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Source code changes of the file "manpages/fsck.fat.8.in" between
dosfstools-4.1.tar.gz and dosfstools-4.2.tar.gz

About: dosfstools are utilities to create, check and label (MS-DOS) FAT filesystems.

fsck.fat.8.in  (dosfstools-4.1):fsck.fat.8.in  (dosfstools-4.2)
.\" fsck.fat.8 - manpage for fsck.fat .\" fsck.fat.8 - manpage for fsck.fat
.\" .\"
.\" Copyright (C) 2006-2014 Daniel Baumann <daniel@debian.org> .\" Copyright (C) 2006-2014 Daniel Baumann <daniel@debian.org>
.\" Copyright (C) 2018-2021 Pali Rohár <pali.rohar@gmail.com>
.\" .\"
.\" This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify .\" This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
.\" it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by .\" it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
.\" the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or .\" the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
.\" (at your option) any later version. .\" (at your option) any later version.
.\" .\"
.\" This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, .\" This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
.\" but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of .\" but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
.\" MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the .\" MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
.\" GNU General Public License for more details. .\" GNU General Public License for more details.
.\" .\"
.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License .\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
.\" along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>. .\" along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
.\" .\"
.\" The complete text of the GNU General Public License .\" The complete text of the GNU General Public License
.\" can be found in /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL-3 file. .\" can be found in /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL-3 file.
.\" .\"
.\" .\"
.TH FSCK.FAT 8 2015\-04\-16 "dosfstools @PACKAGE_VERSION@" .TH FSCK.FAT 8 @RELEASE_DATE@ "dosfstools @PACKAGE_VERSION@"
.SH NAME .SH NAME
\fBfsck.fat\fR \- check and repair MS\-DOS filesystems fsck.fat \- check and repair MS-DOS FAT filesystems
.\" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
.SH SYNOPSIS .SH SYNOPSIS
\fBfsck.fat\fR [\fIOPTIONS\fR] \fIDEVICE\fR \fBfsck.fat\fP [\fIOPTIONS\fP] \fIDEVICE\fP
.\" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
.SH DESCRIPTION .SH DESCRIPTION
\fBfsck.fat\fR verifies the consistency of MS\-DOS filesystems and optionally \fBfsck.fat\fP verifies the consistency of MS-DOS filesystems and optionally
tries to repair them. tries to repair them.
.PP .PP
The following filesystem problems can be corrected (in this order): The following filesystem problems can be corrected (in this order):
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
FAT contains invalid cluster numbers. FAT contains invalid cluster numbers.
Cluster is changed to EOF. Cluster is changed to EOF.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
File's cluster chain contains a loop. File's cluster chain contains a loop.
The loop is broken. The loop is broken.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Bad clusters (read errors). Bad clusters (read errors).
The clusters are marked bad and they are removed from files owning them. The clusters are marked bad and they are removed from files owning them.
This check is optional. This check is optional.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Directories with a large number of bad entries (probably corrupt). Directories with a large number of bad entries (probably corrupt).
The directory can be deleted. The directory can be deleted.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Files . and .. are non\-directories. Files . and .. are non-directories.
They can be deleted or renamed. They can be deleted or renamed.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Directories . and .. in root directory. Directories . and .. in root directory.
They are deleted. They are deleted.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Bad filenames. Bad filenames.
They can be renamed. They can be renamed.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Duplicate directory entries. Duplicate directory entries.
They can be deleted or renamed. They can be deleted or renamed.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Directories with non\-zero size field. Directories with non-zero size field.
Size is set to zero. Size is set to zero.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Directory . does not point to parent directory. Directory . does not point to parent directory.
The start pointer is adjusted. The start pointer is adjusted.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Directory .. does not point to parent of parent directory. Directory .. does not point to parent of parent directory.
The start pointer is adjusted. The start pointer is adjusted.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
\&. and .. are not the two first entries in a non-root directory.
The entries are created, moving occupied slots if necessary.
.IP "\(bu" 4
Start cluster number of a file is invalid. Start cluster number of a file is invalid.
The file is truncated. The file is truncated.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
File contains bad or free clusters. File contains bad or free clusters.
The file is truncated. The file is truncated.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
File's cluster chain is longer than indicated by the size fields. File's cluster chain is longer than indicated by the size fields.
The file is truncated. The file is truncated.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Two or more files share the same cluster(s). Two or more files share the same cluster(s).
All but one of the files are truncated. All but one of the files are truncated.
If the file being truncated is a directory file that has already been read, the If the file being truncated is a directory file that has already been read, the
filesystem check is restarted after truncation. filesystem check is restarted after truncation.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
File's cluster chain is shorter than indicated by the size fields. File's cluster chain is shorter than indicated by the size fields.
The file is truncated. The file is truncated.
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Volume label in root directory or label in boot sector is invalid.
Invalid labels are removed.
.IP "\(bu" 4
Volume label in root directory and label in boot sector are different.
Volume label from root directory is copied to boot sector.
.IP "\(bu" 4
Clusters are marked as used but are not owned by a file. Clusters are marked as used but are not owned by a file.
They are marked as free. They are marked as free.
.PP .PP
Additionally, the following problems are detected, but not repaired: Additionally, the following problems are detected, but not repaired:
.IP "*" 4 .IP "\(bu" 4
Invalid parameters in boot sector Invalid parameters in boot sector
.IP "*" 4
Absence of . and .. entries in non\-root directories
.PP .PP
When \fBfsck.fat\fR checks a filesystem, it accumulates all changes in memory When \fBfsck.fat\fP checks a filesystem, it accumulates all changes in memory
and performs them only after all checks are complete. and performs them only after all checks are complete.
This can be disabled with the \fB\-w\fR option. This can be disabled with the \fB\-w\fP option.
.PP
Two different variants of the FAT filesystem are supported.
Standard is the FAT12, FAT16 and FAT32 filesystems as defined by Microsoft and
widely used on hard disks and removable media like USB sticks and SD cards.
The other is the legacy Atari variant used on Atari ST.
.PP
There are some minor differences in Atari format:
Some boot sector fields are interpreted slightly different, and the special FAT
entries for end-of-file and bad cluster can be different.
Under MS-DOS 0xfff8 is used for EOF and Atari employs 0xffff by default, but
both systems recognize all values from 0xfff8\(en0xffff as end-of-file.
MS-DOS uses only 0xfff7 for bad clusters, where on Atari values 0xfff0\(en0xfff7
are for this purpose (but the standard value is still 0xfff7).
.\" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
.SH OPTIONS .SH OPTIONS
.IP "\fB\-a\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-a\fP" 4
Automatically repair the filesystem. Automatically repair the filesystem.
No user intervention is necessary. No user intervention is necessary.
Whenever there is more than one method to solve a problem, the least Whenever there is more than one method to solve a problem, the least
destructive approach is used. destructive approach is used.
.IP "\fB\-A\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-A\fP" 4
Use Atari variation of the MS\-DOS filesystem. Select using the Atari variation of the FAT filesystem if that isn't active
This is default if \fBfsck.fat\fR is run on an Atari, then this option turns already, otherwise select standard FAT filesystem.
off Atari format. This is selected by default if \fBmkfs.fat\fP is run on 68k Atari Linux.
There are some minor differences in Atari format: .IP "\fB-b\fP" 4
Some boot sector fields are interpreted slightly different, and the special FAT
entries for end\-of\-file and bad cluster can be different.
Under MS\-DOS 0xfff8 is used for EOF and Atari employs 0xffff by default, but
both systems recognize all values from 0xfff8...0xffff as end\-of\-file.
MS\-DOS uses only 0xfff7 for bad clusters, where on Atari values 0xfff0...0xfff7
are for this purpose (but the standard value is still 0xfff7).
.IP "\fB-b\fR" 4
Make read-only boot sector check. Make read-only boot sector check.
.IP "\fB-c\fR \fIPAGE\fR" 4 .IP "\fB-c\fP \fIPAGE\fP" 4
Use DOS codepage \fIPAGE\fR to decode short file names. Use DOS codepage \fIPAGE\fP to decode short file names.
By default codepage 437 is used. By default codepage 850 is used.
.IP "\fB\-d\fR \fIPATH\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-d\fP \fIPATH\fP" 4
Delete the specified file. Delete the specified file.
If more than one file with that name exist, the first one is deleted. If more than one file with that name exist, the first one is deleted.
This option can be given more than once. This option can be given more than once.
.IP "\fB\-f\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-f\fP" 4
Salvage unused cluster chains to files. Salvage unused cluster chains to files.
By default, unused clusters are added to the free disk space except in auto mode By default, unused clusters are added to the free disk space except in auto mode
(\fB\-a\fR). (\fB\-a\fP).
.IP "\fB\-l\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-F\fP \fINUM\fP" 4
Specify FAT table \fINUM\fP for filesystem access.
By default value \fI0\fP is assumed and then the first uncorrupted FAT table is
chosen.
Uncorrupted means that FAT table has valid first cluster.
If default value \fI0\fP is used and all FAT tables are corrupted then
\fBfsck.fat\fP gives up and does not try to repair FAT filesystem.
If non-zero \fINUM\fP value is specified then \fBfsck.fat\fP uses FAT table
\fINUM\fP for repairing FAT filesystem.
If FAT table \fINUM\fP has corrupted first cluster then \fBfsck.fat\fP will
repair it.
In any case, if FAT filesystem has more FAT tables then repaired content of
chosen FAT table is copied to other FAT tables.
To repair corrupted first cluster it is required to call \fBfsck.fat\fP with
non-zero \fINUM\fP value.
.IP "\fB\-l\fP" 4
List path names of files being processed. List path names of files being processed.
.IP "\fB\-n\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-n\fP" 4
No\-operation mode: non\-interactively check for errors, but don't write No-operation mode: non-interactively check for errors, but don't write
anything to the filesystem. anything to the filesystem.
.IP "\fB\-p\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-p\fP" 4
Same as \fB\-a\fR, for compatibility with other *fsck. Same as \fB\-a\fP, for compatibility with other *fsck.
.IP "\fB\-r\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-r\fP" 4
Interactively repair the filesystem. Interactively repair the filesystem.
The user is asked for advice whenever there is more than one approach to fix an The user is asked for advice whenever there is more than one approach to fix an
inconsistency. inconsistency.
This is the default mode and the option is only retained for backwards This is the default mode and the option is only retained for backwards
compatibility. compatibility.
.IP "\fB\-t\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-S\fP" 4
Consider short (8.3) file names with spaces in the middle to be invalid, like
previous versions of this program did.
While such file names are not forbidden by the FAT specification, and were never
treated as errors by Microsoft file system checking tools, many DOS programs are
unable to handle files with such names.
Using this option can make them accessible to these programs.
.IP "" 4
Short file names which \fIstart\fP with a space are considered invalid
regardless of this option's setting.
.IP "" 4
Previous versions of this program exceptionally treated \fIEA DATA. SF\fP and
\fIWP ROOT. SF\fP as valid short names; using this option does not preserve
that exception.
.IP "\fB\-t\fP" 4
Mark unreadable clusters as bad. Mark unreadable clusters as bad.
.IP "\fB\-u\fR \fIPATH\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-u\fP \fIPATH\fP" 4
Try to undelete the specified file. Try to undelete the specified file.
\fBfsck.fat\fR tries to allocate a chain of contiguous unallocated clusters \fBfsck.fat\fP tries to allocate a chain of contiguous unallocated clusters
beginning with the start cluster of the undeleted file. beginning with the start cluster of the undeleted file.
This option can be given more than once. This option can be given more than once.
.IP "\fB\-v\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-U\fP" 4
Consider lowercase volume and boot label as invalid and allow only uppercase
characters.
Such labels are forbidden by the FAT specification, but they are widely used
by Linux tools.
Moreover MS-DOS and Windows systems do not have problems to read them.
Therefore volume and boot labels with lowercase characters are by default
permitted.
.IP "\fB\-v\fP" 4
Verbose mode. Verbose mode.
Generates slightly more output. Generates slightly more output.
.IP "\fB\-V\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-V\fP" 4
Perform a verification pass. Perform a verification pass.
The filesystem check is repeated after the first run. The filesystem check is repeated after the first run.
The second pass should never report any fixable errors. The second pass should never report any fixable errors.
It may take considerably longer than the first pass, because the first pass may It may take considerably longer than the first pass, because the first pass may
have generated long list of modifications that have to be scanned for each disk have generated long list of modifications that have to be scanned for each disk
read. read.
.IP "\fB\-w\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-\-variant\fP \fITYPE\fP" 4
Create a filesystem of variant \fITYPE\fP.
Acceptable values are \fIstandard\fP and \fIatari\fP (in any combination of
upper/lower case).
See above under DESCRIPTION for the differences.
.IP "\fB\-w\fP" 4
Write changes to disk immediately. Write changes to disk immediately.
.IP "\fB\-y\fR" 4 .IP "\fB\-y\fP" 4
Same as \fB\-a\fR (automatically repair filesystem) for compatibility with other Same as \fB\-a\fP (automatically repair filesystem) for compatibility with other
fsck tools. fsck tools.
.IP "\fB\-\-help\fP" 4
Display help message describing usage and options then exit.
.\" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
.SH "EXIT STATUS" .SH "EXIT STATUS"
.IP "0" 4 .IP "0" 4
No recoverable errors have been detected. No recoverable errors have been detected.
.IP "1" 4 .IP "1" 4
Recoverable errors have been detected or \fBfsck.fat\fR has discovered an Recoverable errors have been detected or \fBfsck.fat\fP has discovered an
internal inconsistency. internal inconsistency.
.IP "2" 4 .IP "2" 4
Usage error. Usage error.
\fBfsck.fat\fR did not access the filesystem. \fBfsck.fat\fP did not access the filesystem.
.\" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
.SH FILES .SH FILES
.IP "fsck0000.rec, fsck0001.rec, ..." 4 .IP "\fIfsck0000.rec\fP, \fIfsck0001.rec\fP, ..." 4
When recovering from a corrupted filesystem, \fBfsck.fat\fR dumps recovered data When recovering from a corrupted filesystem, \fBfsck.fat\fP dumps recovered data
into files named 'fsckNNNN.rec' in the top level directory of the filesystem. into files named \fIfsckNNNN.rec\fP in the top level directory of the filesystem
.
.\" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
.SH BUGS .SH BUGS
Does not create . and .. files where necessary. .IP "\(bu" 4
Does not remove entirely empty directories. Does not remove entirely empty directories.
.IP "\(bu" 4
Should give more diagnostic messages. Should give more diagnostic messages.
.IP "\(bu" 4
Undeleting files should use a more sophisticated algorithm. Undeleting files should use a more sophisticated algorithm.
.\" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
.SH SEE ALSO .SH SEE ALSO
\fBfatlabel\fR(8) .BR fatlabel (8),
.br .BR mkfs.fat (8)
\fBmkfs.fat\fR(8)
.\" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
.SH HOMEPAGE .SH HOMEPAGE
The home for the \fBdosfstools\fR project is its The home for the \fBdosfstools\fP project is its
.UR https://github.com/dosfstools/dosfstools .UR https://github.com/dosfstools/dosfstools
GitHub project page GitHub project page
.UE . .UE .
.\" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
.SH AUTHORS .SH AUTHORS
\fBdosfstools\fR were written by \fBdosfstools\fP were written by
.MT werner.almesberger@\:lrc.di.epfl.ch .MT werner.almesberger@\:lrc.di.epfl.ch
Werner Almesberger Werner Almesberger
.ME , .ME ,
.MT Roman.Hodek@\:informatik.\:uni-erlangen.de .MT Roman.Hodek@\:informatik.\:uni-erlangen.de
Roman Hodek Roman Hodek
.ME , .ME ,
and others. and others.
The current maintainer is Current maintainers are
.MT aeb@\:debian.org .MT aeb@\:debian.org
Andreas Bombe Andreas Bombe
.ME
and
.MT pali.rohar@\:gmail.com
Pali Rohár
.ME . .ME .
 End of changes. 52 change blocks. 
73 lines changed or deleted 137 lines changed or added

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