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<?xml version="1.0" ?> <?xml version="1.0" ?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/x html1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/x html1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head> <head>
<title>The unique fully-qualified domain name</title> <title></title>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" /> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
<link rev="made" href="mailto:feedback@suse.de" /> <link rev="made" href="mailto:root@localhost" />
</head> </head>
<body style="background-color: white"> <body>
<!-- INDEX BEGIN --> <ul id="index">
<div name="index"> <li><a href="#The-unique-fully-qualified-domain-name">The unique fully-qualifi
<p><a name="__index__"></a></p> ed domain name</a></li>
<li><a href="#What-is-this-fully-qualified-domain-name-or-FQDN">What is this f
ully-qualified domain name or FQDN?</a></li>
<li><a href="#How-to-get-a-unique-fully-qualified-domain-name">How to get a un
ique fully-qualified domain name</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#When-leafnode-ignores-your-host-name">When leafnode ignores
your host name</a></li>
<li><a href="#Why-localhost.ANYTHING-will-not-work">Why localhost.ANYTHING
will not work</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#How-to-configure-the-fully-qualified-domain-name">How to configu
re the fully-qualified domain name</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#System-wide">System-wide</a></li>
<li><a href="#Local-to-leafnode">Local to leafnode</a></li>
<li><a href="#Should-I-configure-the-FQDN-system-wide-or-local-to-leafnode
">Should I configure the FQDN system-wide or local to leafnode?</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#Author-Copyright">Author, Copyright</a></li>
</ul>
<ul> <h1 id="The-unique-fully-qualified-domain-name">The unique fully-qualified domai n name</h1>
<li><a href="#the_unique_fully_qualified_domain_name">The unique fully-qu <p>This document will introduce you to the Message-ID and FQDN difficulties and
alified domain name</a></li> help you out.</p>
<li><a href="#what_is_this_fully_qualified_domain_name_or_fqdn">What is t
his fully-qualified domain name or FQDN?</a></li>
<li><a href="#how_to_get_a_unique_fully_qualified_domain_name">How to get
a unique fully-qualified domain name</a></li>
<ul>
<li><a href="#when_leafnode_ignores_your_host_name">When leafnode <h1 id="What-is-this-fully-qualified-domain-name-or-FQDN">What is this fully-qua
ignores your host name</a></li> lified domain name or FQDN?</h1>
<li><a href="#why_localhost_anything_will_not_work">Why localhost
.ANYTHING will not work</a></li>
</ul>
<li><a href="#how_to_configure_the_fully_qualified_domain_name">How to co <p>The unique fully-qualified domain name (or host name, FQDN or FQHN for short)
nfigure the fully-qualified domain name</a></li> is used by leafnode to generate the Message-ID.</p>
<ul>
<li><a href="#system_wide">System-wide</a></li> <p>What is the Message-ID?</p>
<li><a href="#local_to_leafnode">Local to leafnode</a></li>
<li><a href="#should_i_configure_the_fqdn_system_wide_or_local_to
_leafnode">Should I configure the FQDN system-wide or local to leafnode?</a></li
>
</ul>
<li><a href="#author__copyright">Author, Copyright</a></li> <p>Every message (mail or news) has a unique piece of text in its header, the so
</ul> -called Message-ID. It is not usually visible in your software unless you choose
&quot;display all headers&quot; or &quot;display raw&quot; or &quot;display sou
rce&quot;.</p>
<p>The Message-ID looks roughly like a strange E-Mail address, &lt;12345.67890@h
ost.example.com&gt;: it has two parts. Left of the @ is the &quot;local&quot; pa
rt, right of the &quot;@&quot; is the domain part. The local part of the Message
-ID is different for different pieces of mail or news, while the domain part of
the mail address is constant. The domain part is usually the name of the host th
at generated the Message-ID: your computer&#39;s name when you are sending mail
or posting news.</p>
<p>Whenever a news server is offered a new news article for redistribution, it l
ooks at the Message-ID to determine if it already has the article, to avoid doub
le work, and to avoid that new articles run in circles.</p>
<p>Therefore, each message sent, mail or news, must have a <b>unique</b> Message
-ID. If the Message-ID is not unique, because you use the same host name as some
body else, and you and the other person write an article at the same time, the a
rticle that arrives later will be considered a <i>duplicate</i> or <i>Message-ID
collision</i> and be discarded by the server - and as messages take a few secon
ds from one end of the world to another, two servers at different ends of the ne
t may see the messages arrive in reverse order.</p>
<p>Leafnode will tell you that the Message-ID of the article it is about to post
is already in use upstream.</p>
<p>Please note that <b>this problem is not leafnode-specific</b>. Any mail or ne
ws software may suffer from collisions, but it&#39;s less prominent in mail, and
it&#39;s difficult to see at all, because the messages disappear silently, no m
essage will be coming back to tell you another message was lost.</p>
<h1 id="How-to-get-a-unique-fully-qualified-domain-name">How to get a unique ful
ly-qualified domain name</h1>
<p>There are several ways to obtain one. When you got yours, see <a href="#How-t
o-configure-the-fully-qualified-domain-name">below on how to configure your doma
in name</a>.</p>
<hr name="index" />
</div>
<!-- INDEX END -->
<p>
</p>
<h1><a name="the_unique_fully_qualified_domain_name">The unique fully-qualified
domain name</a></h1>
<p>This document will introduce you to the Message-ID and FQDN difficulties
and help you out.</p>
<p>
</p>
<hr />
<h1><a name="what_is_this_fully_qualified_domain_name_or_fqdn">What is this full
y-qualified domain name or FQDN?</a></h1>
<p>The unique fully-qualified domain name (or host name, FQDN or FQHN for
short) is used by leafnode to generate the Message-ID.</p>
<p>What is the Message-ID?</p>
<p>Every message (mail or news) has a unique piece of text in its header,
the so-called Message-ID. It is not usually visible in your software unless
you choose &quot;display all headers&quot; or &quot;display raw&quot; or &quot;d
isplay source&quot;.</p>
<p>The Message-ID looks roughly like a strange E-Mail address,
&lt;<a href="mailto:12345.67890@host.example.com">12345.67890@host.example.com</
a>&gt;: it has two parts. Left of the @
is the &quot;local&quot; part, right of the &quot;@&quot; is the domain part. Th
e local part
of the Message-ID is different for different pieces of mail or news,
while the domain part of the mail address is constant. The domain part
is usually the name of the host that generated the Message-ID: your
computer's name when you are sending mail or posting news.</p>
<p>Whenever a news server is offered a new news article for redistribution,
it looks at the Message-ID to determine if it already has the article,
to avoid double work, and to avoid that new articles run in circles.</p>
<p>Therefore, each message sent, mail or news, must have a <strong>unique</stron
g>
Message-ID. If the Message-ID is not unique, because you use the same
host name as somebody else, and you and the other person write an
article at the same time, the article that arrives later will be
considered a <em>duplicate</em> or <em>Message-ID collision</em> and be discarde
d by
the server - and as messages take a few seconds from one end of the
world to another, two servers at different ends of the net may see the
messages arrive in reverse order.</p>
<p>Leafnode will tell you that the Message-ID of the article it is about to
post is already in use upstream.</p>
<p>Please note that <strong>this problem is not leafnode-specific</strong>. Any
mail or
news software may suffer from collisions, but it's less prominent in
mail, and it's difficult to see at all, because the messages disappear
silently, no message will be coming back to tell you another message was lost.</
p>
<p>
</p>
<hr />
<h1><a name="how_to_get_a_unique_fully_qualified_domain_name">How to get a uniqu
e fully-qualified domain name</a></h1>
<p>There are several ways to obtain one. When you got yours, see <a href="#how_t
o_configure_the_fully_qualified_domain_name">below on how to configure your doma
in name</a>.</p>
<dl> <dl>
<dt><strong><a name="if_you_have_a_domain_registered" class="item">If you have a domain registered:</a></strong>
<dt id="If-you-have-a-domain-registered">If you have a domain registered:</dt>
<dd> <dd>
<p>Assume you are the rightful owner of example.com. You can now reserve
any sub domain you wish, say mid.example.com, and a host name for your <p>Assume you are the rightful owner of example.com. You can now reserve any sub
leafnode computer, say, abacus.mid.example.com, or for a friend. How you domain you wish, say mid.example.com, and a host name for your leafnode compute
track that only one machine has the same name at the same time, is up to r, say, abacus.mid.example.com, or for a friend. How you track that only one mac
you. Writing <em>gave abacus.mid.example.com to Joe at 2002-07-11</em> on a hine has the same name at the same time, is up to you. Writing <i>gave abacus.mi
sheet of paper is sufficient - if you can find this sheet later on.</p> d.example.com to Joe at 2002-07-11</i> on a sheet of paper is sufficient - if yo
u can find this sheet later on.</p>
<p>Again: This host name <b>need not</b> be entered into your DNS data base, jus
t make sure only one computer uses this name at the same time.</p>
</dd> </dd>
<dt id="If-you-have-an-account-at-news.individual.de-or-news.individual.net">If you have an account at <code>news.individual.de</code> or <code>news.individual. net</code>:</dt>
<dd> <dd>
<p>Again: This host name <strong>need not</strong> be entered into your DNS data
base,
just make sure only one computer uses this name at the same time.</p>
</dd>
</li>
<dt><strong><a name="if_you_have_an_account_at_news_individual_de_or_news_indivi
dual_net" class="item">If you have an account at <code>news.individual.de</code>
or
<code>news.individual.net</code>:</a></strong>
<dd>
<p>You have been assigned a user ID. To find it out, type in your shell:</p> <p>You have been assigned a user ID. To find it out, type in your shell:</p>
</dd>
<dd> <pre><code> telnet news.individual.de 119</code></pre>
<pre>
telnet news.individual.de 119</pre>
</dd>
<dd>
<p>(wait until connected)</p> <p>(wait until connected)</p>
</dd>
<dd> <pre><code> authinfo user sixpack
<pre>
authinfo user sixpack
authinfo pass joe authinfo pass joe
quit</pre> quit</code></pre>
</dd>
<dd> <p>Replace &quot;sixpack&quot; and &quot;joe&quot; by your login and password. A
<p>Replace &quot;sixpack&quot; and &quot;joe&quot; by your login and password. A fter the &quot;authinfo pass&quot; line, you should see a line that reads:</p>
fter the
&quot;authinfo pass&quot; line, you should see a line that reads:</p> <pre><code> 281 Authentication accepted. (UID=00000)</code></pre>
</dd>
<dd> <p>If you get a 481 line, please retry, you may have mistyped user name or passw
<pre> ord. Correcting these lines with Backspace or Delete may also lead to failed log
281 Authentication accepted. (UID=00000)</pre> ins. Retry with careful typing so that you do not need to correct your input.</p
</dd> >
<dd>
<p>If you get a 481 line, please retry, you may have mistyped user name or
password. Correcting these lines with Backspace or Delete may also lead
to failed logins. Retry with careful typing so that you do not need to
correct your input.</p>
</dd>
<dd>
<p>The server would have printed your user ID where my example shows 00000.</p> <p>The server would have printed your user ID where my example shows 00000.</p>
<p>Your hostname then is ID-00000.user.uni-berlin.de. DO MAKE SURE TO REPLACE TH
E NUMBER IN ID-00000 by the number the server told you in the UID= LINE.</p>
</dd> </dd>
<dt id="Specific-providers">Specific providers:</dt>
<dd> <dd>
<p>Your hostname then is ID-00000.user.uni-berlin.de. DO MAKE SURE TO
REPLACE THE NUMBER IN ID-00000 by the number the server told you in the
UID= LINE.</p>
</dd>
</li>
<dt><strong><a name="specific_providers" class="item">Specific providers:</a></s
trong>
<dl> <dl>
<dt><strong><a name="t_online" class="item">T-Online</a></strong>
<dt id="T-Online">T-Online</dt>
<dd> <dd>
<p>T-Online customers, your hostname is NNNNN.dialin.t-online.de, where
NNNNN is your T-Online number. If your T-Online number contains your <p>T-Online customers, your hostname is NNNNN.dialin.t-online.de, where NNNNN is
telephone number, contact T-Online support to have a new T-Online number your T-Online number. If your T-Online number contains your telephone number, c
assigned. I'm unaware if they charge you for this change.</p> ontact T-Online support to have a new T-Online number assigned. I&#39;m unaware
if they charge you for this change.</p>
</dd> </dd>
</li>
</dl> </dl>
<dt><strong><a name="ask_your_network_administrator_or_your_internet_service_pro vider" class="item">Ask your network administrator or your Internet service prov ider.</a></strong>
<dd>
<p>Your local network administrator can assign you a domain to use for
Message-IDs.</p>
</dd> </dd>
<dt id="Ask-your-network-administrator-or-your-Internet-service-provider">Ask yo ur network administrator or your Internet service provider.</dt>
<dd> <dd>
<p>Your Internet service provider may have reserved a special sub domain for
the sole purpose of letting users create their own unique Message-IDs.</p> <p>Your local network administrator can assign you a domain to use for Message-I
Ds.</p>
<p>Your Internet service provider may have reserved a special sub domain for the
sole purpose of letting users create their own unique Message-IDs.</p>
</dd> </dd>
</li>
</dl> </dl>
<p>
</p> <h2 id="When-leafnode-ignores-your-host-name">When leafnode ignores your host na
<h2><a name="when_leafnode_ignores_your_host_name">When leafnode ignores your ho me</h2>
st name</a></h2>
<p>Well, it is probably the default name or domain that your OS vendor <p>Well, it is probably the default name or domain that your OS vendor chose, li
chose, like &quot;localhost.localdomain&quot;. As such, it is not unique, but us ke &quot;localhost.localdomain&quot;. As such, it is not unique, but used on man
ed y computers, and can therefore cause collisions and in severe cases make your ar
on many computers, and can therefore cause collisions and in severe ticles disappear.</p>
cases make your articles disappear.</p>
<p> <h2 id="Why-localhost.ANYTHING-will-not-work">Why localhost.ANYTHING will not wo
</p> rk</h2>
<h2><a name="why_localhost_anything_will_not_work">Why localhost.ANYTHING will n
ot work</a></h2> <p>Many sites run resolvers that are based on ISC Bind code. And many sites conf
<p>Many sites run resolvers that are based on ISC Bind code. And many sites igure their name servers so that they will resolve localhost.example.com. Theref
configure their name servers so that they will resolve localhost.example.com. ore, localhost.example.com will not designate a single computer, but any compute
Therefore, localhost.example.com will not designate a single computer, r that has &quot;localhost&quot; as a name. These resolvers are problematic beca
but any computer that has &quot;localhost&quot; as a name. These resolvers are use they will first see the domain as unqualified and append the domain or searc
problematic because they will first see the domain as unqualified and hlist, so assuming that your domain is example.com, these resolvers will try loc
append the domain or searchlist, so assuming that your domain is alhost.example.com first, which will resolve to 127.0.0.1 at many sites.</p>
example.com, these resolvers will try localhost.example.com first, which
will resolve to 127.0.0.1 at many sites.</p> <p>(It is usually a mistake to add localhost to the name server for a domain, th
<p>(It is usually a mistake to add localhost to the name server for a e clients had better be fixed instead. As a workaround, removing all domain and
domain, the clients had better be fixed instead. As a workaround, searchlist lines from <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> will usually work at the exp
removing all domain and searchlist lines from <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> will ense of not being able to use short names unless they are listed in <code>/etc/h
usually work at the expense of not being able to use short names unless osts</code>.)</p>
they are listed in <code>/etc/hosts</code>.)</p>
<p> <h1 id="How-to-configure-the-fully-qualified-domain-name">How to configure the f
</p> ully-qualified domain name</h1>
<hr />
<h1><a name="how_to_configure_the_fully_qualified_domain_name">How to configure <h2 id="System-wide">System-wide</h2>
the fully-qualified domain name</a></h1>
<p> <p>Preferably, the host name is entered into your system configuration so that i
</p> t is available globally, to your mailers and news readers should they desire to
<h2><a name="system_wide">System-wide</a></h2> create a FQDN.</p>
<p>Preferably, the host name is entered into your system configuration so
that it is available globally, to your mailers and news readers should <p>How exactly the hostname is configured, depends on your system, it is usually
they desire to create a FQDN.</p> a two-step approach, but your system installation/configuration software may si
<p>How exactly the hostname is configured, depends on your system, it is mplify things for you.</p>
usually a two-step approach, but your system installation/configuration
software may simplify things for you.</p> <p>1. Configure the bare hostname. Every system has its own favorite configurato
<p>1. Configure the bare hostname. Every system has its own favorite r, but you&#39;ll find this in the index. SuSE Linux 8.0 and newer read the host
configurator, but you'll find this in the index. SuSE Linux 8.0 name from the file <code>/etc/HOSTNAME</code>. FreeBSD 4 and newer reads it from
and newer read the hostname from the file <code>/etc/HOSTNAME</code>. FreeBSD 4 the <code>hostname</code> variable in <code>/etc/rc.conf</code>.</p>
and newer reads it from the <code>hostname</code> variable in <code>/etc/rc.conf
</code>.</p> <p>2. On many systems, you will have to put the fully qualified host name into <
<p>2. On many systems, you will have to put the fully qualified host name code>/etc/hosts</code>, too, so the system can find out the full name with domai
into <code>/etc/hosts</code>, too, so the system can find out the full name with n if given just its bare name without a domain. (On networked systems, using NIS
domain if given just its bare name without a domain. (On networked , DNS or LDAP is also feasible if the client is configured to use the respective
systems, using NIS, DNS or LDAP is also feasible if the client is system to resolve host names.) Usually, a computer that is to resolve a hostnam
configured to use the respective system to resolve host names.) Usually, e will look at <code>/etc/hosts</code> first and then at DNS.</p>
a computer that is to resolve a hostname will look at <code>/etc/hosts</code>
first and then at DNS.</p>
<p>An <code>/etc/hosts</code> line might look like this:</p> <p>An <code>/etc/hosts</code> line might look like this:</p>
<pre>
192.168.0.1 abacus.mid.example.com abacus oldname</pre> <pre><code> 192.168.0.1 abacus.mid.example.com abacus oldname</code></pre>
<p>Keep the original name of the computer as an alias in case you
configured some other software to use the old name.</p> <p>Keep the original name of the computer as an alias in case you configured som
<p> e other software to use the old name.</p>
</p>
<h2><a name="local_to_leafnode">Local to leafnode</a></h2> <h2 id="Local-to-leafnode">Local to leafnode</h2>
<p>You can also write a line like</p> <p>You can also write a line like</p>
<pre>
hostname = abacus.mid.example.com</pre> <pre><code> hostname = abacus.mid.example.com</code></pre>
<p>into your <code>/etc/leafnode/config</code>. But I recommend against doing th
at, <p>into your <code>/etc/leafnode/config</code>. But I recommend against doing th
see the next section why:</p> at, see the next section why:</p>
<p>
</p> <h2 id="Should-I-configure-the-FQDN-system-wide-or-local-to-leafnode">Should I c
<h2><a name="should_i_configure_the_fqdn_system_wide_or_local_to_leafnode">Shoul onfigure the FQDN system-wide or local to leafnode?</h2>
d I configure the FQDN system-wide or local to leafnode?</a></h2>
<p>You should configure the FQDN system-wide. Your news reader may generate <p>You should configure the FQDN system-wide. Your news reader may generate a Me
a Message-ID itself, and it is not aware of leafnode's configuration and ssage-ID itself, and it is not aware of leafnode&#39;s configuration and will ge
will generate an invalid Message-ID -- leafnode will then reject the nerate an invalid Message-ID -- leafnode will then reject the posting because th
posting because the Message-ID is invalid.</p> e Message-ID is invalid.</p>
<p>
</p> <h1 id="Author-Copyright">Author, Copyright</h1>
<hr />
<h1><a name="author__copyright">Author, Copyright</a></h1> <p>This document was written and is (C) Copyright 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 by Matt
<p>This document was written and is (C) Copyright 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 hias Andree.</p>
by Matthias Andree.</p>
<p>Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a <p>Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
copy of this software and associated documentation files (the of this software and associated documentation files (the &quot;Software&quot;),
&quot;Software&quot;), to deal in the Software without restriction, including to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the ri
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, ghts to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell c
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to opies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished t
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to o do so, subject to the following conditions:</p>
the following conditions:</p>
<p>The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included <p>The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in al
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.</p> l copies or substantial portions of the Software.</p>
<p>THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED &quot;AS IS&quot;, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXP
RESS <p>THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED &quot;AS IS&quot;, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXP
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF RESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUT
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY HORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, W
CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, HETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN C
TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE ONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.</p>
SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.</p>
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