed Equivalents Of The Beaufort Scale, 1850-1950, at
# https://icoads.noaa.gov/reclaim/pdf/Hisklim13.pdf
#
beaufort_WMO1100(B) units=[1;m/s] domain=[0,17] range=[0,) \
0.836 B^3|2 m/s; (beaufort_WMO1100 s / 0.836 m)^2|3
beaufort(B) units=[1;m/s] domain=[0,17] range=[0,) \
beaufort_WMO1100(B); ~beaufort_WMO1100(beaufort)
# Units cannot handle wind chill or heat index because they are two-variable
# functions, but they are included here for your edification. Clearly these # functions, but they are included here for your edification. Clearly these
# equations are the result of a model fitting operation. # equations are the result of a model fitting operation.
# #
# wind chill index (WCI) a measurement of the combined cooling effect of low # wind chill index (WCI) a measurement of the combined cooling effect of low
# air temperature and wind on the human body. The index was first defined # air temperature and wind on the human body. The index was first defined
# by the American Antarctic explorer Paul Siple in 1939. As currently used # by the American Antarctic explorer Paul Siple in 1939. As currently used
# by U.S. meteorologists, the wind chill index is computed from the # by U.S. meteorologists, the wind chill index is computed from the
# temperature T (in °F) and wind speed V (in mi/hr) using the formula: # temperature T (in °F) and wind speed V (in mi/hr) using the formula:
# WCI = 0.0817(3.71 sqrt(V) + 5.81 - 0.25V)(T - 91.4) + 91.4. # WCI = 0.0817(3.71 sqrt(V) + 5.81 - 0.25V)(T - 91.4) + 91.4.
# For very low wind speeds, below 4 mi/hr, the WCI is actually higher than # For very low wind speeds, below 4 mi/hr, the WCI is actually higher than
skipping to change at line 1120 skipping to change at line 1167
# - 0.0199 T^2 H^2. # - 0.0199 T^2 H^2.
# #
# Physical constants # Physical constants
# #
# Basic constants # Basic constants
pi 3.14159265358979323846 pi 3.14159265358979323846
light c light c
mu0_SI 2 alpha h / e^2 c # Vacuum magnetic permeability mu0_SI 2 alpha h_SI / e_SI^2 c_SI # Vacuum magnetic permeability
mu0 mu0_SI # Gets overridden in CGS modes mu0 2 alpha h / e^2 c # Gets overridden in CGS modes
epsilon0 1/mu0 c^2 # Vacuum electric permittivity epsilon0_SI 1/mu0_SI c_SI^2 # Vacuum electric permittivity
epsilon0 1/mu0 c^2 # Also overridden in CGS modes
Z0 mu0 c # Free space impedance Z0 mu0 c # Free space impedance
energy c^2 # Convert mass to energy energy c^2 # Convert mass to energy
hbar h / 2 pi hbar h / 2 pi
hbar_SI h_SI / 2 pi
spin hbar spin hbar
G_SI 6.67430e-11
G 6.67430e-11 N m^2 / kg^2 # Newtonian gravitational constant G 6.67430e-11 N m^2 / kg^2 # Newtonian gravitational constant
coulombconst 1/4 pi epsilon0 # Listed as k or k_C sometimes coulombconst 1/4 pi epsilon0 # Listed as k or k_C sometimes
k_C coulombconst k_C coulombconst
# Physico-chemical constants # Physico-chemical constants
atomicmassunit_SI 1.66053906660e-27 # Unified atomic mass unit, defined as
atomicmassunit 1.66053906660e-27 kg # Unified atomic mass unit, defined as atomicmassunit 1.66053906660e-27 kg # Unified atomic mass unit, defined as
u atomicmassunit # 1|12 of the mass of carbon 12. u atomicmassunit # 1|12 of the mass of carbon 12.
amu atomicmassunit # The relationship N_A u = 1 g/mol amu atomicmassunit # The relationship N_A u = 1 g/mol
dalton u # is approximately, but not exactly dalton u # is approximately, but not exactly
Da dalton # true (with the 2019 SI). Da dalton # true (with the 2019 SI).
# Previously the mole was defined to # Previously the mole was defined to
# make this relationship exact. # make this relationship exact.
amu_chem 1.66026e-27 kg # 1|16 of the weighted average mass of amu_chem 1.66026e-27 kg # 1|16 of the weighted average mass of
# the 3 naturally occuring neutral # the 3 naturally occuring neutral
# isotopes of oxygen # isotopes of oxygen
skipping to change at line 1169 skipping to change at line 1220
# given by sigma T^4. (exact) # given by sigma T^4. (exact)
wiendisplacement (h c/k)/4.9651142317442763 # Wien's Displacement Law gives wiendisplacement (h c/k)/4.9651142317442763 # Wien's Displacement Law gives
# the frequency at which the the # the frequency at which the the
# Planck spectrum has maximum # Planck spectrum has maximum
# intensity. The relation is lambda # intensity. The relation is lambda
# T = b where lambda is wavelength, # T = b where lambda is wavelength,
# T is temperature and b is the Wien # T is temperature and b is the Wien
# displacement. This relation is # displacement. This relation is
# used to determine the temperature # used to determine the temperature
# of stars. The constant is the # of stars. The constant is the
# solution to x=5(1-exp(-x)). (exact) # solution to x=5(1-exp(-x)).
# This expression has no experimental
# error, and x is defined exactly
# by the equation above, so it is
# an exact definition.
K_J90 483597.9 GHz/V # Direct measurement of the volt is difficult. Until K_J90 483597.9 GHz/V # Direct measurement of the volt is difficult. Until
K_J 2e/h # recently, laboratories kept Weston cadmium cells as K_J 2e/h # recently, laboratories kept Weston cadmium cells as
# a reference, but they could drift. In 1987 the # a reference, but they could drift. In 1987 the
# CGPM officially recommended the use of the # CGPM officially recommended the use of the
# Josephson effect as a laboratory representation of # Josephson effect as a laboratory representation of
# the volt. The Josephson effect occurs when two # the volt. The Josephson effect occurs when two
# superconductors are separated by a thin insulating # superconductors are separated by a thin insulating
# layer. A "supercurrent" flows across the insulator # layer. A "supercurrent" flows across the insulator
# with a frequency that depends on the potential # with a frequency that depends on the potential
# applied across the superconductors. This frequency # applied across the superconductors. This frequency
skipping to change at line 1255 skipping to change at line 1310
H2O10C 0.99973 force gram / cm^3 H2O10C 0.99973 force gram / cm^3
H2O15C 0.99913 force gram / cm^3 H2O15C 0.99913 force gram / cm^3
H2O18C 0.99862 force gram / cm^3 H2O18C 0.99862 force gram / cm^3
H2O20C 0.99823 force gram / cm^3 H2O20C 0.99823 force gram / cm^3
H2O25C 0.99707 force gram / cm^3 H2O25C 0.99707 force gram / cm^3
H2O50C 0.98807 force gram / cm^3 H2O50C 0.98807 force gram / cm^3
H2O100C 0.95838 force gram / cm^3 H2O100C 0.95838 force gram / cm^3
# Atomic constants # Atomic constants
Rinfinity 10973731.568160 /m # The wavelengths of a spectral series Rinfinity m_e c alpha^2 / 2 h # The wavelengths of a spectral series
R_H 10967760 /m # can be expressed as R_H 10967760 /m # can be expressed as
# 1/lambda = R (1/m^2 - 1/n^2). # 1/lambda = R (1/m^2 - 1/n^2).
# where R is a number that various # where R is a number that various
# slightly from element to element. # slightly from element to element.
# For hydrogen, R_H is the value, # For hydrogen, R_H is the value,
# and for heavy elements, the value # and for heavy elements, the value
# approaches Rinfinity, which can be # approaches Rinfinity.
# computed from
# m_e c alpha^2 / 2 h
# with a loss of 2 digits
# of precision.
alpha 7.2973525693e-3 # The fine structure constant was alpha 7.2973525693e-3 # The fine structure constant was
# introduced to explain fine # introduced to explain fine
# structure visible in spectral # structure visible in spectral
# lines. # lines.
bohrradius alpha / 4 pi Rinfinity bohrradius alpha / 4 pi Rinfinity
prout 185.5 keV # nuclear binding energy equal to 1|12 prout 185.5 keV # nuclear binding energy equal to 1|12
# binding energy of the deuteron # binding energy of the deuteron
conductancequantum 2 e^2 / h conductancequantum 2 e^2 / h
# Planck constants
planckmass sqrt(hbar c / G)
m_P planckmass
plancktime hbar / planckmass c^2
t_P plancktime
plancklength plancktime c
l_P plancklength
plancktemperature hbar / k plancktime
T_P plancktemperature
# Particle radius # Particle radius
electronradius coulombconst e^2 / electronmass c^2 # Classical electronradius coulombconst e^2 / electronmass c^2 # Classical
deuteronchargeradius 2.12799e-15 m deuteronchargeradius 2.12799e-15 m
protonchargeradius 0.8751e-15 m protonchargeradius 0.8751e-15 m
# Masses of elementary particles # Masses of elementary particles
electronmass_SI electronmass_u atomicmassunit_SI
electronmass_u 5.48579909065e-4
electronmass 5.48579909065e-4 u electronmass 5.48579909065e-4 u
m_e electronmass m_e electronmass
muonmass 0.1134289259 u muonmass 0.1134289259 u
m_mu muonmass m_mu muonmass
taumass 1.90754 u taumass 1.90754 u
m_tau taumass m_tau taumass
protonmass 1.007276466621 u protonmass 1.007276466621 u
m_p protonmass m_p protonmass
neutronmass 1.00866491595 u neutronmass 1.00866491595 u
m_n neutronmass m_n neutronmass
skipping to change at line 1339 skipping to change at line 1381
# uncertainty of 1.7e-13. # uncertainty of 1.7e-13.
g_d 0.8574382338 # Deuteron g-factor g_d 0.8574382338 # Deuteron g-factor
g_e -2.00231930436256 # Electron g-factor g_e -2.00231930436256 # Electron g-factor
g_h -4.255250615 # Helion g-factor g_h -4.255250615 # Helion g-factor
g_mu -2.0023318418 # Muon g-factor g_mu -2.0023318418 # Muon g-factor
g_n -3.82608545 # Neutron g-factor g_n -3.82608545 # Neutron g-factor
g_p 5.5856946893 # Proton g-factor g_p 5.5856946893 # Proton g-factor
g_t 5.957924931 # Triton g-factor g_t 5.957924931 # Triton g-factor
fermicoupling 1.1663787e-5 / GeV^2
# Magnetic moments (derived from the more accurate g-factors) # Magnetic moments (derived from the more accurate g-factors)
# #
# The magnetic moment is g * mu_ref * spin where in most cases # The magnetic moment is g * mu_ref * spin where in most cases
# the reference is the nuclear magneton, and all of the particles # the reference is the nuclear magneton, and all of the particles
# except the deuteron have spin 1/2. # except the deuteron have spin 1/2.
bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass # Reference magnetic moment for bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass # Reference magnetic moment for
mu_B bohrmagneton # the electron mu_B bohrmagneton # the electron
nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass # Convenient reference magnetic nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass # Convenient reference magnetic
mu_N nuclearmagneton # moment for heavy particles mu_N nuclearmagneton # moment for heavy particles
skipping to change at line 1488 skipping to change at line 1532
# #
# But what about the magnetic field? It is derived from Ampere's law but we # But what about the magnetic field? It is derived from Ampere's law but we
# have the option of adding a proportionality constant, k_B, that may have # have the option of adding a proportionality constant, k_B, that may have
# dimensions: # dimensions:
# #
# B = 2 k_A k_B I / r # B = 2 k_A k_B I / r
# #
# We can choose k_B = 1, which is done in the SI, ESU and EMU systems. But if # We can choose k_B = 1, which is done in the SI, ESU and EMU systems. But if
# instead we give k_B units of length/time then the magnetic field has # instead we give k_B units of length/time then the magnetic field has
# the same units as the electric field. This choice leads to the Gaussian # the same units as the electric field. This choice leads to the Gaussian
# system. # and Heaviside-Lorentz systems.
# #
# The relations above are used to determine the dimensions, but the units are # The relations above are used to determine the dimensions, but the units are
# derived from the base units of CGS, not directly from those formulas. We # derived from the base units of CGS, not directly from those formulas. We
# will use the notation [unit] to refer to the dimension of the unit in # will use the notation [unit] to refer to the dimension of the unit in
# brackets. This same process gives rise to the SI units such as the tesla, # brackets. This same process gives rise to the SI units such as the tesla,
# which is defined by # which is defined by
# #
# B = 2 # [tesla] = [2 (1/4 pi c^2 epsilon0) amp / m] = [(mu0 / 2) amp / m]
#
# which gives kg / A s^2 as expected.
# #
# References: # References:
# #
# Classical Electrodynamics by John David Jackson, 3rd edition. # Classical Electrodynamics by John David Jackson, 3rd edition.
# Cardarelli, Francois. 1999. Scientific Unit Conversion. 2nd ed. Trans. # Cardarelli, Francois. 1999. Scientific Unit Conversion. 2nd ed. Trans.
# M.J. Shields. London: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 1-85233-043-0 # M.J. Shields. London: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 1-85233-043-0
# #
# #
# All of these systems result in electromagnetic units that involve the square # All of the CGS systems result in electromagnetic units that involve the square
# roots of the centimeter and gram. This requires a change in the primitive # roots of the centimeter and gram. This requires a change in the primitive
# units. # units.
# #
!var UNITS_SYSTEM esu emu gaussian gauss !var UNITS_SYSTEM esu emu gaussian gauss hlu
sqrt_cm ! sqrt_cm !
sqrt_centimeter sqrt_cm sqrt_centimeter sqrt_cm
+m 100 sqrt_cm^2 +m 100 sqrt_cm^2
sqrt_g ! sqrt_g !
sqrt_gram sqrt_g sqrt_gram sqrt_g
+kg kilo sqrt_g^2 +kg kilo sqrt_g^2
!endvar !endvar
# Electrostatic CGS (ESU) # Electrostatic CGS (ESU)
# #
skipping to change at line 1543 skipping to change at line 1589
statcoul statcoulomb # exert a force of 1 dyne statcoul statcoulomb # exert a force of 1 dyne
statC statcoulomb statC statcoulomb
stC statcoulomb stC statcoulomb
franklin statcoulomb franklin statcoulomb
Fr franklin Fr franklin
!var UNITS_SYSTEM esu !var UNITS_SYSTEM esu
!message CGS-ESU units selected !message CGS-ESU units selected
!prompt (ESU) !prompt (ESU)
+statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm +statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm
+A 0.1 statamp c/(cm/s) +A 10 c_SI statamp
+mu0 1/c^2 +mu0 1/c^2
+coulombconst 1 +coulombconst 1
!endvar !endvar
statampere statcoulomb / s statampere statcoulomb / s
statamp statampere statamp statampere
statA statampere statA statampere
stA statampere stA statampere
statvolt dyne cm / statamp sec statvolt dyne cm / statamp sec
statV statvolt statV statvolt
skipping to change at line 1675 skipping to change at line 1721
# #
# Note that this definition happens to give the same result as the definition # Note that this definition happens to give the same result as the definition
# for the EMU system, so the definitions of the gauss are consistent. # for the EMU system, so the definitions of the gauss are consistent.
# #
# This definition gives the same dimensions for the E and B fields and was also # This definition gives the same dimensions for the E and B fields and was also
# known as the "symmetric system". This system was proposed by Hertz in 1888. # known as the "symmetric system". This system was proposed by Hertz in 1888.
!var UNITS_SYSTEM gaussian gauss !var UNITS_SYSTEM gaussian gauss
!message CGS-Gaussian units selected !message CGS-Gaussian units selected
!prompt (Gaussian) !prompt (Gaussian)
!endvar
!var UNITS_SYSTEM gaussian gauss natural-gauss
+statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm +statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm
+A 0.1 statamp c/(cm/s) +A 10 c_SI statamp
+mu0 1 +mu0 1
+epsilon0 1 +epsilon0 1
+coulombconst 1 # The gauss is the B field produced +coulombconst 1 # The gauss is the B field produced
+gauss statcoulomb / cm^2 # 1 cm from a wire carrying a current +gauss statcoulomb / cm^2 # 1 cm from a wire carrying a current
+weber 1e8 maxwell # of 0.5*(c/(cm/s)) stA = 1.5e10 stA +weber 1e8 maxwell # of 0.5*(c/(cm/s)) stA = 1.5e10 stA
+bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass c +bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass c
+nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass c +nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass c
!endvar !endvar
# Electromagnetic CGS (Heaviside-Lorentz)
# The Heaviside-Lorentz system is similar to the Gaussian system, but it is
# "rationalized" so that factors of 4 pi do not appear in Maxwell's equations.
# The SI system is similarly rationalized, but the other CGS systems are not.
#
# The factor of 4 pi appears instead in Coulomb's law, so in this system
# k_C = 1 / 4 pi, which means the charge unit is defined by
#
# dyne = (1 / 4 pi) hlu_charge^2 / cm^2.
#
# Since we have the leading constant of (1 / 4pi) the numerical value of the
# charge number is larger by sqrt(4pi), which in turns means that the HLU
# charge unit is smaller by this multiple. But note that the dimensions of the
# charge unit are the same as the Gaussian system, so both systems measure
# charge with cm^(3/2) g^(1/2) / s, but the amount of charge for this dimension
# differs by a factor of sqrt(4pi) between the two systems.
#
# Ampere's law for the Heaviside-Lorentz system has the form
#
# B = 1/(2 pi c) * I/r
# The Heaviside-Lorentz system does not appear to have any named units, so we
# use "hlu" for "Heaviside-Lorentz unit" so we can define values for the basic
# units in this system.
hlu_charge statcoulomb / sqrt(4 pi)
hlu_current hlu_charge / sec
hlu_volt erg / hlu_charge
hlu_efield hlu_volt / cm
hlu_bfield sqrt(4 pi) gauss
!var UNITS_SYSTEM hlu
!message CGS-Heaviside-Lorentz Units selected
!prompt (HLU)
!endvar
!var UNITS_SYSTEM hlu natural planck planck-red
+statcoulomb sqrt(dyne) cm sqrt(4 pi)
+A 10 c_SI statamp
+mu0 1
+epsilon0 1
# The gauss is the B field produced 1 cm from a wire carrying
# a current of 0.5*(c/(cm/s)) stA, derived from Ampere's law
+gauss (1/2 pi c) (0.5 c/(cm/s)) statamp / cm
+weber 1e8 maxwell
+bohrmagneton e hbar / 2 electronmass c
+nuclearmagneton e hbar / 2 protonmass c
!endvar
# "Natural units" (high energy physics and cosmology)
#
# In particle physics "natural units" (which don't seem to have a more specific
# name) are defined by setting hbar = c = boltzmann = 1. In this system the
# electron volt is the only base unit. The electromagnetic units can be
# derived from the rationalized Heaviside-Lorentz units or from Gaussian units.
# The default form is the rationalized HLU derived version.
# These are the Heaviside-Lorentz natural units
natural_length hbar c / eV
natural_mass eV / c^2
natural_time hbar / eV
natural_temp eV / boltzmann
natural_charge e / sqrt(4 pi alpha)
natural_current natural_charge / natural_time
natural_force natural_mass natural_length / natural_time^2
natural_energy natural_force natural_length
natural_power natural_energy / natural_time
natural_volt natural_energy / natural_charge
natural_Efield natural_volt / natural_length
natural_Bfield natural_volt natural_time / natural_length^2
!var UNITS_SYSTEM natural
!message Natural units selected (Heaviside-Lorentz based)
!prompt (natural)
+eV !
+h 2 pi
+c 1
+boltzmann 1
+m e_SI / hbar_SI c_SI eV
+kg (c_SI^2 / e_SI) eV
+s e_SI / hbar_SI eV
+K (k_SI / e_SI) eV
!endvar
!var UNITS_SYSTEM natural-gauss
!message Natural units selected (Gaussian based)
!prompt (natgauss)
+eV !
+h 2 pi
+c 1
+boltzmann 1
+m e_SI / (h_SI / 2 pi) c_SI eV
+kg (c_SI^2 / e_SI) eV
+s e_SI / (h_SI / 2 pi) eV
+K (k_SI / e_SI) eV
!endvar
#
# Planck units
#
# Planck units are a set of "natural" units based on physical constants c, G,
# hbar, boltzmann's constant, and epsilon0, often used when working with
# gravitational theory. In planck units, all quantities are dimensionless.
# Some variations are possible for exactly how the units are defined. We
# provide two variations, the rationalized planck units and the
# rationalized-reduced planck units.
#
# In both forms the units are defined by c = hbar = boltzmann = 1.
# But the choice of rationalized and reduced affects how epsilon0 and G
# are treated.
#
# In the "rationalized" units, factors of 4 pi do not appear in Maxwell's
# equation, and Coulomb's law bears a factor of 1/4 pi. See the section on
# the Heaviside-Lorentz units for more about this. The choice of rationalized
# units means that epsilon0 = 1. (In the unrationalized case, which is not
# supported, 1/(4 pi epsilon0) = 1.)
#
# The "reduced" units similarly are defined to eliminate factors of 8 pi
# from the Einstein field equations for gravitation. With reduced units
# we set 8 pi G = 1 and with the unreduced units, simply G = 1.
# Rationalized, unreduced planck units
planckmass sqrt(hbar c / G)
m_P planckmass
plancktime hbar / planckmass c^2
t_P plancktime
plancklength plancktime c
l_P plancklength
plancktemperature hbar / k plancktime
T_P plancktemperature
planckenergy planckmass plancklength^2 / plancktime^2
E_P planckenergy
planckcharge sqrt(epsilon0 hbar c)
planckcurrent planckcharge / plancktime
planckvolt planckenergy / planckcharge
planckEfield planckvolt / plancklength
planckBfield planckvolt plancktime / plancklength^2
# Rationalized, reduced planck units
planckmass_red sqrt(hbar c / 8 pi G)
plancktime_red hbar / planckmass_red c^2
plancklength_red plancktime_red c
plancktemperature_red hbar / k plancktime_red
planckenergy_red planckmass_red plancklength_red^2 / plancktime_red^2
planckcharge_red sqrt(epsilon0 hbar c)
planckcurrent_red planckcharge_red / plancktime_red
planckvolt_red planckenergy_red / planckcharge_red
planckEfield_red planckvolt_red / plancklength_red
planckBfield_red planckvolt_red plancktime_red / plancklength_red^2
!var UNITS_SYSTEM planck
!message Planck units selected
!prompt (planck)
+c 1
+h 2 pi
+G 1
+boltzmann 1
+kg sqrt(G_SI / hbar_SI c_SI)
+s c_SI^2 / hbar_SI kg
+m s / c_SI
+K k_SI / hbar_SI s
!endvar
!var UNITS_SYSTEM planck-red
!message Reduced planck units selected
!prompt (planck reduced)
+c 1
+h 2 pi
+G 1/8 pi
+boltzmann 1
+kg sqrt(8 pi G_SI / hbar_SI c_SI)
+s c_SI^2 / hbar_SI kg
+m s / c_SI
+K k_SI / hbar_SI s
!endvar
# #
# Some historical electromagnetic units # Some historical electromagnetic units
# #
intampere 0.999835 A # Defined as the current which in one intampere 0.999835 A # Defined as the current which in one
intamp intampere # second deposits .001118 gram of intamp intampere # second deposits .001118 gram of
# silver from an aqueous solution of # silver from an aqueous solution of
# silver nitrate. # silver nitrate.
intfarad 0.999505 F intfarad 0.999505 F
intvolt 1.00033 V intvolt 1.00033 V
skipping to change at line 1722 skipping to change at line 1949
kappline 6000 maxwell # Named by and for Gisbert Kapp kappline 6000 maxwell # Named by and for Gisbert Kapp
siemensunit 0.9534 ohm # Resistance of a meter long column of siemensunit 0.9534 ohm # Resistance of a meter long column of
# mercury with a 1 mm cross section. # mercury with a 1 mm cross section.
# #
# Printed circuit board units. # Printed circuit board units.
# #
# http://www.ndt-ed.org/GeneralResources/IACS/IACS.htm. # http://www.ndt-ed.org/GeneralResources/IACS/IACS.htm.
# #
# Conductivity is often expressed as a percentage of IACS. A copper wire a # Conductivity is often expressed as a percentage of IACS. A copper wire a
# meter long with a 1 mm^2 cross section has a resistance of 1|58 ohm at # meter long with a 1 mm^2 cross section has a resistance of 1|58 ohm at
# 20 deg C. Copper density is also standarized at that temperature. # 20 deg C. Copper density also has a standard IACS value at that temperature.
# #
copperconductivity 58 siemens m / mm^2 # A wire a meter long with copperconductivity 58 siemens m / mm^2 # A wire a meter long with
IACS copperconductivity # a 1 mm^2 cross section IACS copperconductivity # a 1 mm^2 cross section
copperdensity 8.89 g/cm^3 # The "ounce" measures the copperdensity 8.89 g/cm^3 # The "ounce" measures the
ouncecopper oz / ft^2 copperdensity # thickness of copper used ouncecopper oz / ft^2 copperdensity # thickness of copper used
ozcu ouncecopper # in circuitboard fabrication ozcu ouncecopper # in circuitboard fabrication
# #
# Photometric units # Photometric units
skipping to change at line 2517 skipping to change at line 2744
# / 0.0002659125 # / 0.0002659125
# If desired, photographic exposure can be determined with EV100(), # If desired, photographic exposure can be determined with EV100(),
# leading to acceptable combinations of aperture and exposure time. # leading to acceptable combinations of aperture and exposure time.
# For the example above, but with the Moon at 10 degrees, # For the example above, but with the Moon at 10 degrees,
# You have: SB_second(3.3679199) atm_transmission(10 deg) # You have: SB_second(3.3679199) atm_transmission(10 deg)
# You want: EV100 # You want: EV100
# 13.553962 # 13.553962
# The Hartree system of atomic units, derived from fundamental units # The Hartree system of atomic units, derived from fundamental units
# of mass (of electron), action (Planck's constant), charge, and # of mass (of electron), action (Planck's constant), charge, and
# the Coulomb constant. # the Coulomb constant. This system is used in the fields of physical
# chemistry and condensed matter physics.
#
# The Hartree energy can be derived from m_e, e, hbar, and coulombconst by # The Hartree energy can be derived from m_e, e, hbar, and coulombconst by
# hartree = coulombconst^2 m_e e^4 / hbar^2 # hartree = coulombconst^2 m_e e^4 / hbar^2
# but due to correlations between the measurements for m_e and coulombconst # but due to correlations between the measurements for m_e and coulombconst
# this results in a significant loss of precision. So we use an alternate # this results in a significant loss of precision. So we use an alternate
# equivalent definition for the hartree and derive then use energy instead # equivalent definition for the hartree and use energy instead of the
# of the Coulomb constant to derive the other units. This method retains the # Coulomb constant to derive the other units. This method retains the
# precision. # precision.
hartree 2 rydberg # Approximate electric potential energy of hartree 2 rydberg # Approximate electric potential energy of
# the hydrogen atom in its ground state, # the hydrogen atom in its ground state,
# and approximately twice its ionization # and approximately twice its ionization
# energy. # energy.
# Fundamental units # Fundamental units
atomicmass electronmass atomicmass electronmass
atomiccharge e atomiccharge e
skipping to change at line 2547 skipping to change at line 2775
# Derived units # Derived units
atomicvelocity sqrt(atomicenergy / atomicmass) atomicvelocity sqrt(atomicenergy / atomicmass)
atomictime atomicaction / atomicenergy atomictime atomicaction / atomicenergy
atomiclength atomicvelocity atomictime atomiclength atomicvelocity atomictime
atomicforce atomicenergy / atomiclength atomicforce atomicenergy / atomiclength
atomicmomentum atomicenergy / atomicvelocity atomicmomentum atomicenergy / atomicvelocity
atomiccurrent atomiccharge / atomictime atomiccurrent atomiccharge / atomictime
atomicpotential atomicenergy / atomiccharge # electrical potential atomicpotential atomicenergy / atomiccharge # electrical potential
atomicvolt atomicpotential
atomicEfield atomicpotential / atomiclength atomicEfield atomicpotential / atomiclength
atomicBfield atomicvolt atomictime / atomiclength^2
atomictemperature atomicenergy / boltzmann
!var UNITS_SYSTEM hartree
!message Hartree units selected
!prompt (hartree)
+kg 1/electronmass_SI
+K k_SI / hbar_SI s
+m alpha c_SI electronmass_SI / hbar_SI
+s alpha c_SI m
+A 1 / s e_SI
!endvar
# #
# These thermal units treat entropy as charge, from [5] # These thermal units treat entropy as charge, from [5]
# #
thermalcoulomb J/K # entropy thermalcoulomb J/K # entropy
thermalampere W/K # entropy flow thermalampere W/K # entropy flow
thermalfarad J/K^2 thermalfarad J/K^2
thermalohm K^2/W # thermal resistance thermalohm K^2/W # thermal resistance
fourier thermalohm fourier thermalohm
skipping to change at line 3200 skipping to change at line 3441
smoot 5 ft + 7 in # Created as part of an MIT fraternity prank. smoot 5 ft + 7 in # Created as part of an MIT fraternity prank.
# In 1958 Oliver Smoot was used to measure # In 1958 Oliver Smoot was used to measure
# the length of the Harvard Bridge, which was # the length of the Harvard Bridge, which was
# marked off in Smoot lengths. These # marked off in Smoot lengths. These
# markings have been maintained on the bridge # markings have been maintained on the bridge
# since then and repainted by subsequent # since then and repainted by subsequent
# incoming fraternity members. During a # incoming fraternity members. During a
# bridge renovation the new sidewalk was # bridge renovation the new sidewalk was
# scored every Smoot rather than at the # scored every Smoot rather than at the
# customary 6 ft spacing. # customary 6 ft spacing.
tomcruise 5 ft + 7.75 in # Height of Tom Cruise
# #
# Cooking measures # Cooking measures
# #
# Common abbreviations # Common abbreviations
tbl tablespoon tbl tablespoon
tbsp tablespoon tbsp tablespoon
tblsp tablespoon tblsp tablespoon
Tb tablespoon Tb tablespoon
skipping to change at line 3712 skipping to change at line 3955
wood_mod_rosewood_indian 1.668e6 lbf/in^2 wood_mod_rosewood_indian 1.668e6 lbf/in^2
wood_mod_snakewood 3.364e6 lbf/in^2 wood_mod_snakewood 3.364e6 lbf/in^2
wood_mod_teak 1.781e6 lbf/in^2 wood_mod_teak 1.781e6 lbf/in^2
wood_mod_zebrawood 2.374e6 lbf/in^2 wood_mod_zebrawood 2.374e6 lbf/in^2
# #
# Area of countries and other regions. This is the "total area" which # Area of countries and other regions. This is the "total area" which
# includes land and water areas within international boundaries and # includes land and water areas within international boundaries and
# coastlines. Data from January, 2019. # coastlines. Data from January, 2019.
# #
# except as noted, sources are
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_area # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_area
# https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook) # https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook)
area_russia 17098246 km^2 area_russia 17098246 km^2
area_antarctica 14000000 km^2 area_antarctica 14000000 km^2
area_canada 9984670 km^2 # area_canada is covered below as sum of province and territory areas
area_china 9596961 km^2 area_china 9596961 km^2
area_unitedstates 9525067 km^2 # includes only the 50 states # area_unitedstates is covered below as sum of state areas
area_us area_unitedstates # and District of Columbia # includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia
area_us area_unitedstates
area_brazil 8515767 km^2 area_brazil 8515767 km^2
area_australia 7692024 km^2 area_australia 7692024 km^2
area_europeanunion 4475757 km^2 # area_europeanunion is covered below as sum of member areas
area_eu area_europeanunion
area_india 3287263 km^2 area_india 3287263 km^2
area_argentina 2780400 km^2 area_argentina 2780400 km^2
area_kazakhstan 2724900 km^2 area_kazakhstan 2724900 km^2
area_algeria 2381741 km^2 area_algeria 2381741 km^2
area_drcongo 2344858 km^2 area_drcongo 2344858 km^2
area_greenland 2166086 km^2 area_greenland 2166086 km^2
area_saudiarabia 2149690 km^2 area_saudiarabia 2149690 km^2
area_mexico 1964375 km^2 area_mexico 1964375 km^2
area_indonesia 1910931 km^2 area_indonesia 1910931 km^2
area_sudan 1861484 km^2 area_sudan 1861484 km^2
skipping to change at line 3759 skipping to change at line 4003
area_tanzania 945087 km^2 area_tanzania 945087 km^2
area_nigeria 923768 km^2 area_nigeria 923768 km^2
area_venezuela 916445 km^2 area_venezuela 916445 km^2
area_pakistan 881912 km^2 area_pakistan 881912 km^2
area_namibia 825615 km^2 area_namibia 825615 km^2
area_mozambique 801590 km^2 area_mozambique 801590 km^2
area_turkey 783562 km^2 area_turkey 783562 km^2
area_chile 756102 km^2 area_chile 756102 km^2
area_zambia 752612 km^2 area_zambia 752612 km^2
area_myanmar 676578 km^2 area_myanmar 676578 km^2
area_burma area_myanmar
area_afghanistan 652230 km^2 area_afghanistan 652230 km^2
area_southsudan 644329 km^2 area_southsudan 644329 km^2
area_france 640679 km^2 area_france 640679 km^2
area_somalia 637657 km^2 area_somalia 637657 km^2
area_centralafrica 622984 km^2 area_centralafrica 622984 km^2
area_ukraine 603500 km^2 area_ukraine 603500 km^2
area_crimea 27000 km^2 # occupied by Russia; included in area_crimea 27000 km^2 # occupied by Russia; included in
# (Encyclopedia Britannica) # (Encyclopedia Britannica)
area_madagascar 587041 km^2 area_madagascar 587041 km^2
area_botswana 581730 km^2 area_botswana 581730 km^2
skipping to change at line 3800 skipping to change at line 4045
area_poland 312696 km^2 area_poland 312696 km^2
area_oman 309500 km^2 area_oman 309500 km^2
area_italy 301339 km^2 area_italy 301339 km^2
area_philippines 300000 km^2 area_philippines 300000 km^2
area_ecuador 276841 km^2 area_ecuador 276841 km^2
area_burkinafaso 274222 km^2 area_burkinafaso 274222 km^2
area_newzealand 270467 km^2 area_newzealand 270467 km^2
area_gabon 267668 km^2 area_gabon 267668 km^2
area_westernsahara 266000 km^2 area_westernsahara 266000 km^2
area_guinea 245857 km^2 area_guinea 245857 km^2
area_uk 242495 km^2 # area_unitedkingdom is covered below
area_uganda 241550 km^2 area_uganda 241550 km^2
area_ghana 238533 km^2 area_ghana 238533 km^2
area_romania 238397 km^2 area_romania 238397 km^2
area_laos 236800 km^2 area_laos 236800 km^2
area_guyana 214969 km^2 area_guyana 214969 km^2
area_belarus 207600 km^2 area_belarus 207600 km^2
area_kyrgyzstan 199951 km^2 area_kyrgyzstan 199951 km^2
area_senegal 196722 km^2 area_senegal 196722 km^2
area_syria 185180 km^2 area_syria 185180 km^2
area_golanheights 1150 km^2 # occupied by Israel; included in area_golanheights 1150 km^2 # occupied by Israel; included in
skipping to change at line 3840 skipping to change at line 4085
area_guatemala 108889 km^2 area_guatemala 108889 km^2
area_iceland 103000 km^2 area_iceland 103000 km^2
area_southkorea 100210 km^2 area_southkorea 100210 km^2
area_hungary 93028 km^2 area_hungary 93028 km^2
area_portugal 92090 km^2 area_portugal 92090 km^2
area_jordan 89342 km^2 area_jordan 89342 km^2
area_serbia 88361 km^2 area_serbia 88361 km^2
area_azerbaijan 86600 km^2 area_azerbaijan 86600 km^2
area_austria 83871 km^2 area_austria 83871 km^2
area_uae 83600 km^2 area_uae 83600 km^2
area_czechrepublic 78865 km^2 area_czechia 78865 km^2
area_czechrepublic area_czechia
area_panama 75417 km^2 area_panama 75417 km^2
area_sierraleone 71740 km^2 area_sierraleone 71740 km^2
area_ireland 70273 km^2 area_ireland 70273 km^2
area_georgia 69700 km^2 area_georgia 69700 km^2
area_srilanka 65610 km^2 area_srilanka 65610 km^2
area_lithuania 65300 km^2 area_lithuania 65300 km^2
area_latvia 64559 km^2 area_latvia 64559 km^2
area_togo 56785 km^2 area_togo 56785 km^2
area_croatia 56594 km^2 area_croatia 56594 km^2
area_bosnia 51209 km^2 area_bosnia 51209 km^2
skipping to change at line 3862 skipping to change at line 4108
area_slovakia 49037 km^2 area_slovakia 49037 km^2
area_dominicanrepublic 48671 km^2 area_dominicanrepublic 48671 km^2
area_estonia 45227 km^2 area_estonia 45227 km^2
area_denmark 43094 km^2 area_denmark 43094 km^2
area_netherlands 41850 km^2 area_netherlands 41850 km^2
area_switzerland 41284 km^2 area_switzerland 41284 km^2
area_bhutan 38394 km^2 area_bhutan 38394 km^2
area_taiwan 36193 km^2 area_taiwan 36193 km^2
area_guineabissau 36125 km^2 area_guineabissau 36125 km^2
area_moldova 33846 km^2 area_moldova 33846 km^2
area_gelgium 30528 km^2 area_belgium 30528 km^2
area_lesotho 30355 km^2 area_lesotho 30355 km^2
area_armenia 29743 km^2 area_armenia 29743 km^2
area_solomonislands 28896 km^2 area_solomonislands 28896 km^2
area_albania 28748 km^2 area_albania 28748 km^2
area_equitorialguinea 28051 km^2 area_equitorialguinea 28051 km^2
area_burundi 27834 km^2 area_burundi 27834 km^2
area_haiti 27750 km^2 area_haiti 27750 km^2
area_rwanda 26338 km^2 area_rwanda 26338 km^2
area_northmacedonia 25713 km^2 area_northmacedonia 25713 km^2
area_djibouti 23200 km^2 area_djibouti 23200 km^2
skipping to change at line 3897 skipping to change at line 4143
area_kosovo 10887 km^2 area_kosovo 10887 km^2
area_lebanon 10452 km^2 area_lebanon 10452 km^2
area_cyprus 9251 km^2 area_cyprus 9251 km^2
area_puertorico 9104 km^2 # United States territory; not included area_puertorico 9104 km^2 # United States territory; not included
# in United States area # in United States area
area_westbank 5860 km^2 # (CIA World Factbook) area_westbank 5860 km^2 # (CIA World Factbook)
area_hongkong 2755 km^2 area_hongkong 2755 km^2
area_luxembourg 2586 km^2 area_luxembourg 2586 km^2
area_singapore 716 km^2 area_singapore 716 km^2
area_gazastrip 360 km^2 # (CIA World Factbook) area_gazastrip 360 km^2 # (CIA World Factbook)
area_malta 316 km^2 # smallest EU country
area_liechtenstein 160 km^2 area_liechtenstein 160 km^2
area_monaco 2.02 km^2 area_monaco 2.02 km^2
area_vaticancity 0.44 km^2 area_vaticancity 0.44 km^2
# Members as of 1 Feb 2020
area_europeanunion area_austria + area_belgium + area_bulgaria \
+ area_croatia + area_cyprus + area_czechia + area_denmar
k \
+ area_estonia + area_finland + area_france + area_germa
ny \
+ area_greece + area_hungary + area_ireland + area_italy
\
+ area_latvia + area_lithuania + area_luxembourg \
+ area_malta + area_netherlands + area_poland \
+ area_portugal + area_romania + area_slovakia \
+ area_slovenia + area_spain + area_sweden
area_eu area_europeanunion
# #
# Area of the individual United States # Areas of the individual US states
# #
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_and_territories_by_area # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_and_territories_by_area
# #
# United States Summary: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, Table 18, p.
41
# Issued September 2012
area_alaska 1723337 km^2 area_alaska 1723336.8 km^2
area_texas 695662 km^2 area_texas 695661.6 km^2
area_california 423972 km^2 area_california 423967.4 km^2
area_montana 380831 km^2 area_montana 380831.1 km^2
area_newmexico 314917 km^2 area_newmexico 314917.4 km^2
area_arizona 295234 km^2 area_arizona 295233.5 km^2
area_nevada 286380 km^2 area_nevada 286379.7 km^2
area_colorado 269601 km^2 area_colorado 269601.4 km^2
area_oregon 254799 km^2 area_oregon 254799.2 km^2
area_wyoming 253335 km^2 area_wyoming 253334.5 km^2
area_michigan 250487 km^2 area_michigan 250486.8 km^2
area_minnesota 225163 km^2 area_minnesota 225162.8 km^2
area_utah 219882 km^2 area_utah 219881.9 km^2
area_idaho 216443 km^2 area_idaho 216442.6 km^2
area_kansas 213100 km^2 area_kansas 213100.0 km^2
area_nebraska 200330 km^2 area_nebraska 200329.9 km^2
area_southdakota 199729 km^2 area_southdakota 199728.7 km^2
area_washington 184661 km^2 area_washington 184660.8 km^2
area_northdakota 183108 km^2 area_northdakota 183107.8 km^2
area_oklahoma 181037 km^2 area_oklahoma 181037.2 km^2
area_missouri 180540 km^2 area_missouri 180540.3 km^2
area_florida 170312 km^2 area_florida 170311.7 km^2
area_wisconsin 169635 km^2 area_wisconsin 169634.8 km^2
area_georgia_us 153910 km^2 area_georgia_us 153910.4 km^2
area_illinois 149995 km^2 area_illinois 149995.4 km^2
area_iowa 145746 km^2 area_iowa 145745.9 km^2
area_newyork 141297 km^2 area_newyork 141296.7 km^2
area_northcarolina 139391 km^2 area_northcarolina 139391.0 km^2
area_arkansas 137732 km^2 area_arkansas 137731.8 km^2
area_alabama 135767 km^2 area_alabama 135767.4 km^2
area_louisiana 135659 km^2 area_louisiana 135658.7 km^2
area_mississippi 125438 km^2 area_mississippi 125437.7 km^2
area_pennsylvania 119280 km^2 area_pennsylvania 119280.2 km^2
area_ohio 116098 km^2 area_ohio 116097.7 km^2
area_virginia 110787 km^2 area_virginia 110786.6 km^2
area_tennessee 109153 km^2 area_tennessee 109153.1 km^2
area_kentucky 104656 km^2 area_kentucky 104655.7 km^2
area_indiana 94326 km^2 area_indiana 94326.2 km^2
area_maine 91633 km^2 area_maine 91633.1 km^2
area_southcarolina 82933 km^2 area_southcarolina 82932.7 km^2
area_westvirginia 62756 km^2 area_westvirginia 62755.5 km^2
area_maryland 32131 km^2 area_maryland 32131.2 km^2
area_hawaii 28313 km^2 area_hawaii 28313.0 km^2
area_massachusetts 27336 km^2 area_massachusetts 27335.7 km^2
area_vermont 24906 km^2 area_vermont 24906.3 km^2
area_newhampshire 24214 km^2 area_newhampshire 24214.2 km^2
area_newjersey 22591 km^2 area_newjersey 22591.4 km^2
area_connecticut 14357 km^2 area_connecticut 14357.4 km^2
area_delaware 6446 km^2 area_delaware 6445.8 km^2
area_rhodeisland 4001 km^2 area_rhodeisland 4001.2 km^2
area_districtofcolumbia 177 km^2 area_districtofcolumbia 177.0 km^2
area_unitedstates area_alabama + area_alaska + area_arizona \
+ area_arkansas + area_california + area_colorado \
+ area_connecticut + area_delaware \
+ area_districtofcolumbia + area_florida \
+ area_georgia_us + area_hawaii + area_idaho \
+ area_illinois + area_indiana + area_iowa \
+ area_kansas + area_kentucky + area_louisiana \
+ area_maine + area_maryland + area_massachusetts \
+ area_michigan + area_minnesota + area_mississippi \
+ area_missouri + area_montana + area_nebraska \
+ area_nevada + area_newhampshire + area_newjersey \
+ area_newmexico + area_newyork + area_northcarolina \
+ area_northdakota + area_ohio + area_oklahoma \
+ area_oregon + area_pennsylvania + area_rhodeisland \
+ area_southcarolina + area_southdakota \
+ area_tennessee + area_texas + area_utah \
+ area_vermont + area_virginia + area_washington \
+ area_westvirginia + area_wisconsin + area_wyoming
# Total area of Canadian province and territories
#
# Statistics Canada, "Land and freshwater area, by province and territory",
# 2016-10-07:
#
# https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-402-x/2012000/chap/geo/tbl/tbl06-eng.ht
m
area_ontario 1076395 km^2 # confederated 1867-Jul-01
area_quebec 1542056 km^2 # confederated 1867-Jul-01
area_novascotia 55284 km^2 # confederated 1867-Jul-01
area_newbrunswick 72908 km^2 # confederated 1867-Jul-01
area_canada_original area_ontario + area_quebec + area_novascotia \
+ area_newbrunswick
area_manitoba 647797 km^2 # confederated 1870-Jul-15
area_britishcolumbia 944735 km^2 # confederated 1871-Jul-20
area_princeedwardisland 5660 km^2 # confederated 1873-Jul-01
area_canada_additional area_manitoba + area_britishcolumbia \
+ area_princeedwardisland
area_alberta 661848 km^2 # confederated 1905-Sep-01
area_saskatchewan 651036 km^2 # confederated 1905-Sep-01
area_newfoundlandandlabrador 405212 km^2 # confederated 1949-Mar-31
area_canada_recent area_alberta + area_saskatchewan \
+ area_newfoundlandandlabrador
area_canada_provinces area_canada_original + area_canada_additional \
+ area_canada_recent
area_northwestterritories 1346106 km^2 # NT confederated 1870-Jul-15
area_yukon 482443 km^2 # YT confederated 1898-Jun-13
area_nunavut 2093190 km^2 # NU confederated 1999-Apr-01
area_canada_territories area_northwestterritories + area_yukon \
+ area_nunavut
area_canada area_canada_provinces + area_canada_territories
# area-uk-countries.units - UK country (/province) total areas
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countries_of_the_United_Kingdom#Statistics
# GB is official UK country code for some purposes but internally is a Kingdom
#
# areas from A Beginners Guide to UK Geography 2019 v1.0, Office for National St
atistics
# England: country; 0927-Jul-12 united; 1603-Mar-24 union of crowns
area_england 132947.76 km^2
#
# Wales: 1282 conquered; 1535 union; principality until 2011
area_wales 21224.48 km^2
#
# England and Wales: nation; 1535 union
area_englandwales area_england + area_wales
#
# Scotland: country; ~900 united; 1603-Mar-24 union of crowns
area_scotland 80226.36 km^2
#
# Great Britain: kingdom; excludes NI;
# 1707 Treaty and Acts of Union: union of parliaments
area_greatbritain area_england + area_wales + area_scotland
area_gb area_greatbritain
#
# Northern Ireland: province; Ireland: 1177 Henry II lordship;
# 1542 Henry VIII kingdom; 1652 Cromwell commonwealth;
# 1691 William III kingdom; 1800 Acts of Union: UK of GB & Ireland;
# 1921 Irish Free State independent of UK
area_northernireland 14133.38 km^2
#
# United Kingdom of GB & NI: 1800 Acts of Union: UK of GB & Ireland;
# 1921 Irish Free State independent of UK
area_unitedkingdom area_greatbritain + area_northernireland
area_uk area_unitedkingdom
# #
# Units derived from imperial system # Units derived from imperial system
# #
ouncedal oz ft / s^2 # force which accelerates an ounce ouncedal oz ft / s^2 # force which accelerates an ounce
# at 1 ft/s^2 # at 1 ft/s^2
poundal lb ft / s^2 # same thing for a pound poundal lb ft / s^2 # same thing for a pound
tondal longton ft / s^2 # and for a ton tondal longton ft / s^2 # and for a ton
pdl poundal pdl poundal
skipping to change at line 4044 skipping to change at line 4388
RU U # than its U measurement indicates to RU U # than its U measurement indicates to
# allow for clearance, so 4U=(6+31|32)in # allow for clearance, so 4U=(6+31|32)in
# RETMA stands for the former name of # RETMA stands for the former name of
# the standardizing organization, Radio # the standardizing organization, Radio
# Electronics Television Manufacturers # Electronics Television Manufacturers
# Association. This organization is now # Association. This organization is now
# called the Electronic Industries # called the Electronic Industries
# Alliance (EIA) and the rack standard # Alliance (EIA) and the rack standard
# is specified in EIA RS-310-D. # is specified in EIA RS-310-D.
count per pound # For measuring the size of shrimp count per pound # For measuring the size of shrimp
flightlevel 100 ft # Flight levels are used to ensure safe
FL flightlevel # vertical separation between aircraft
# despite variations in local air
# pressure. Flight levels define
# altitudes based on a standard air
# pressure so that altimeter calibration
# is not needed. This means that
# aircraft at separated flight levels
# are guaranteed to be separated.
# Hence the definition of 100 feet is
# a nominal, not true, measure.
# Customarily written with no space in
# the form FL290, which will not work in
# units. But note "FL 290" will work.
# #
# Other units of work, energy, power, etc # Other units of work, energy, power, etc
# #
ENERGY joule ENERGY joule
WORK joule WORK joule
# Calorie: approximate energy to raise a gram of water one degree celsius # Calorie: approximate energy to raise a gram of water one degree celsius
skipping to change at line 4282 skipping to change at line 4640
# The horsepower is supposedly the power of one horse pulling. Obviously # The horsepower is supposedly the power of one horse pulling. Obviously
# different people had different horses. # different people had different horses.
horsepower 550 foot pound force / sec # Invented by James Watt horsepower 550 foot pound force / sec # Invented by James Watt
mechanicalhorsepower horsepower mechanicalhorsepower horsepower
hp horsepower hp horsepower
metrichorsepower 75 kilogram force meter / sec # PS=Pferdestaerke in metrichorsepower 75 kilogram force meter / sec # PS=Pferdestaerke in
electrichorsepower 746 W # Germany electrichorsepower 746 W # Germany
boilerhorsepower 9809.50 W boilerhorsepower 9809.50 W
waterhorsepower 746.043 W waterhorsepower 746.043 W
brhorsepower 745.70 W brhorsepower horsepower # Value corrected Dec, 2019. Was 745.7 W.
donkeypower 250 W donkeypower 250 W
chevalvapeur metrichorsepower chevalvapeur metrichorsepower
# #
# Heat Transfer # Heat Transfer
# #
# Thermal conductivity, K, measures the rate of heat transfer across # Thermal conductivity, K, measures the rate of heat transfer across
# a material. The heat transfered is # a material. The heat transfered is
# Q = K dT A t / L # Q = K dT A t / L
# where dT is the temperature difference across the material, A is the # where dT is the temperature difference across the material, A is the
skipping to change at line 4327 skipping to change at line 4685
europeanUvalue watt / m^2 K europeanUvalue watt / m^2 K
RSI degC m^2 / W RSI degC m^2 / W
clo 0.155 degC m^2 / W # Supposed to be the insulance clo 0.155 degC m^2 / W # Supposed to be the insulance
# required to keep a resting person # required to keep a resting person
# comfortable indoors. The value # comfortable indoors. The value
# given is from NIST and the CRC, # given is from NIST and the CRC,
# but [5] gives a slightly different # but [5] gives a slightly different
# value of 0.875 ft^2 degF hr / btu. # value of 0.875 ft^2 degF hr / btu.
tog 0.1 degC m^2 / W # Also used for clothing. tog 0.1 degC m^2 / W # Also used for clothing.
# Thermal Conductivity of a few materials
diamond_natural_thermal_conductivity 2200 W / m K
diamond_synthetic_thermal_conductivity 3320 W / m K # 99% pure C12
silver_thermal_conductivity 406 W / m K
aluminum_thermal_conductivity 205 W / m K
copper_thermal_conductivity 385 W / m K
gold_thermal_conductivity 314 W / m K
iron_thermal_conductivity 79.5 W / m K
stainless_304_thermal_conductivity 15.5 W / m K # average value
# The bel was defined by engineers of Bell Laboratories to describe the # The bel was defined by engineers of Bell Laboratories to describe the
# reduction in audio level over a length of one mile. It was originally # reduction in audio level over a length of one mile. It was originally
# called the transmission unit (TU) but was renamed around 1923 to honor # called the transmission unit (TU) but was renamed around 1923 to honor
# Alexander Graham Bell. The bel proved inconveniently large so the decibel # Alexander Graham Bell. The bel proved inconveniently large so the decibel
# has become more common. The decibel is dimensionless since it reports a # has become more common. The decibel is dimensionless since it reports a
# ratio, but it is used in various contexts to report a signal's power # ratio, but it is used in various contexts to report a signal's power
# relative to some reference level. # relative to some reference level.
bel(x) units=[1;1] range=(0,) 10^(x); log(bel) # Basic bel definition bel(x) units=[1;1] range=(0,) 10^(x); log(bel) # Basic bel definition
decibel(x) units=[1;1] range=(0,) 10^(x/10); 10 log(decibel) # Basic decibel decibel(x) units=[1;1] range=(0,) 10^(x/10); 10 log(decibel) # Basic decibel
skipping to change at line 4356 skipping to change at line 4725
# When used to measure amplitude, voltage, or current the signal is squared # When used to measure amplitude, voltage, or current the signal is squared
# because power is proportional to the square of these measures. The root # because power is proportional to the square of these measures. The root
# mean square (RMS) voltage is typically used with these units. # mean square (RMS) voltage is typically used with these units.
dBV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) V;~dB(dBV^2 / V^2) # Reference = 1 V dBV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) V;~dB(dBV^2 / V^2) # Reference = 1 V
dBmV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) mV;~dB(dBmV^2/mV^2)# Reference = 1 mV dBmV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) mV;~dB(dBmV^2/mV^2)# Reference = 1 mV
dBuV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) microV ; ~dB(dBuV^2 / microV^2) dBuV(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) microV ; ~dB(dBuV^2 / microV^2)
# Reference = 1 microvolt # Reference = 1 microvolt
# Here are dB measurements for current. Be aware that dbA is also
# a unit for frequency weighted sound pressure.
dBA(x) units=[1;A] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) A;~dB(dBA^2 / A^2) # Reference = 1 A
dBmA(x) units=[1;A] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) mA;~dB(dBmA^2/mA^2)# Reference = 1 mA
dBuA(x) units=[1;A] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) microA ; ~dB(dBuA^2 / microA^2)
# Reference = 1 microamp
# Referenced to the voltage that causes 1 mW dissipation in a 600 ohm load. # Referenced to the voltage that causes 1 mW dissipation in a 600 ohm load.
# Originally defined as dBv but changed to prevent confusion with dBV. # Originally defined as dBv but changed to prevent confusion with dBV.
# The "u" is for unloaded. # The "u" is for unloaded.
dBu(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) sqrt(mW 600 ohm) ; \ dBu(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dB(0.5 x) sqrt(mW 600 ohm) ; \
~dB(dBu^2 / mW 600 ohm) ~dB(dBu^2 / mW 600 ohm)
dBv(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dBu(x) ; ~dBu(dBv) # Synonym for dBu dBv(x) units=[1;V] range=(0,) dBu(x) ; ~dBu(dBv) # Synonym for dBu
# Measurements for sound in air, referenced to the threshold of human hearing # Measurements for sound in air, referenced to the threshold of human hearing
# Note that sound in other media typically uses 1 micropascal as a reference # Note that sound in other media typically uses 1 micropascal as a reference
# for sound pressure. Units dBA, dBB, dBC, refer to different frequency # for sound pressure. Units dBA, dBB, dBC, refer to different frequency
skipping to change at line 4832 skipping to change at line 5208
# increased error correction overhead. # increased error correction overhead.
# There is a rarely used mode (mode2) with # There is a rarely used mode (mode2) with
# 2336 bytes per sector that has fewer # 2336 bytes per sector that has fewer
# error correction bits than mode1. # error correction bits than mode1.
dvdspeed 1385 kB/s # This is the "1x" speed of a DVD using dvdspeed 1385 kB/s # This is the "1x" speed of a DVD using
# constant linear velocity (CLV) mode. # constant linear velocity (CLV) mode.
# Modern DVDs may vary the linear velocity # Modern DVDs may vary the linear velocity
# as they go from the inside to the # as they go from the inside to the
# outside of the disc. # outside of the disc.
# See http://www.osta.org/technology/dvdqa/dvdqa4.htm # See http://www.osta.org/technology/dvdqa/dvdqa4.htm
FIT / 1e9 hour # Failures In Time, number of failures per billion hours
# #
# The IP address space is divided into subnets. The number of hosts # The IP address space is divided into subnets. The number of hosts
# in a subnet depends on the length of the subnet prefix. This is # in a subnet depends on the length of the subnet prefix. This is
# often written as /N where N is the number of bits in the prefix. # often written as /N where N is the number of bits in the prefix.
# #
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subnetwork # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subnetwork
# #
# These definitions gives the number of hosts for a subnet whose # These definitions gives the number of hosts for a subnet whose
# prefix has the specified length in bits. # prefix has the specified length in bits.
# #
skipping to change at line 6414 skipping to change at line 6793
air 78.08% nitrogen 2 \ air 78.08% nitrogen 2 \
+ 20.95% oxygen 2 \ + 20.95% oxygen 2 \
+ 9340 ppm argon \ + 9340 ppm argon \
+ 400 ppm (carbon + oxygen 2) \ + 400 ppm (carbon + oxygen 2) \
+ 18.18 ppm neon \ + 18.18 ppm neon \
+ 5.24 ppm helium \ + 5.24 ppm helium \
+ 1.7 ppm (carbon + 4 hydrogen) \ + 1.7 ppm (carbon + 4 hydrogen) \
+ 1.14 ppm krypton \ + 1.14 ppm krypton \
+ 0.55 ppm hydrogen 2 + 0.55 ppm hydrogen 2
# Density of the elements
#
# Note some elements occur in multiple forms (allotropes) with different
# densities, and they are accordingly listed multiple times.
# Density of gas phase elements at STP
hydrogendensity 0.08988 g/l
heliumdensity 0.1786 g/l
neondensity 0.9002 g/l
nitrogendensity 1.2506 g/l
oxygendensity 1.429 g/l
fluorinedensity 1.696 g/l
argondensity 1.784 g/l
chlorinedensity 3.2 g/l
kryptondensity 3.749 g/l
xenondensity 5.894 g/l
radondensity 9.73 g/l
# Density of liquid phase elements near room temperature
brominedensity 3.1028 g/cm^3
mercurydensity 13.534 g/cm^3
# Density of solid elements near room temperature
lithiumdensity 0.534 g/cm^3
potassiumdensity 0.862 g/cm^3
sodiumdensity 0.968 g/cm^3
rubidiumdensity 1.532 g/cm^3
calciumdensity 1.55 g/cm^3
magnesiumdensity 1.738 g/cm^3
phosphorus_white_density 1.823 g/cm^3
berylliumdensity 1.85 g/cm^3
sulfur_gamma_density 1.92 g/cm^3
cesiumdensity 1.93 g/cm^3
carbon_amorphous_density 1.95 g/cm^3 # average value
sulfur_betadensity 1.96 g/cm^3
sulfur_alpha_density 2.07 g/cm^3
carbon_graphite_density 2.267 g/cm^3
phosphorus_red_density 2.27 g/cm^3 # average value
silicondensity 2.3290 g/cm^3
phosphorus_violet_density 2.36 g/cm^3
borondensity 2.37 g/cm^3
strontiumdensity 2.64 g/cm^3
phosphorus_black_density 2.69 g/cm^3
aluminumdensity 2.7 g/cm^3
bariumdensity 3.51 g/cm^3
carbon_diamond_density 3.515 g/cm^3
scandiumdensity 3.985 g/cm^3
selenium_vitreous_density 4.28 g/cm^3
selenium_alpha_density 4.39 g/cm^3
titaniumdensity 4.406 g/cm^3
yttriumdensity 4.472 g/cm^3
selenium_gray_density 4.81 g/cm^3
iodinedensity 4.933 g/cm^3
europiumdensity 5.264 g/cm^3
germaniumdensity 5.323 g/cm^3
radiumdensity 5.5 g/cm^3
arsenicdensity 5.727 g/cm^3
tin_alpha_density 5.769 g/cm^3
galliumdensity 5.91 g/cm^3
vanadiumdensity 6.11 g/cm^3
lanthanumdensity 6.162 g/cm^3
telluriumdensity 6.24 g/cm^3
zirconiumdensity 6.52 g/cm^3
antimonydensity 6.697 g/cm^3
ceriumdensity 6.77 g/cm^3
praseodymiumdensity 6.77 g/cm^3
ytterbiumdensity 6.9 g/cm^3
neodymiumdensity 7.01 g/cm^3
zincdensity 7.14 g/cm^3
chromiumdensity 7.19 g/cm^3
manganesedensity 7.21 g/cm^3
promethiumdensity 7.26 g/cm^3
tin_beta_density 7.265 g/cm^3
indiumdensity 7.31 g/cm^3
samariumdensity 7.52 g/cm^3
irondensity 7.874 g/cm^3
gadoliniumdensity 7.9 g/cm^3
terbiumdensity 8.23 g/cm^3
dysprosiumdensity 8.54 g/cm^3
niobiumdensity 8.57 g/cm^3
cadmiumdensity 8.65 g/cm^3
holmiumdensity 8.79 g/cm^3
cobaltdensity 8.9 g/cm^3
nickeldensity 8.908 g/cm^3
erbiumdensity 9.066 g/cm^3
polonium_alpha_density 9.196 g/cm^3
thuliumdensity 9.32 g/cm^3
polonium_beta_density 9.398 g/cm^3
bismuthdensity 9.78 g/cm^3
lutetiumdensity 9.841 g/cm^3
actiniumdensity 10 g/cm^3
molybdenumdensity 10.28 g/cm^3
silverdensity 10.49 g/cm^3
technetiumdensity 11 g/cm^3
leaddensity 11.34 g/cm^3
thoriumdensity 11.7 g/cm^3
thalliumdensity 11.85 g/cm^3
americiumdensity 12 g/cm^3
palladiumdensity 12.023 g/cm^3
rhodiumdensity 12.41 g/cm^3
rutheniumdensity 12.45 g/cm^3
berkelium_beta_density 13.25 g/cm^3
hafniumdensity 13.31 g/cm^3
curiumdensity 13.51 g/cm^3
berkelium_alphadensity 14.78 g/cm^3
californiumdensity 15.1 g/cm^3
protactiniumdensity 15.37 g/cm^3
tantalumdensity 16.69 g/cm^3
uraniumdensity 19.1 g/cm^3
tungstendensity 19.3 g/cm^3
golddensity 19.30 g/cm^3
plutoniumdensity 19.816 g/cm^3
neptuniumdensity 20.45 g/cm^3 # alpha form, only one at room temp
rheniumdensity 21.02 g/cm^3
platinumdensity 21.45 g/cm^3
iridiumdensity 22.56 g/cm^3
osmiumdensity 22.59 g/cm^3
# A few alternate names
tin_gray tin_alpha_density
tin_white tin_beta_density
graphitedensity carbon_graphite_density
diamonddensity carbon_diamond_density
# Predicted density of elements that have not been made in sufficient
# quantities for measurement.
franciumdensity 2.48 g/cm^3 # liquid, predicted melting point 8 degC
astatinedensity 6.35 g/cm^3
einsteiniumdensity 8.84 g/cm^3
fermiumdensity 9.7 g/cm^3
nobeliumdensity 9.9 g/cm^3
mendeleviumdensity 10.3 g/cm^3
lawrenciumdensity 16 g/cm^3
rutherfordiumdensity 23.2 g/cm^3
roentgeniumdensity 28.7 g/cm^3
dubniumdensity 29.3 g/cm^3
darmstadtiumdensity 34.8 g/cm^3
seaborgiumdensity 35 g/cm^3
bohriumdensity 37.1 g/cm^3
meitneriumdensity 37.4 g/cm^3
hassiumdensity 41 g/cm^3
# #
# population units # population units
# #
people 1 people 1
person people person people
death people death people
capita people capita people
percapita per capita percapita per capita
 End of changes. 57 change blocks. 
102 lines changed or deleted 635 lines changed or added

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