"Fossies" - the Fresh Open Source Software Archive  

Source code changes of the file "googletest/README.md" between
googletest-release-1.10.0.tar.gz and googletest-release-1.11.0.tar.gz

About: GoogleTest is Google's (unit) testing and mocking framework for C++ tests.

README.md  (googletest-release-1.10.0):README.md  (googletest-release-1.11.0)
### Generic Build Instructions ### Generic Build Instructions
#### Setup #### Setup
To build Google Test and your tests that use it, you need to tell your build To build GoogleTest and your tests that use it, you need to tell your build
system where to find its headers and source files. The exact way to do it system where to find its headers and source files. The exact way to do it
depends on which build system you use, and is usually straightforward. depends on which build system you use, and is usually straightforward.
### Build with CMake ### Build with CMake
Google Test comes with a CMake build script ( GoogleTest comes with a CMake build script
[CMakeLists.txt](https://github.com/google/googletest/blob/master/CMakeLists.txt ([CMakeLists.txt](https://github.com/google/googletest/blob/master/CMakeLists.tx
)) t))
that can be used on a wide range of platforms ("C" stands for cross-platform.). that can be used on a wide range of platforms ("C" stands for cross-platform.).
If you don't have CMake installed already, you can download it for free from If you don't have CMake installed already, you can download it for free from
<http://www.cmake.org/>. <http://www.cmake.org/>.
CMake works by generating native makefiles or build projects that can be used in CMake works by generating native makefiles or build projects that can be used in
the compiler environment of your choice. You can either build Google Test as a the compiler environment of your choice. You can either build GoogleTest as a
standalone project or it can be incorporated into an existing CMake build for standalone project or it can be incorporated into an existing CMake build for
another project. another project.
#### Standalone CMake Project #### Standalone CMake Project
When building Google Test as a standalone project, the typical workflow starts When building GoogleTest as a standalone project, the typical workflow starts
with: with
mkdir mybuild # Create a directory to hold the build output. ```
cd mybuild git clone https://github.com/google/googletest.git -b release-1.10.0
cmake ${GTEST_DIR} # Generate native build scripts. cd googletest # Main directory of the cloned repository.
mkdir build # Create a directory to hold the build output.
cd build
cmake .. # Generate native build scripts for GoogleTest.
```
If you want to build Google Test's samples, you should replace the last command The above command also includes GoogleMock by default. And so, if you want to
with build only GoogleTest, you should replace the last command with
cmake -Dgtest_build_samples=ON ${GTEST_DIR} ```
cmake .. -DBUILD_GMOCK=OFF
```
If you are on a \*nix system, you should now see a Makefile in the current If you are on a \*nix system, you should now see a Makefile in the current
directory. Just type 'make' to build gtest. directory. Just type `make` to build GoogleTest. And then you can simply install
GoogleTest if you are a system administrator.
```
make
sudo make install # Install in /usr/local/ by default
```
If you use Windows and have Visual Studio installed, a `gtest.sln` file and If you use Windows and have Visual Studio installed, a `gtest.sln` file and
several `.vcproj` files will be created. You can then build them using Visual several `.vcproj` files will be created. You can then build them using Visual
Studio. Studio.
On Mac OS X with Xcode installed, a `.xcodeproj` file will be generated. On Mac OS X with Xcode installed, a `.xcodeproj` file will be generated.
#### Incorporating Into An Existing CMake Project #### Incorporating Into An Existing CMake Project
If you want to use gtest in a project which already uses CMake, then a more If you want to use GoogleTest in a project which already uses CMake, the easiest
robust and flexible approach is to build gtest as part of that project directly. way is to get installed libraries and headers.
This is done by making the GoogleTest source code available to the main build
and adding it using CMake's `add_subdirectory()` command. This has the * Import GoogleTest by using `find_package` (or `pkg_check_modules`). For
significant advantage that the same compiler and linker settings are used example, if `find_package(GTest CONFIG REQUIRED)` succeeds, you can use the
between gtest and the rest of your project, so issues associated with using libraries as `GTest::gtest`, `GTest::gmock`.
incompatible libraries (eg debug/release), etc. are avoided. This is
And a more robust and flexible approach is to build GoogleTest as part of that
project directly. This is done by making the GoogleTest source code available to
the main build and adding it using CMake's `add_subdirectory()` command. This
has the significant advantage that the same compiler and linker settings are
used between GoogleTest and the rest of your project, so issues associated with
using incompatible libraries (eg debug/release), etc. are avoided. This is
particularly useful on Windows. Making GoogleTest's source code available to the particularly useful on Windows. Making GoogleTest's source code available to the
main build can be done a few different ways: main build can be done a few different ways:
* Download the GoogleTest source code manually and place it at a known * Download the GoogleTest source code manually and place it at a known
location. This is the least flexible approach and can make it more difficult location. This is the least flexible approach and can make it more difficult
to use with continuous integration systems, etc. to use with continuous integration systems, etc.
* Embed the GoogleTest source code as a direct copy in the main project's * Embed the GoogleTest source code as a direct copy in the main project's
source tree. This is often the simplest approach, but is also the hardest to source tree. This is often the simplest approach, but is also the hardest to
keep up to date. Some organizations may not permit this method. keep up to date. Some organizations may not permit this method.
* Add GoogleTest as a git submodule or equivalent. This may not always be * Add GoogleTest as a git submodule or equivalent. This may not always be
possible or appropriate. Git submodules, for example, have their own set of possible or appropriate. Git submodules, for example, have their own set of
advantages and drawbacks. advantages and drawbacks.
* Use CMake to download GoogleTest as part of the build's configure step. This * Use CMake to download GoogleTest as part of the build's configure step. This
is just a little more complex, but doesn't have the limitations of the other approach doesn't have the limitations of the other methods.
methods.
The last of the above methods is implemented with a small piece of CMake code in The last of the above methods is implemented with a small piece of CMake code
a separate file (e.g. `CMakeLists.txt.in`) which is copied to the build area and that downloads and pulls the GoogleTest code into the main build.
then invoked as a sub-build _during the CMake stage_. That directory is then
pulled into the main build with `add_subdirectory()`. For example:
New file `CMakeLists.txt.in`: Just add to your `CMakeLists.txt`:
```cmake ```cmake
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8.2) include(FetchContent)
FetchContent_Declare(
project(googletest-download NONE) googletest
# Specify the commit you depend on and update it regularly.
include(ExternalProject) URL https://github.com/google/googletest/archive/609281088cfefc76f9d0ce82e1ff6
ExternalProject_Add(googletest c30cc3591e5.zip
GIT_REPOSITORY https://github.com/google/googletest.git
GIT_TAG master
SOURCE_DIR "${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-src"
BINARY_DIR "${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-build"
CONFIGURE_COMMAND ""
BUILD_COMMAND ""
INSTALL_COMMAND ""
TEST_COMMAND ""
) )
``` # For Windows: Prevent overriding the parent project's compiler/linker settings
Existing build's `CMakeLists.txt`:
```cmake
# Download and unpack googletest at configure time
configure_file(CMakeLists.txt.in googletest-download/CMakeLists.txt)
execute_process(COMMAND ${CMAKE_COMMAND} -G "${CMAKE_GENERATOR}" .
RESULT_VARIABLE result
WORKING_DIRECTORY ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-download )
if(result)
message(FATAL_ERROR "CMake step for googletest failed: ${result}")
endif()
execute_process(COMMAND ${CMAKE_COMMAND} --build .
RESULT_VARIABLE result
WORKING_DIRECTORY ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-download )
if(result)
message(FATAL_ERROR "Build step for googletest failed: ${result}")
endif()
# Prevent overriding the parent project's compiler/linker
# settings on Windows
set(gtest_force_shared_crt ON CACHE BOOL "" FORCE) set(gtest_force_shared_crt ON CACHE BOOL "" FORCE)
FetchContent_MakeAvailable(googletest)
# Add googletest directly to our build. This defines
# the gtest and gtest_main targets.
add_subdirectory(${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-src
${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/googletest-build
EXCLUDE_FROM_ALL)
# The gtest/gtest_main targets carry header search path
# dependencies automatically when using CMake 2.8.11 or
# later. Otherwise we have to add them here ourselves.
if (CMAKE_VERSION VERSION_LESS 2.8.11)
include_directories("${gtest_SOURCE_DIR}/include")
endif()
# Now simply link against gtest or gtest_main as needed. Eg # Now simply link against gtest or gtest_main as needed. Eg
add_executable(example example.cpp) add_executable(example example.cpp)
target_link_libraries(example gtest_main) target_link_libraries(example gtest_main)
add_test(NAME example_test COMMAND example) add_test(NAME example_test COMMAND example)
``` ```
Note that this approach requires CMake 2.8.2 or later due to its use of the Note that this approach requires CMake 3.14 or later due to its use of the
`ExternalProject_Add()` command. The above technique is discussed in more detail `FetchContent_MakeAvailable()` command.
in [this separate article](http://crascit.com/2015/07/25/cmake-gtest/) which
also contains a link to a fully generalized implementation of the technique.
##### Visual Studio Dynamic vs Static Runtimes ##### Visual Studio Dynamic vs Static Runtimes
By default, new Visual Studio projects link the C runtimes dynamically but By default, new Visual Studio projects link the C runtimes dynamically but
Google Test links them statically. This will generate an error that looks GoogleTest links them statically. This will generate an error that looks
something like the following: gtest.lib(gtest-all.obj) : error LNK2038: mismatch something like the following: gtest.lib(gtest-all.obj) : error LNK2038: mismatch
detected for 'RuntimeLibrary': value 'MTd_StaticDebug' doesn't match value detected for 'RuntimeLibrary': value 'MTd_StaticDebug' doesn't match value
'MDd_DynamicDebug' in main.obj 'MDd_DynamicDebug' in main.obj
Google Test already has a CMake option for this: `gtest_force_shared_crt` GoogleTest already has a CMake option for this: `gtest_force_shared_crt`
Enabling this option will make gtest link the runtimes dynamically too, and Enabling this option will make gtest link the runtimes dynamically too, and
match the project in which it is included. match the project in which it is included.
#### C++ Standard Version #### C++ Standard Version
An environment that supports C++11 is required in order to successfully build An environment that supports C++11 is required in order to successfully build
Google Test. One way to ensure this is to specify the standard in the top-level GoogleTest. One way to ensure this is to specify the standard in the top-level
project, for example by using the `set(CMAKE_CXX_STANDARD 11)` command. If this project, for example by using the `set(CMAKE_CXX_STANDARD 11)` command. If this
is not feasible, for example in a C project using Google Test for validation, is not feasible, for example in a C project using GoogleTest for validation,
then it can be specified by adding it to the options for cmake via the then it can be specified by adding it to the options for cmake via the
`DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS` option. `DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS` option.
### Tweaking Google Test ### Tweaking GoogleTest
Google Test can be used in diverse environments. The default configuration may GoogleTest can be used in diverse environments. The default configuration may
not work (or may not work well) out of the box in some environments. However, not work (or may not work well) out of the box in some environments. However,
you can easily tweak Google Test by defining control macros on the compiler you can easily tweak GoogleTest by defining control macros on the compiler
command line. Generally, these macros are named like `GTEST_XYZ` and you define command line. Generally, these macros are named like `GTEST_XYZ` and you define
them to either 1 or 0 to enable or disable a certain feature. them to either 1 or 0 to enable or disable a certain feature.
We list the most frequently used macros below. For a complete list, see file We list the most frequently used macros below. For a complete list, see file
[include/gtest/internal/gtest-port.h](https://github.com/google/googletest/blob/ master/googletest/include/gtest/internal/gtest-port.h). [include/gtest/internal/gtest-port.h](https://github.com/google/googletest/blob/ master/googletest/include/gtest/internal/gtest-port.h).
### Multi-threaded Tests ### Multi-threaded Tests
Google Test is thread-safe where the pthread library is available. After GoogleTest is thread-safe where the pthread library is available. After
`#include "gtest/gtest.h"`, you can check the `#include "gtest/gtest.h"`, you can check the
`GTEST_IS_THREADSAFE` macro to see whether this is the case (yes if the macro is `GTEST_IS_THREADSAFE` macro to see whether this is the case (yes if the macro is
`#defined` to 1, no if it's undefined.). `#defined` to 1, no if it's undefined.).
If Google Test doesn't correctly detect whether pthread is available in your If GoogleTest doesn't correctly detect whether pthread is available in your
environment, you can force it with environment, you can force it with
-DGTEST_HAS_PTHREAD=1 -DGTEST_HAS_PTHREAD=1
or or
-DGTEST_HAS_PTHREAD=0 -DGTEST_HAS_PTHREAD=0
When Google Test uses pthread, you may need to add flags to your compiler and/or When GoogleTest uses pthread, you may need to add flags to your compiler and/or
linker to select the pthread library, or you'll get link errors. If you use the linker to select the pthread library, or you'll get link errors. If you use the
CMake script or the deprecated Autotools script, this is taken care of for you. CMake script, this is taken care of for you. If you use your own build script,
If you use your own build script, you'll need to read your compiler and linker's you'll need to read your compiler and linker's manual to figure out what flags
manual to figure out what flags to add. to add.
### As a Shared Library (DLL) ### As a Shared Library (DLL)
Google Test is compact, so most users can build and link it as a static library GoogleTest is compact, so most users can build and link it as a static library
for the simplicity. You can choose to use Google Test as a shared library (known for the simplicity. You can choose to use GoogleTest as a shared library (known
as a DLL on Windows) if you prefer. as a DLL on Windows) if you prefer.
To compile *gtest* as a shared library, add To compile *gtest* as a shared library, add
-DGTEST_CREATE_SHARED_LIBRARY=1 -DGTEST_CREATE_SHARED_LIBRARY=1
to the compiler flags. You'll also need to tell the linker to produce a shared to the compiler flags. You'll also need to tell the linker to produce a shared
library instead - consult your linker's manual for how to do it. library instead - consult your linker's manual for how to do it.
To compile your *tests* that use the gtest shared library, add To compile your *tests* that use the gtest shared library, add
-DGTEST_LINKED_AS_SHARED_LIBRARY=1 -DGTEST_LINKED_AS_SHARED_LIBRARY=1
to the compiler flags. to the compiler flags.
Note: while the above steps aren't technically necessary today when using some Note: while the above steps aren't technically necessary today when using some
compilers (e.g. GCC), they may become necessary in the future, if we decide to compilers (e.g. GCC), they may become necessary in the future, if we decide to
improve the speed of loading the library (see improve the speed of loading the library (see
<http://gcc.gnu.org/wiki/Visibility> for details). Therefore you are recommended <http://gcc.gnu.org/wiki/Visibility> for details). Therefore you are recommended
to always add the above flags when using Google Test as a shared library. to always add the above flags when using GoogleTest as a shared library.
Otherwise a future release of Google Test may break your build script. Otherwise a future release of GoogleTest may break your build script.
### Avoiding Macro Name Clashes ### Avoiding Macro Name Clashes
In C++, macros don't obey namespaces. Therefore two libraries that both define a In C++, macros don't obey namespaces. Therefore two libraries that both define a
macro of the same name will clash if you `#include` both definitions. In case a macro of the same name will clash if you `#include` both definitions. In case a
Google Test macro clashes with another library, you can force Google Test to GoogleTest macro clashes with another library, you can force GoogleTest to
rename its macro to avoid the conflict. rename its macro to avoid the conflict.
Specifically, if both Google Test and some other code define macro FOO, you can Specifically, if both GoogleTest and some other code define macro FOO, you can
add add
-DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_FOO=1 -DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_FOO=1
to the compiler flags to tell Google Test to change the macro's name from `FOO` to the compiler flags to tell GoogleTest to change the macro's name from `FOO`
to `GTEST_FOO`. Currently `FOO` can be `FAIL`, `SUCCEED`, or `TEST`. For to `GTEST_FOO`. Currently `FOO` can be `FAIL`, `SUCCEED`, or `TEST`. For
example, with `-DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_TEST=1`, you'll need to write example, with `-DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_TEST=1`, you'll need to write
GTEST_TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... } GTEST_TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... }
instead of instead of
TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... } TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... }
in order to define a test. in order to define a test.
 End of changes. 32 change blocks. 
101 lines changed or deleted 73 lines changed or added

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